High-definition video

HDhigh definitionhigh-definitionHD videohigh definition video720p HDHDTVhigh-definition picture720pFHD
High-definition video (HD video) is video of higher resolution and quality than standard-definition.wikipedia
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Sony HDVS

HDVSHigh Definition Video System
The Sony HDVS system was presented at an international meeting of television engineers in Algiers, April 1981 and Japan's NHK presented its analog high-definition television (HDTV) system at a Swiss conference in 1983.
Sony HDVS is a range of high-definition video equipment developed in the 1980s to support an early analog high-definition television system thought to be the broadcast television systems that would be in use today.

Multiple sub-Nyquist sampling encoding

Hi-VisionMUSE1035i30
Modern HD specifications date to the early 1980s, when Japanese engineers developed the HighVision 1,125-line interlaced TV standard (also called MUSE) that ran at 60 frames per second.
MUSE (Multiple sub-Nyquist sampling encoding), was an analog high-definition television standard, using dot-interlacing and digital video compression to deliver 1125-line high definition video signals to the home.

Film look

filmizedfilmisingFilmizing
Some television series shot on high-definition video are made to look as if they have been shot on film, a technique which is often known as filmizing.

1080p

Full HDFHD1080p30
High-definition digital video was not possible with uncompressed video due to impractically high memory and bandwidth requirements, with a bit-rate exceeding 1Gbps for full HD video.
1080p (1920×1080 px; also known as Full HD or FHD and BT.709) is a set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels down the screen vertically; the p stands for progressive scan, i.e. non-interlaced.

HD DVD

HD-DVDhigh definition3× DVD
HD DVD (short for High Definition Digital Versatile Disc) is an obsolete high-density optical disc format for storing data and playback of high-definition video.

Analog high-definition television system

819 line819-lineAnalog high-definition television systems
In late 1949, official French transmissions finally began with 819.
The country began broadcasting wideband analog high-definition video signals in the late 1980s using an interlaced resolution of 1035 or 1080-lines active (1035i) or 1125-lines total supported by the Sony HDVS line of equipment.

Discrete cosine transform

DCTiDCTinverse discrete cosine transform
Digital HDTV was enabled by the development of discrete cosine transform (DCT) video compression.
The wide adoption of DCT compression standards led to the emergence and proliferation of digital media technologies, such as digital images, digital photos, digital video, streaming media, digital television, streaming television, video-on-demand (VOD), digital cinema, high-definition video (HD video), and high-definition television (HDTV).

1080i

1080i501080i601080i25
Non-cinematic HDTV video recordings are recorded in either the 720p or the 1080i format.
1080i (also known as Full HD or BT.709) is an abbreviation referring to a combination of frame resolution and scan type, used in high-definition television (HDTV) and high-definition video.

Video coding format

video coding standardsvideo codingvideo coding standard
The DCT is a lossy compression technique that was first proposed by Nasir Ahmed in 1972, and was later adapted into a motion-compensated DCT algorithm for video coding standards such as the H.26x formats from 1988 onwards and the MPEG formats from 1993 onwards.
Similarly, uncompressed high-definition (HD) 1080p video requires bitrates exceeding 1Gbps, significantly greater than the bandwidth available in the 2000s.

Digital cinema

digital projectiondigital6K
Digital cinema is distinct from high-definition television and does not necessarily use traditional television or other traditional high-definition video standards, aspect ratios, or frame rates.

Digital video

videodigitaldigitally
High-definition digital video was not possible with uncompressed video due to impractically high memory and bandwidth requirements, with a bit-rate exceeding 1Gbps for full HD video.
The widespread adoption of digital video and accompanying compression formats has reduced the bandwidth needed for a high-definition video signal (with HDV and AVCHD, as well as several commercial variants such as DVCPRO-HD, all using less bandwidth than a standard definition analog signal).

Moving Picture Experts Group

MPEGMotion Picture Experts GroupMPEG encoding
The DCT is a lossy compression technique that was first proposed by Nasir Ahmed in 1972, and was later adapted into a motion-compensated DCT algorithm for video coding standards such as the H.26x formats from 1988 onwards and the MPEG formats from 1993 onwards.

Blu-ray

Blu-ray DiscBDBlu-ray 3D
High-definition image sources include terrestrial broadcast, direct broadcast satellite, digital cable, high definition disc (BD), digital cameras, Internet downloads, and video game consoles.
The proposal involved compressing high-definition video onto dual-layer standard DVD-9 discs.

Vimeo

Vimeo.comVimeo On DemandIAC/Vimeo
A number of online video streaming/on demand and digital download services offer HD video, among them YouTube, Vimeo, Hulu, Amazon Video On Demand, Netflix Watch Instantly, and others.
In 2007, Vimeo became the first video sharing site to support high-definition video.

YouTube

YouTube channelYouTube.comYouTube Gaming
A number of online video streaming/on demand and digital download services offer HD video, among them YouTube, Vimeo, Hulu, Amazon Video On Demand, Netflix Watch Instantly, and others.
In December 2008, 720p HD support was added.

Video scaler

upscaledupscalingStretch-o-Vision
Due to heavy compression, the image detail produced by these formats are far below that of broadcast HD, and often even inferior to DVD-Video (3-9 Mbit/s MP2) upscaled to the same image size.
A video scaler is a system which converts video signals from one display resolution to another; typically, scalers are used to convert a signal from a lower resolution (such as 480p standard definition) to a higher resolution (such as 1080i high definition), a process known as "upconversion" or "upscaling" (by contrast, converting from high to low resolution is known as "downconversion" or "downscaling").

National Film Board of Canada

National Film BoardNFBStudio D
One exception to this was the 1986 National Film Board of Canada short film Momentum, which briefly experimented with both filming and projecting at 48 frame/s, in a process known as IMAX HD.
In January 2010, the NFB added high-definition and 3D films to the over 1400 productions available for viewing online.

ATSC standards

ATSCdigitalATSC standard
The FCC process, led by the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) adopted a range of standards from interlaced 1,080-line video (a technical descendant of the original analog NHK 1125/30 Hz system) with a maximum frame rate of 30 Hz, (60 fields per second) and 720-line video, progressively scanned, with a maximum frame rate of 60 Hz.

Wii U

Nintendo Wii UWiiUWii Mode
Currently all consoles, Nintendo's Wii U and Nintendo Switch, Microsoft's Xbox One, and Sony's PlayStation 4 display games 1080p natively.
The Wii U is the first Nintendo console to support HD graphics.

Red Digital Cinema

Red OneRed EpicRed Digital Cinema Camera Company
Using a 1TB internal drive for storage, the Redray plays 4K or HD media in the Redcode format.

MPEG-4

MPEG4MPEG 44
The key parts to be aware of are MPEG-4 Part 2 (including Advanced Simple Profile, used by codecs such as DivX, Xvid, Nero Digital and 3ivx and by QuickTime 6) and MPEG-4 part 10 (MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 or Advanced Video Coding, used by the x264 encoder, Nero Digital AVC, QuickTime 7, and high-definition video media like Blu-ray Disc).

VP8

8VP8 video compression format
At least in the implementation (from August 2011), VP8 is comparatively badly adapted to high resolutions (HD).

Betacam

Digital BetacamBetacam SPDigiBeta
Older (pre-HDTV) recordings on video tape such as Betacam SP are often either in the form 480i60 or 576i50.
HDCAM, introduced in 1997, was the first HD format available in Betacam form-factor, using an 8-bit DCT compressed 3:1:1 recording, in 1080i-compatible downsampled resolution of 1440×1080, and adding 24p and 23.976 PsF modes to later models.

HDMI

High-Definition Multimedia InterfaceHDMI 1.4HDMI 2.0
Both the PlayStation 3 game console and Xbox 360 can output native 1080p through HDMI or component cables, but the systems have few games which appear in 1080p; most games only run natively at 720p or less, but can be upscaled to 1080p.
In addition to the features in common with HDMI (such as HDCP encrypted uncompressed high-definition video and eight-channel surround sound), MHL also adds the provision of power charging for the mobile device while in use, and also enables the TV remote to control it.

DVD-Video

DVDDVD-VDVD video
Due to heavy compression, the image detail produced by these formats are far below that of broadcast HD, and often even inferior to DVD-Video (3-9 Mbit/s MP2) upscaled to the same image size.
In April 2000, Sonic Solutions and Ravisent announced hDVD, a high-definition extension to DVD.