A report on High Middle Ages

Bayeux Tapestry depicting the Battle of Hastings during the Norman Conquest
Miniature representing the delivery of the fortress of Uclés to the Master of Order of Santiago in 1174
France in the 12th century. The Angevin Empire held the red, pink and orange territories.
King Saint Stephen I of Hungary.
Poland under the rule of Duke Mieszko I between c. 960 - 992
The Pontic steppes, c. 1015
After the successful siege of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey of Bouillon, leader of the First Crusade, became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209
A map of medieval universities and major monasteries with library in 1250
Detail of a portrait of Hugh de Provence (wearing spectacles), painted by Tommaso da Modena in 1352
Ships of the world in 1460, according to the Fra Mauro map.
Fresco from the Boyana Church depicting Emperor Constantine Tikh Asen. The murals are among the finest achievements of the Bulgarian culture in the 13th century.
Interior of Nôtre Dame de Paris
John the Apostle and Marcion of Sinope in an Italian illuminated manuscript, painting on vellum, 11th century
Musicians playing the Spanish vihuela, one with a bow, the other plucked by hand, in the Cantigas de Santa Maria of Alfonso X of Castile, 13th century
Men playing the organistrum, from the Ourense Cathedral, Spain, 12th century
The cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris, whose construction began in 1163, is one of the finer examples of the High Middle Ages architecture

The period of European history that lasted from around AD 1000 to the 1300s.

- High Middle Ages
Bayeux Tapestry depicting the Battle of Hastings during the Norman Conquest

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The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.

Middle Ages

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In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the post-classical period of global history.

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the post-classical period of global history.

The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
A late Roman sculpture depicting the Tetrarchs, now in Venice, Italy
Barbarian kingdoms and tribes after the end of the Western Roman Empire
A coin of the Ostrogothic leader Theoderic the Great, struck in Milan, Italy, c. AD 491–501
A mosaic showing Justinian with the bishop of Ravenna (Italy), bodyguards, and courtiers.
Reconstruction of an early medieval peasant village in Bavaria
An 11th-century illustration of Gregory the Great dictating to a secretary
Map showing growth of Frankish power from 481 to 814
Charlemagne's palace chapel at Aachen, completed in 805
10th-century Ottonian ivory plaque depicting Christ receiving a church from Otto I
A page from the Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript created in the British Isles in the late 8th or early 9th century
Medieval French manuscript illustration of the three classes of medieval society: those who prayed (the clergy) those who fought (the knights), and those who worked (the peasantry). The relationship between these classes was governed by feudalism and manorialism. (Li Livres dou Sante, 13th century)
13th-century illustration of a Jew (in pointed Jewish hat) and the Christian Petrus Alphonsi debating
Europe and the Mediterranean Sea in 1190
The Bayeux Tapestry (detail) showing William the Conqueror (centre), his half-brothers Robert, Count of Mortain (right) and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux in the Duchy of Normandy (left)
Krak des Chevaliers was built during the Crusades for the Knights Hospitallers.
A medieval scholar making precise measurements in a 14th-century manuscript illustration
Portrait of Cardinal Hugh of Saint-Cher by Tommaso da Modena, 1352, the first known depiction of spectacles
The Romanesque Church of Maria Laach, Germany
The Gothic interior of Laon Cathedral, France
Francis of Assisi, depicted by Bonaventura Berlinghieri in 1235, founded the Franciscan Order.
Sénanque Abbey, Gordes, France
Execution of some of the ringleaders of the jacquerie, from a 14th-century manuscript of the Chroniques de France ou de St Denis
Map of Europe in 1360
Joan of Arc in a 15th-century depiction
Guy of Boulogne crowning Pope Gregory XI in a 15th-century miniature from Froissart's Chroniques
Clerics studying astronomy and geometry, French, early 15th century
Agricultural calendar, c. 1470, from a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi
February scene from the 15th-century illuminated manuscript Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Medieval illustration of the spherical Earth in a 14th-century copy of L'Image du monde
The early Muslim conquests
Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750

The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.

From the Apocalypse in a Biblia Pauperum illuminated at Erfurt around the time of the Great Famine. Death sits astride a lion whose long tail ends in a ball of flame (Hell). Famine points to her hungry mouth.

Late Middle Ages

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The period of European history lasting from AD 1250 to 1500.

The period of European history lasting from AD 1250 to 1500.

From the Apocalypse in a Biblia Pauperum illuminated at Erfurt around the time of the Great Famine. Death sits astride a lion whose long tail ends in a ball of flame (Hell). Famine points to her hungry mouth.
France in the late 15th century: a mosaic of feudal territories
Silver mining and processing in Kutná Hora, Bohemia, 15th century
Ruins of Beckov Castle in Slovakia
Ottoman miniature of the siege of Belgrade in 1456
Battle of Aljubarrota between Portugal and Castile, 1385
Peasants preparing the fields for the winter with a harrow and sowing for the winter grain. The background shows the Louvre castle in Paris, c. 1410; October as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Jan Hus
European output of manuscripts 500–1500. The rising trend in medieval book production saw its continuation in the period.
Urban dwelling house, late 15th century, Halberstadt, Germany.
Dante by Domenico di Michelino, from a fresco painted in 1465
A musician plays the vielle in a fourteenth-century Medieval manuscript.
Peasants in fields
Joan of Arc
Charles I

The Late Middle Ages followed the High Middle Ages and preceded the onset of the early modern period (and in much of Europe, the Renaissance).

The jewelled cover of the Codex Aureus of St. Emmeram, c. 870, a Carolingian Gospel book.

Early Middle Ages

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Typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century.

Typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century.

The jewelled cover of the Codex Aureus of St. Emmeram, c. 870, a Carolingian Gospel book.
Dark Ages Cold Period
Die Hunnen im Kampf mit den Alanen, (The Huns in battle with the Alans by Johann Nepomuk Geiger, 1873). The Alans, an Iranian people who lived north and east of the Black Sea, functioned as Europe's first line of defence against the Asiatic Huns. They were dislocated and settled throughout the Roman Empire
A paten from the Treasure of Gourdon, found at Gourdon, Saône-et-Loire, France.
Theodora, Justinian's wife, and her retinue
Restored Walls of Constantinople
Christ crowning Constantine VII
ivory plaque, ca. 945
Europe around 650
The Sutton Hoo helmet, an Anglo-Saxon helmet from the early 7th century
The Lombard possessions in Italy: The Lombard Kingdom (Neustria, Austria and Tuscia) and the Lombard Duchies of Spoleto and Benevento
The Gokstad ship, a 9th-century Viking longship, excavated in 1882. Viking Ship Museum, Oslo, Norway
Ceramic icon of St Theodore from around 900, found in Preslav, Bulgarian capital from 893 to 972
St. Michael's Church, Hildesheim, 1010s. Ottonian architecture draws its inspiration from Carolingian and Byzantine architecture.
The Islamic Prophet Muhammad preaching

As such the concept overlaps with Late Antiquity, following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, and precedes the High Middle Ages (c.

Europe depicted by Antwerp cartographer Abraham Ortelius in 1595

History of Europe

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Traditionally divided into four time periods: prehistoric Europe , classical antiquity (800 BC to AD 500), the Middle Ages (AD 500 to AD 1500), and the modern era (since AD 1500).

Traditionally divided into four time periods: prehistoric Europe , classical antiquity (800 BC to AD 500), the Middle Ages (AD 500 to AD 1500), and the modern era (since AD 1500).

Europe depicted by Antwerp cartographer Abraham Ortelius in 1595
The peasants preparing the fields for the winter with a harrow and sowing for the winter grain, from The Very Rich Hours of the Duke of Berry, c.1410
A Watt steam engine. The steam engine, fuelled primarily by coal, propelled the Industrial Revolution in 19th-century Northwestern Europe.
Map depicting the earliest human migration in prehistoric Europe.
The Treasury of Atreus, or Tomb of Agamemnon in Mycenae 1250 BC
The Parthenon, an ancient Athenian Temple on the Acropolis (hill-top city) fell to Rome in 176 BC
Europe in the year 301 BC
A mosaic showing Alexander the Great battling Darius III
The Roman republic and its neighbours in 58 BC.
Cicero addresses the Roman Senate to denounce Catiline's conspiracy to overthrow the Republic, by Cesare Maccari
The Roman Empire at its greatest extent in 117 AD, under the emperor Trajan
Map of the partition of the Roman Empire in 395, at the death of Theodosius I: the Western Roman Empire is shown in red and the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) is shown in purple
A simplified map of migrations from the 2nd to the 5th century. See also the [[:File:World 820.png|map of the world in 820 AD]].
Map showing Europe in 526 AD with the three dominating powers of the west
Constantine I and Justinian I offering their fealty to the Virgin Mary inside the Hagia Sophia
Europe in the Early Middle Ages
Europe in 1000, with most European states already formed
Europe in 1204.
Europe in 1097, as the First Crusade to the Holy Land commences
The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade
"Christianization of Lithuania in 1387", oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1889, Royal Castle in Warsaw
The spread of the "Black Death" from 1347 to 1351 through Europe
Genoese (red) and Venetian (green) maritime trade routes in the Mediterranean and Black Sea
Portrait of Luca Pacioli, the founder of accounting, by Jacopo de' Barbari (Museo di Capodimonte).
Cantino planisphere, 1502, earliest chart showing explorations by Vasco da Gama, Columbus and Cabral
The Ninety-Five Theses of German monk Martin Luther, which criticized the Catholic Church
Map of Europe in 1648
Europa regina, 1570 print by Sebastian Münster of Basel
Alberico Gentili, the Father of international law.
Animated map showing the evolution of Colonial empires from 1492 to the present
Contemporary woodcut depicting the Second Defenestration of Prague (1618), which marked the beginning of the Bohemian Revolt, which began the first part of the Thirty Years' War.
Maria Theresa being crowned Queen of Hungary in the St. Martin's Cathedral, Pressburg (Bratislava)
After the Peace of Westphalia, Europe's borders were still stable in 1708
Map of Europe in 1794 Samuel Dunn Map of the World
Expansion of Russia (1300–1945)
The boundaries set by the Congress of Vienna, 1815.
London's chimney sky in 1870, by Gustave Doré
The storming of the Bastille in the French Revolution of 1789
Napoleon's army at the retreat from Russia at the Berezina river
Cheering the Revolutions of 1848 in Berlin
Beginning in 1821, the Greek War of Independence began as a rebellion by Greek revolutionaries against the ruling Ottoman Empire.
Breakup of Yugoslavia
Mikhail Bakunin speaking to members of the International Workingmen's Association at the Basel Congress in 1869
Paris Commune, 1871.
Giuseppe Garibaldi's redshirts during the Battle of Calatafimi, part of the Italian Unification.
Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany
The Berlin Conference (1884) headed by Otto von Bismarck that regulated European colonization in Africa during the New Imperialism period
The Fourth Estate (painting) by Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo.
Europe in 1916
Trenches and sand bags were defences against machine guns and artillery on the Western Front, 1914–1918
Detail from William Orpen's painting The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles, 28 June 1919, showing the signing of the peace treaty by a minor German official opposite to the representatives of the winning powers.
Interwar Europe in 1923
People gathered at sport event in 1938 (Sweden).
Europeans from various countries relaxing in wave pool in Hungary in 1939 just before the Second World War. Visible inscriptions in numerous languages.
FAI milicia during Spanish Social Revolution
Starving Jewish children in Warsaw Ghetto (1940–1943).
The fight against German Nazis during the Warsaw Uprising in 1944.
American and Soviet troops meet in April 1945, east of the Elbe River.
Western European colonial empires in Asia and Africa disintegrated after World War II (mostly dominated by British and France.)
East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, 20 November 1961
Remains of the "Iron curtain" in Devínska Nová Ves, Bratislava (Slovakia).
Marshall Plan dollar amounts
Germans standing on top of the Berlin Wall at the Brandenburg Gate, November 1989; it would begin to be torn apart in the following days.
Changes in national boundaries after the end of the Cold War

Attempts to retake the Levant from the Muslim states that occupied it made the High Middle Ages the age of The Crusades, while the political system of feudalism came to its height.

Pointed arches in the Tower of the church of San Salvador, Teruel

Gothic architecture

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Pointed arches in the Tower of the church of San Salvador, Teruel
Early Gothic triple elevationSens Cathedral (1135–1164)
High Gothic flying buttressesMetz Cathedral (1220–)
High Gothic west front, Reims Cathedral (1211–)
Strasbourg Cathedral (1275–1486), a facade entirely covered in sculpture and tracery
Flamboyant Gothic east end,Prague Cathedral (1344–)
Perpendicular Gothic east end, Henry VII Chapel (c. 1503–12)
Flamboyant, Sainte-Chapelle de Vincennes, west front
Structure of an early six-part Gothic rib vault. (Drawing by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc)
Crossing vault, Seville Cathedral
Rouen Cathedral from the south west – façade towers 12th–15th century, the flamboyant tower to the 15th century, spire rebuilt in 16th century
Oxen sculpture in High Gothic towers of Laon Cathedral (13th century)
Beauvais Cathedral, south transept (consecrated 1272)
Plate tracery, Lincoln Cathedral "Dean's Eye" rose window (c.1225)
Plan of a Gothic cathedral
Notre-Dame de Paris – deep portals, a rose window, balance of horizontal and vertical elements. Early Gothic.
Grotesque of Selby Abbey (14th century)
Windows of Sainte-Chapelle (13th century)
Medieval Louvre in early 15th century
Plateresque façade, University of Salamanca (late 15th century)
Donjon of the Château de Vincennes, (1337–)
Thistle Chapel at Edinburgh's High Kirk (completed 1910)
Early Gothic: Abbey church of Saint-Denis, west façade (1135–40)
Early Gothic: Nave of Sens Cathedral (1135–1176)
Early English; choir of Canterbury Cathedral (1174–80)
Notre-Dame de Paris nave (rebuilt 1180–1220)
High Gothic; Chartres Cathedral choir (1210-1250)
Rayonnant: Sainte-Chapelle upper level (1238-1248)
Rayonnant- Angel's Choir of Lincoln Cathedral (14th c.)
Perpendicular Gothic; Choir of York Minister (1361-1405)
Flamboyant; "Butter Tower" of Rouen Cathedral (1488-1506)
Eastern end of Wells Cathedral (begun 1175)
West front of Reims Cathedral, pointed arches within arches (1211–1275)
Lancet windows of transept of Salisbury Cathedral (1220–1258)
Pointed arches in the arcades, triforium, and clerestory of Lincoln Cathedral (1185–1311)
A detail of the windows and galleries of the west front of Strasbourg Cathedral (1215–1439)
Early six-part rib vaults in Sens Cathedral (1135–1164)
Rib vaults of choir of Canterbury Cathedral (1174–77)
Stronger four-part rib vaults in nave of Reims Cathedral (1211–1275)
Salisbury Cathedral – rectangular four-part vault over a single bay (1220–1258)
Lierne vaults of Gloucester Cathedral (Perpendicular Gothic)
Skeleton-vault in aisle of Bristol Cathedral (c. 1311–1340)
Lincoln Cathedral – quadripartite form, with tierceron ribs and ridge rib with carved bosses.
Bremen Cathedral – north aisle, a reticular (net) vault with intersecting ribs.
Church of the Assumption, St Marein, Austria – star vault with intersecting lierne ribs.
Salamanca Cathedral, Spain Flamboyant S-shaped and circular lierne ribs. (16th–18th century)
Church of the Jacobins, Toulouse – palm tree vault (1275–1292)
Peterborough Cathedral, retrochoir – intersecting fan vaults
"Rococo Gothic" vaults of Vladislav Hall of Prague Castle (1493)
Early Gothic – Alternating columns and piers, Sens Cathedral (12th century)
High Gothic – Clustered columns of Reims Cathedral (13th century)
Early English Gothic – Clustered columns in Salisbury Cathedral (13th century)
Perpendicular Gothic – columns without interruption from floor to the vaults. Canterbury Cathedral nave (late 14th century)
Canterbury Cathedral with simple wall buttresses and flying buttresses (rebuilt into Gothic 1174–1177)
East end of Lincoln Cathedral, with wall buttress, and chapter house with flying buttresses. (1185–1311)
Flying buttresses of Notre Dame de Paris (c. 1230)
Buttresses of Amiens Cathedral with pinnacles to give them added weight (1220–1266)
Section of Reims Cathedral showing the three levels of each buttress (1211–1275)
Decorated buttresses of Cologne Cathedral (1248–1573)
Abbaye aux Hommes, Caen (tall west towers added in the 13th century)
Towers of Chartres Cathedral; Flamboyant Gothic on left, early Gothic on the right.
The 13th century flèche of Notre Dame, recreated in the 19th c, destroyed by fire in 2019, now being restored
Salisbury Cathedral tower and spire over the crossing (1320)
West towers of York Minster, in the Perpendicular Gothic style.
The perpendicular west towers of Beverley Minster (c. 1400)
Crossing tower of Canterbury Cathedral (1493–1505)
Cologne Cathedral towers (begun 13th century, completed 20th century
Tower of Ulm Minster (begun 1377, completed 19th century)
Tower of Freiburg Minster (begun 1340) noted for its lacelike openwork spire
Prague Cathedral (begun 1344)
The Giralda, the bell tower of Seville Cathedral (1401–1506)
West towers of Burgos Cathedral (1444–1540)
Giotto's Campanile of Florence Cathedral (1334–1359)
Lancet Gothic, Ripon Minster west front (begun 1160)
Plate tracery, Chartres Cathedral clerestory (1194–1220)
Geometrical Decorated Gothic, Ripon Minster east window
Rayonnant rose window, Strasbourg Cathedral west front
Flamboyant rose window, Amiens Cathedral west front
Curvilinear window, Limoges Cathedral nave
Perpendicular four-centred arch, King's College Chapel, Cambridge west front
Early bar tracery in Soissons Cathedral (13th century)
Bar-tracery, Lincoln Cathedral east window
Blind tracery, Tours Cathedral (16th century)
Noyon Cathedral nave showing the four early Gothic levels (late 12h century)
Three-part elevation of Wells Cathedral (begun 1176)
Nave of Lincoln Cathedral (begun 1185) showing three levels; arcade (bottom); tribune (middle) and clerestory (top).
Three-part elevation of Chartres Cathedral, with larger clerestory windows.
Nave of Amiens Cathedral, looking west (1220–1270)
Nave of Strasbourg Cathedral (mid-13th century), looking east
The medieval east end of Cologne Cathedral (begun 1248)
Wells Cathedral (1176–1450). Early English Gothic. The facade was a Great Wall of sculpture.
Amiens Cathedral, (13th century). Vertical emphasis. High Gothic.
Salisbury Cathedral – wide sculptured screen, lancet windows, turrets with pinnacles. (1220–1258)
Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula in Brussels, a towered highly decorated facade
Flamboyant facade of Notre-Dame de l'Épine (1405–1527) with openwork towers
Orvieto Cathedral (1310–), with polychrome mosaics
High Gothic Chevet of Amiens Cathedral, with chapels between the buttresses (13th century)
Ambulatory and Chapels of the chevet of Notre Dame de Paris (14th century)
The Henry VII Lady Chapel at Westminster Abbey (begun 1503)
Ely Cathedral – square east end: Early English chancel (left) and Decorated Lady Chapel (right)
Interior of the Ely Cathedral Lady Chapel (14th century)
Monsters and devils tempting Christians - South portal of Chartres Cathedral (13th century)
Gallery of Kings and Saints on the facade of Wells Cathedral (13th century)
Amiens Cathedral, tympanum detail – "Christ in majesty" (13th century)
Illumination of portals of Amiens Cathedral to show how it may have appeared with original colors
West portal Annunciation group at Reims Cathedral with smiling angel at left (13th century)
More naturalistic later Gothic. Temptation of the foolish Virgins, Strasbourg Cathedral.
Sculpture from facade of Siena Cathedral by Nino Pisano (14th century)
Gargoyle of Amiens Cathedral (13rh century)
A stryx at Notre-Dame de Paris (19th century copy)
Labyrinth of Chartres Cathedral (13th century)
Labyrinth with Chartres pattern at Amiens Cathedral
Abbey of Saint-Denis, Abbot Suger represented at feet of Virgin Mary (12th century)
Detail of the Apocalypse window, Bourges Cathedral, early 13th century
Thomas Becket figure from Canterbury Cathedral (13th century)
Glass of Sainte-Chapelle depicting a baptism (13th century), now in Cluny Museum
Sainte-Chapelle de Vincennes (14th century)
Windows of King's College Chapel, Cambridge (1446–1451)
The Visitation window (1480) from Ulm Minster, by Peter Hemmel of Andlau. Late Gothic with fine shading and painted details.
Late Gothic grisaille glass and painted figures, depicting Saint Nicholas (France, 1500–1510), Cluny Museum
Detail of the Late Gothic stained glass of King's College Chapel, Cambridge, (1531)
Notre Dame de Laon west window (13th century)
South rose window of Notre Dame de Paris (13th century)
South rose window of Chartres Cathedral (13th century)
West rose window of Reims Cathedral (13th century)
Grand rose of Strasbourg Cathedral (14th century)
Orvieto Cathedral rose window (14th c.)
Palais de la Cité (1119–) and Sainte-Chapelle (1238–48), Paris
Hall of men-at-arms, Conciergerie of the Palais de la Cité
Façade of the Palais des Papes, Avignon (1252–1364)
The Doge's Palace, Venice (1340–1442)
Palace of the Kings of Navarre, Olite (1269–1512)
Great Gatehouse at Hampton Court Palace, London (1522)
Hildesheim Town Hall, Germany (13/14th c.)
Bell tower of the Hotel de Ville of Douai, France (14th c.)
Brussels' Town Hall (15th century)
Belfry of Bruges in Bruges, Belgium (13th c. (lower stages), 15th c. (upper stages)
Silk Exchange, Valencia (1482–1548)
Gallery of Palau de la Generalitat, Barcelona (1403)
Middelburg Town Hall, Netherlands (1520)
Town Hall Gouda, Netherlands (1459)
Mob Quad of Merton College, Oxford University (1288–1378)
Balliol College, Oxford, front quad, with decorative battlements (1431)
Fan vaults and glass walls of King's College Chapel, Cambridge (1508–1515)
Gothic oriel window, Karolinum, Charles University, Prague (c.1380)
Cloister, Collegium Maius, Kraków (late 15th century)
Restored outer walls of the medieval city of Carcassonne (13th–14th century)
Malbork Castle in Poland (13th century)
Alcazar of Segovia (12th–13th centuries)
Hohenzollern Castle (1454–1461) in Baden-Württemberg, southern Germany
Romanesque Worms Synagogue from the 11th century with Gothic windows (after 1355)
Scolanova Synagogue, Trani, Apulia (1247)
Old New Synagogue, Prague (c. 1270)
Main portal of the Old New Synagogue, Prague (c. 1270)
Old Synagogue, Erfurt (c. 1270)
Late Gothic vaulting of Pinkas Synagogue, Prague (1535)
Renaissance interior of the Old Synagogue in Kraków using Gothic vaults (1570)
The mihrab of the Lala Mustafa Pasha Mosque of Famagusta is located on a side chapel.
The carpet pattern marks the ranks for the faithful to pray towards Mecca (obliquely on the right) in the Selimiye Mosque of Northern Nicosia.
A minaret has been added to the Fethija mosque of Bihać.
Arap Mosque
The transition from Romanesque to Gothic styles is visible at the Durham Cathedral in England, (1093-1104. Early Gothic rib vaults are combined with round arches and other Romanesque features.
The south transept of Lessay Abbey in Normandy (1064–1178)
Cefalu Cathedral built in Norman Sicily (1131–1267)
Nave of Monreale Cathedral in Norman Sicily (1172–1267)
Al-Ukhaidir Fortress (completed 775 AD), Iraq
Al-Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem
Vaulted central dome of Cordoba Mosque-Cathedral, Spain (784–987 A.D.). Ribs decorate the Pendentives which support the dome.
Cupola of Odzun Basilica in Armenia, supported by squinch vaulting, an early form of pendentive. (8th century)
Delal Bridge, Iraq
Arches at Al-Raqqah, Syria
The Armenian cathedral of Ani, completed in the early 11th century.
Tom Tower, Christ Church, Oxford, (1681–82), designed by Christopher Wren.
Strawberry Hill House, Twickenham (begun 1749, completed in 1776), designed for Horace Walpole.
Guildhall, London, main entrance (completed 1788) designed by George Dance
Elizabeth Tower (Big Ben) (completed in 1859) and the Houses of Parliament in London (1840–1876)
Ohel David Synagogue, Pune (completed 1867)
Frere Hall, Karachi, (completed 1865)
St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York City, (completed 1878)
Palazzo del Governatore, Rhodes (1927) designed by Florestano Di Fausto
St. John's Cathedral ('s-Hertogenbosch)
Monastery of Batalha in Portugal
Grote Kerk (Breda)
alt=|Duke University's Chapel Interior (Star vault with intersecting lierne ribs)
alt=|Duke University Chapel is an ecumenical Christian chapel and the center of religion at Duke University, and has connections to the United Methodist Church.

Gothic architecture (or pointed architecture) is an architectural style that was prevalent in Europe from the late 12th to the 16th century, during the High and Late Middle Ages, surviving into the 17th and 18th centuries in some areas.

New technological discoveries allowed the development of Gothic architecture, shown here at Canterbury Cathedral

Renaissance of the 12th century

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New technological discoveries allowed the development of Gothic architecture, shown here at Canterbury Cathedral
Al-Razi's Recueil des traités de médecine translated by Gerard of Cremona, from the second half of the 13th century.
Main trading routes of the Hanseatic League
God the Geometer: medieval scholars sought to understand the geometric and harmonic principles by which God has created the universe.
A miniature showing the copying of a manuscript in a scriptorium
Detail of a portrait of Hugh de Provence, painted by Tommaso da Modena in 1352

The Renaissance of the 12th century was a period of many changes at the outset of the High Middle Ages.

The peasants preparing the fields for the winter with a harrow and sowing for the winter grain, from The Very Rich Hours of the Duke of Berry, c. 1410

Medieval demography

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Study of human demography in Europe and the Mediterranean during the Middle Ages.

Study of human demography in Europe and the Mediterranean during the Middle Ages.

The peasants preparing the fields for the winter with a harrow and sowing for the winter grain, from The Very Rich Hours of the Duke of Berry, c. 1410
Migration Period Pessimum
German eastward expansion, 895—1400
Citizens of Tournai bury plague victims.

During the High Middle Ages, many forests and marshes were cleared and cultivated.

A 14th century depiction of the 13th century German knight Hartmann von Aue, from the Codex Manesse.

Knight

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Person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a head of state or representative for service to the monarch, the church or the country, especially in a military capacity.

Person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a head of state or representative for service to the monarch, the church or the country, especially in a military capacity.

A 14th century depiction of the 13th century German knight Hartmann von Aue, from the Codex Manesse.
A Norman knight slaying Harold Godwinson (Bayeux tapestry, c. 1070). The rank of knight developed in the 12th century from the mounted warriors of the 10th and 11th centuries.
The battle between the Turks and Christian knights during the Ottoman wars in Europe
David I of Scotland knighting a squire
The miles Christianus allegory (mid-13th century), showing a knight armed with virtues and facing the vices in mortal combat. The parts of his armour are identified with Christian virtues, thus correlating essential military equipment with the religious values of chivalry: 
The helmet is spes futuri gaudii (hope of future bliss), the shield (here the shield of the Trinity) is fides (faith), the armour is caritas (charity), the lance is perseverantia (perseverance), the sword is verbum Dei (the word of God), the banner is regni celestis desiderium (desire for the kingdom of heaven), the horse is bona voluntas (good will), the saddle is Christiana religio (Christian religion), the saddlecloth is humilitas (humility), the reins are discretio (discretion), the spurs are disciplina (discipline), the stirrups are propositum boni operis (proposition of good work), and the horse's four hooves are delectatio, consensus, bonum opus, consuetudo (delight, consent, good work, and exercise).
Tournament from the Codex Manesse, depicting the mêlée
Elements of a harness of the late style of Gothic plate armour that was a popular style in the mid 15th to early 16th century (depiction made in the 18th century)
Page from King René's Tournament Book (BnF Ms Fr 2695)
The Battle of Pavia in 1525. Landsknecht mercenaries with arquebus.
Fortified house – a family seat of a knight (Schloss Hart by the Harter Graben near Kindberg, Austria)
The Battle of Grunwald between Poland-Lithuania and the Teutonic Knights in 1410
Pippo Spano, the member of the Order of the Dragon
The English fighting the French knights at the Battle of Crécy in 1346
Miniature from Jean Froissart Chronicles depicting the Battle of Montiel (Castilian Civil War, in the Hundred Years' War)
A modern artistic rendition of a chevalière of the Late Middle Ages.
A battle of the Reconquista from the Cantigas de Santa Maria
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The Battle of Pavia in 1525. Landsknecht mercenaries with arquebus.

During the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility.

David the Builder, the original architect of the Golden Age. Fresco from Shio-Mgvime monastery.

Georgian Golden Age

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David the Builder, the original architect of the Golden Age. Fresco from Shio-Mgvime monastery.
Gelati Theotokos. The use of costly mosaics in church decorations heralded Georgia's imperial ambitions.
Archangel of Kintsvisi, complete with scarce and expensive natural ultramarine paint, evidences increasing sophistication and resources of Georgian masters following the reign of George III
Golden cross of Queen Tamar, composed of rubies, emeralds, and large pearls
Despite setbacks at the hands of Mongols, Georgia continued to produce cultural landmarks, such as these frescoes at Ubisi by Damiane - one of Georgia's distinctive medieval artists.
Golden Theotokos of Khobi Monastery, with some precious stones stolen by the communists
Triptych of Khakhuli
Detail of the Khakhuli Triptych
Atskuri Triptych
The construction of Svetitskhoveli Cathedral in Mtskheta, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site, was initiated in the 1020s by George I.
Georgian tondo commemorating Roman martyr Mammes of Caesarea
David IV's processional cross
Crucifixion from Mestia
Fresco from Ubisi, Georgia
The Last Supper of Ubisi
Annunciation of Ubisi
Gelati Monastery, a UNESCOWorld Heritage Site
Walls of the Khobi Monastery showing strong Roman influence
Kvatakhevi monastery
Betania Monastery
Pitareti Monastery
Katskhi Pillar

The Georgian Golden Age (საქართველოს ოქროს ხანა) describes a historical period in the High Middle Ages, spanning from roughly the late 11th to 13th centuries, during which the Kingdom of Georgia reached the peak of its power and development.

Konrad von Limpurg as a knight being armed by his lady in the Codex Manesse (early 14th century)

Chivalry

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Informal and varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220.

Informal and varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220.

Konrad von Limpurg as a knight being armed by his lady in the Codex Manesse (early 14th century)
God Speed by English artist Edmund Leighton, 1900: depicting an armoured knight departing for war and leaving his beloved
Reconstruction of a Roman cavalryman (eques)
Knights of Christ by Jan van Eyck
Depiction of chivalric ideals in Romanticism (Stitching the Standard by Edmund Blair Leighton: the lady prepares for a knight to go to war)

Related to chivalry was the practice of heraldry and its elaborate rules of displaying coats of arms as it emerged in the High Middle Ages.