Higher education

post-secondarypost-secondary educationhigher learninghigheruniversity educationpostsecondary educationpostsecondarycollege educationHEinstitution of higher education
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.wikipedia
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University

universitiesresearch universitiescollege
Often delivered at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, conservatories, and institutes of technology, higher education is also available through certain college-level institutions, including vocational schools, trade schools, and other career colleges that award academic degrees or professional certifications. The general higher education and training that takes place in a university, college, or Institute of technology usually includes significant theoretical and abstract elements, as well as applied aspects (although limited offerings of internships or SURF programs attempt to provide practical applications).
A university (universitas, 'a whole') is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.

Academy

academicacademiaacademics
Often delivered at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, conservatories, and institutes of technology, higher education is also available through certain college-level institutions, including vocational schools, trade schools, and other career colleges that award academic degrees or professional certifications.
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.

Secondary education

secondarysecondary schoolhigh school
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
Secondary education typically takes place after six years of primary education and is followed by higher education, vocational education or employment.

Tertiary education

tertiarytertiary institutiontertiary institutions
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education. Tertiary education at non-degree level is sometimes referred to as further education or continuing education as distinct from higher education.
Higher education is taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, while vocational education beyond secondary education is known as further education in the United Kingdom, or continuing education in the United States.

Academic degree

degreedegreesuniversity degree
Often delivered at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, conservatories, and institutes of technology, higher education is also available through certain college-level institutions, including vocational schools, trade schools, and other career colleges that award academic degrees or professional certifications.
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, normally at a college or university.

Institute of technology

polytechnictechnical collegepolytechnics
Often delivered at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, conservatories, and institutes of technology, higher education is also available through certain college-level institutions, including vocational schools, trade schools, and other career colleges that award academic degrees or professional certifications. The general higher education and training that takes place in a university, college, or Institute of technology usually includes significant theoretical and abstract elements, as well as applied aspects (although limited offerings of internships or SURF programs attempt to provide practical applications).
In several countries, like Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Turkey, institutes of technology and polytechnics are institutions of higher education and have been accredited to award academic degrees and doctorates.

Vocational school

trade schoolvocationalcareer college
Often delivered at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, conservatories, and institutes of technology, higher education is also available through certain college-level institutions, including vocational schools, trade schools, and other career colleges that award academic degrees or professional certifications.
A vocational school, sometimes also called a trade school, career center, or vocational college, is a type of educational institution, which, depending on the country, may refer to secondary or post-secondary education designed to provide vocational education, or technical skills required to perform the tasks of a particular and specific job.

Formal learning

formal educationformallearned
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
Formal learning is education normally delivered by trained teachers in a systematic intentional way within a school, higher education or university.

Professional certification

professional qualificationcertificationqualification
Often delivered at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, conservatories, and institutes of technology, higher education is also available through certain college-level institutions, including vocational schools, trade schools, and other career colleges that award academic degrees or professional certifications.
In many other countries, certificates are qualifications in higher education.

Right to education

educationeducation a fundamental righteducation rights
In Europe, Article 2 of the First Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, adopted in 1950, obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education.
The right to education has been recognized as a human right in a number of international conventions, including the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights which recognizes a right to free, compulsory primary education for all, an obligation to develop secondary education accessible to all, in particular by the progressive introduction of free secondary education, as well as an obligation to develop equitable access to higher education, ideally by the progressive introduction of free higher education.

Further education

further education collegefurtherFE
Tertiary education at non-degree level is sometimes referred to as further education or continuing education as distinct from higher education.
Further education (often abbreviated FE) in the United Kingdom and Ireland is education in addition to that received at secondary school, that is distinct from the higher education (HE) offered in universities and other academic institutions.

Undergraduate education

undergraduateundergraduatesundergraduate student
Within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level, and beyond that, graduate-level (or postgraduate level).
Undergraduate education is the post-secondary education previous to the postgraduate education.

Postgraduate education

postgraduategraduate studentpost-graduate
Within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level, and beyond that, graduate-level (or postgraduate level). In addition, professional-level education is always included within Higher Education, and usually in graduate schools since many postgraduate academic disciplines are both vocationally, professionally, and theoretically/research oriented, such as in the law, medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, and veterinary medicine.
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education.

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

ICESCREconomic, Social and Cultural RightsInternational Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights
The UN International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1966 declares, in Article 13, that "higher education shall be made equally accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means, and in particular by the progressive introduction of free education".
Article 13 of the Covenant recognises the right of everyone to free education (free for the primary level and "the progressive introduction of free education" for the secondary and higher levels).

Vocational university

university of applied sciencesvocational collegeHBO
In contrast, the vocational higher education and training that takes place at vocational universities and schools usually concentrates on practical applications, with very little theory.
The University of Applied Sciences (UAS), as is generally known Vocational University, or called Professional University, Applied Technological University, College of Higher Vocational Studies, is an institution of higher education and sometimes research, which provides both tertiary and sometimes quaternary education and grants academic degrees at all levels (bachelor, master, and sometimes doctorate) in a variety of subjects.

Outline of academic disciplines

academic disciplineacademic disciplinesdiscipline
In addition, professional-level education is always included within Higher Education, and usually in graduate schools since many postgraduate academic disciplines are both vocationally, professionally, and theoretically/research oriented, such as in the law, medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, and veterinary medicine.
An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge, taught and researched as part of higher education.

Continuing education

extensionuniversity extensioncontinuing
Tertiary education at non-degree level is sometimes referred to as further education or continuing education as distinct from higher education.
In 1969, Empire State College, a unit of the State University of New York, was the first institution in the US to exclusively focus on providing higher education to adult learners.

Underemployment

underemployedbetter paying jobsdisguised
Also, the supply of graduates in many fields of study is exceeding the demand for their skills, which aggravates graduate unemployment, underemployment, credentialism and educational inflation.
In one usage, underemployment describes the employment of workers with high skill levels and postsecondary education who are working in relatively low-skilled, low-wage jobs.

Alternative pathways in education

alternative means
A basic requirement for entry into these graduate-level programs is almost always a bachelor's degree, although alternative means of obtaining entry into such programs may be available at some universities.
The traditional means of entry to tertiary education involves completing secondary school and obtaining the standard school leaving educational qualification offered in a particular region prior to progressing to university or other higher education study.

Liberal arts education

liberal artsArtsliberal studies
Academic areas that are included within the liberal arts include environmental science, great books, history, languages including English, linguistics, literature, mathematics, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, religious studies, science, sociology and theater.
Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") can claim to be the oldest programme of higher education in Western history.

Great books

great bookGreat Books of Western CivilizationGreat Books program
Academic areas that are included within the liberal arts include environmental science, great books, history, languages including English, linguistics, literature, mathematics, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, religious studies, science, sociology and theater.
The view among them was that the emphasis on narrow specialization in American colleges had harmed the quality of higher education by failing to expose students to the important products of Western civilization and thought.

Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship

SURF
The general higher education and training that takes place in a university, college, or Institute of technology usually includes significant theoretical and abstract elements, as well as applied aspects (although limited offerings of internships or SURF programs attempt to provide practical applications).
Within higher-education, Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships (SURF) are a common summer immersion experience which supplement research activities that occur during the academic year.

ACT (test)

ACTACT examACT organization
Demonstrated ability in reading, mathematics, and writing, as typically measured in the United States by the SAT or similar tests such as the ACT, have often replaced colleges' individual entrance exams, and is often required for admission to higher education.
To develop the test, ACT incorporates the objectives for instruction from middle and high schools throughout the United States, reviews approved textbooks for subjects taught in Grades 7–12, and surveys educators on which knowledge skills are relevant to success in postsecondary education.

Credentialism and educational inflation

credentialismhigher than is really necessary to perform the workcredential creep
Also, the supply of graduates in many fields of study is exceeding the demand for their skills, which aggravates graduate unemployment, underemployment, credentialism and educational inflation.
Credential inflation has been recognized as an enduring trend over the past century in Western higher education, and is also known to have occurred in ancient China and Japan, and at Spanish universities of the 17th century.

Academic standards

academic standardstandards
However, the admission of so many students of only average ability to higher education inevitably requires a decline in academic standards, facilitated by grade inflation.
In the UK, degree awarding bodies themselves are responsible for standards in higher education, but these are checked during inspection by the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA) and the Office of Qualifications and Examinations Regulation (Ofqual).