A report on Himalayas

Map of the Himalayas (including the Hindu Kush)
The 6000 km journey of the India landmass (Indian Plate) before its collision with Asia (Eurasian Plate) about 40 to 50 million years ago
Icefall on Khumbu Glacier
Gurudongmar Lake in Sikkim

The Himalayas, or Himalaya, are a mountain range in Asia, separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.

- Himalayas
Map of the Himalayas (including the Hindu Kush)

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Nepal

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Landlocked country in South Asia.

Landlocked country in South Asia.

A topographic map of Nepal
Mount Everest, the highest peak on earth, lies on the Nepal–China border.
Köppen climate classification for Nepal
This land cover map of Nepal using Landsat 30 m (2010) data shows forest cover as the dominant type of land cover in Nepal.
The greater one-horned rhinoceros roams the sub-tropical grasslands of the Terai plains.
The Himalayan monal (Danphe), the national bird of Nepal, nests high in the Himalayas.
B.P. Koirala led the 1951 revolution, became the first democratically elected Prime Minister, and after being deposed and imprisoned in 1961, spent the rest of his life fighting for democracy.
Nepal has made progress with regard to minority rights in recent years.
Traffic Police personnel manually direct traffic at the busiest roads and junctions.
Gurkha Memorial, London
Nepal is one of the major contributors to UN peacekeeping missions.
The multipurpose Kukri knife (top) is the signature weapon of the Nepali armed forces, and is used by the Gurkhas, Nepal Army, Police and even security guards.
A proportional representation of Nepal exports, 2019
Real GPD per capita development of Nepal
Tourists view a greater one-horned rhinoceros from an elephant in Chitwan National Park.
While adults are employed in slavery-like conditions abroad, hundreds of thousands of children in the country are employed as child labour (not including the agricultural sector).
Middle Marsyangdi Hydroelectric Dam. Nepal has significant potential to generate hydropower, which it plans to export across South Asia.
Sadhus in Pashupatinath Temple
Historical development of life expectancy in Nepal
A Magar couple in their ethnic dress
Bhanubhakta Acharya, Nepali writer who translated the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana in the Nepali language
A Nepali man in Daura-Suruwal, coat and Dhaka topi, displays the bhoto during the Bhoto Jatra festival.
A dal-bhat thali with boiled rice, lentil soup, fried leafy greens, vegetable curry, yoghurt, papad and vegetable salad
Momo dumplings with chutney
Samayabaji (Newar cuisine)
Nepali children playing a variant of knucklebones, with pebbles
Nepali cricket fans are renowned for an exceptionally enthusiastic support of their national team.
"Nēpāla" in the late Brahmi script, in the Allahabad Pillar inscription of Samudragupta (350-375 CE).

It is mainly situated in the Himalayas, but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, bordering Tibet of China to the north, and India in the south, east, and west, while it is narrowly separated from Bangladesh by the Siliguri Corridor, and from Bhutan by the Indian state of Sikkim.

Indus River

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The course of the Indus in the disputed Kashmir region; the river flows through Ladakh and Gilgit-Baltistan, administered respectively by India and Pakistan
The major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization fl 2600–1900 BCE in Pakistan, India and Afghanistan
Indus River near Leh, Ladakh
Confluence of Indus and Zanskar rivers. The Indus is at the left of the picture, flowing left-to-right; the Zanskar, carrying more water, comes in from the top of the picture.
Fishermen on the Indus River, c. 1905
Skyline of Sukkur along the shores of the Indus River
The Indus River near Skardu, in Gilgit–Baltistan.
Affected areas as of 26 August 2010
Lansdowne Bridge and Ayub Bridge connecting the cities of Rohri and Sukkur in Sindh, Pakistan.
Frozen Indus, Near Nyoma
Indus at Skardu
Indus near Dera Ismail Khan

The Indus is a transboundary river of Asia and a trans-Himalayan river of South and Central Asia.

Ganges

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Trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through India and Bangladesh.

Trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through India and Bangladesh.

Bhagirathi River at Gangotri.
Devprayag, confluence of Alaknanda (right) and Bhagirathi (left), and beginning of the Ganges proper.
The Himalayan headwaters of the Ganges River in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, India.
The Gandhi Setu Bridge across the Ganges in Patna, Bihar
A sailboat on the main distributory of the Ganges in Bangladesh, the Padma river.
The Ganges delta in a 2020 satellite image.
A 1908 map showing the course of the Ganges and its tributaries.
The River Ganges at Kolkata, with Howrah Bridge in the background
Lower Ganges in Lakshmipur, Bangladesh
Hardinge Bridge, Bangladesh, crosses the Ganges-Padma River. It is one of the key sites for measuring streamflow and discharge on the lower Ganges.
Chromolithograph, Indian woman floating lamps on the Ganges, by William Simpson, 1867
Descent of Ganga, painting by Raja Ravi Varma c. 1910
Preparations for cremations on the banks of the Ganges in Varanasi], 1903. The dead are being bathed, wrapped in cloth, and covered with wood. The photograph has a caption, "Who dies in the waters of the Ganges obtains heaven."]
Women and children at a bathing ghat on the Ganges in Banares (Varanasi), 1885.
Shiva, as Gangadhara, bearing the Descent of the Ganges, as the goddess Parvati, the sage Bhagiratha, and the bull Nandi look on (circa 1740).
A procession of Akharas marching over a makeshift bridge over the Ganges River. Kumbh Mela at Allahabad, 2001.
Head works of the Ganges canal in Haridwar (1860). Photograph by Samuel Bourne.
The Ganges Canal highlighted in red stretching between its headworks off the Ganges River in Haridwar and its confluences with the Jumna (Yamuna) River in Etawah and with the Ganges in Cawnpore (now Kanpur).
A girl selling plastic containers in Haridwar for carrying Ganges water.
Ganges from Space
Lesser florican (Sypheotides indicus)
The catla (Catla catla) is one of the Indian carp species that support major fisheries in the Ganges
The threatened gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) is a large fish-eating crocodilian that is harmless to humans
The Gangetic dolphin in a sketch by Whymper and P. Smit, 1894.
People bathing and washing clothes in the Ganges in Varanasi.
The Ganges at Sultanganj.

The 2525 km river rises in the western Himalayas in the Indian state of Uttarakhand.

Map of the approximate extent of the three provinces, Ü-Tsang, Amdo, and Kham, of the Tibetan Empire (8th century) overlaid on a map of modern borders.

Tibet

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Region in East Asia covering much of the Tibetan Plateau spanning about 2500000 km2.

Region in East Asia covering much of the Tibetan Plateau spanning about 2500000 km2.

Map of the approximate extent of the three provinces, Ü-Tsang, Amdo, and Kham, of the Tibetan Empire (8th century) overlaid on a map of modern borders.
Ethnolinguistic map of Tibet (1967)
Tibetan family in Kham attending a horse festival
Rishabhanatha, the first Tirthankara of Jainism is considered to have attained nirvana near Mount Kailash in Tibet in Jain tradition.
King Songtsen Gampo
Map of the Tibetan Empire at its greatest extent between the 780s and the 790s CE
Miran fort
The Mongol Yuan dynasty, c. 1294.
Gyantse Fortress
Potala Palace
Putuo Zongcheng Temple, a Buddhist temple complex in Chengde, Hebei, built between 1767 and 1771. The temple was modeled after the Potala Palace.
Edmund Geer during the 1938–1939 German expedition to Tibet
Rogyapas, an outcast group, early 20th century. Their hereditary occupation included disposal of corpses and leather work.
A poster saying "Thank you India. 50 years in Exile." Manali. 2010
Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas above 1600 m – topography. Tibet is often called the "roof of the world".
Himalayas, on the southern rim of the Tibetan plateau
View over Lhasa. 1993
Yarlung Tsangpo River
Yamdrok Lake
Basum Tso in Gongbo'gyamda County, eastern Tibet
Looking across the square at Jokhang temple, Lhasa
The Tibetan yak is an integral part of Tibetan life
Pastoral nomads constitute about 40% of the ethnic Tibetan population.
Tromzikhang market in Lhasa
Tibetan Lamanis, c. 1905
An elderly Tibetan woman in Lhasa
Tibetan cultural zone
Buddhist monks practicing debate in Drepung Monastery
The Phugtal Monastery in south-east Zanskar
The Lhasa Great Mosque
A Ceremonial Priest's Yak Bone Apron - Courtesy the Wovensouls Collection
The Monlam Prayer Festival
Thukpa with Momo – Tibetan Style
A thangka painting in Sikkim
A ritual box
Monkhood in Tibet, Xigatse area, August 2005

Tibet is the highest region on Earth, with an average elevation of 4380 m. Located in the Himalayas, the highest elevation in Tibet is Mount Everest, Earth's highest mountain, rising 8,848.86 m (29,032 ft) above sea level.

Bhutan

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Landlocked country in the Eastern Himalayas, located in Southern Asia between China and India.

Landlocked country in the Eastern Himalayas, located in Southern Asia between China and India.

Bhutan, shaded in green in the center of three Himalayan regions, shown on a 1912 map of Western Asia
The dzong in the Paro valley, built in 1646.
Trashigang Dzong, built in 1659.
Sketch of Bhutan's interior, 1783
Painting of Bhutan, 1813
British envoys in Bhutan's royal court in 1905
A thrikhep (throne cover) from the 19th century. Throne covers were placed atop the temple cushions used by high lamas. The central circular swirling symbol is the gankyil in its mode as the "Four Joys".
Leaders of Afghanistan, Bhutan, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Nepal at the 16th SAARC Summit in Thimphu, 2010
A topographic map of Bhutan.
Snowfall in Bhutan
The takin is Bhutan's national animal.
Himalayan Marmot at Tshophu Lake, Bhutan
Himalayan black bear
King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck and Queen consort Jetsun Pema of Bhutan with the then Emperor of Japan Akihito
The permanent mission of Bhutan to the United Nations in New York City
Prime Minister of Bhutan Tshering Tobgay with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry in 2015.
A map of Bhutan showing its borders with China and India.
A royal guard of Bhutan in 1905
The Royal Bhutan Army Chief of Staff (left) and Indian Army Chief of Staff (right) in 2006
Women of Bhutan
Ethnic Nepalese ("Lhotshampa") migrants that were forcefully expelled from Bhutan, and arrived in Nepal in the early 1990s.
A proportional representation of Bhutan exports, 2019
The Bhutan Power Corporation headquarters in Thimphu. Bhutan's principal export is hydroelectricity.
Modern and traditional bridges over a river in Panbang
GDP per capita development in Bhutan, since 1990.
Rice terraces in one of Bhutan's fertile valleys.
Office of the SAARC Development Fund in Thimphu
Bhutan electricity production by year
The Le Méridien Thimphu is part of Bhutan's burgeoning tourism industry.
A Druk Air Airbus A319 in Paro Airport
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The ILCS Campus Taktse Bhutan.
Bhutanese thanka of Mt. Meru and the Buddhist universe (19th century, Trongsa Dzong, Trongsa, Bhutan)
The National Library of Bhutan during snowfall
Chaam, sacred masked dances, are annually performed during religious festivals.
Traditional dish with lemon glazed chicken, sauteed spinach and steamed Bhutanese red rice
Changlimithang Stadium during a parade.
Taekwondo between Bhutan and Vietnam
A Bhutanese archery competition
Gangkar Puensum, the highest mountain in Bhutan
Sub-alpine Himalayan landscape
A Himalayan peak from Bumthang
Jigme Dorji National Park
The Haa Valley in Western Bhutan

Bhutan is on the southern slopes of the eastern Himalayas, landlocked between the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north and the Indian states of Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam to the west and south, and the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh to the east.

Kangchenjunga and surrounding peaks at sunset from ISS, December 2019

Kangchenjunga

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Third highest mountain in the world.

Third highest mountain in the world.

Kangchenjunga and surrounding peaks at sunset from ISS, December 2019
Kangchenjunga map by Garwood, 1903
Southwest (Yalung) face of Kangchenjunga seen from Nepal
Kanchenjunga-north from base camp in Nepal
Painting of Kanchinjínga as seen from the Singalila Ridge by Hermann Schlagintweit, 1855
Sunset on Kangchenjunga, 1905
South face of Kangchenjunga seen from Goecha La, Sikkim at 4940 m
Kangchenjunga seen from Darjeeling War Memorial
A sign board on the last traversable road to Kangchenjunga
First ascent reunion of 1990– front (left to right): Neil Mather, John Angelo Jackson, Charles Evans and Joe Brown and rear (left to right): Tony Streather, Norman Hardie, George Band, and Professor John Clegg.
Kanchenjunga from Tiger Hill at dawn
Kanchenjunga as seen from Gangtok, Sikkim
Five Treasures of Snow
Kangchenjunga seen from Tetulia, Panchagarh, Northern Bangladesh.
East face of Kangchenjunga, from near the Zemu Glacier, Sikkim
View of Kangchenjunga as seen from Darjeeling
North face of Kangchenjunga from Pang Pema, Nepal

Its summit lies at 8586 m in a section of the Himalayas, the Kangchenjunga Himal, which is bounded on the west by the Tamur River, in the north by the Lhonak Chu and Jongsang La, and in the east by the Teesta River.

Tibetan Buddhist stupa and houses outside the town of Ngawa, on the Tibetan Plateau.

Tibetan Plateau

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The Tibetan Plateau (, also known as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau or as the Himalayan Plateau in India, is a vast elevated plateau in South Asia, Central Asia and East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region, most of Qinghai, Northwestern Yunnan, Western half of Sichuan, Southern Gansu provinces in Western China, southern Xinjiang, the Indian regions of Ladakh and Lahaul and Spiti (Himachal Pradesh) as well as Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan, Bhutan, northern Nepal, eastern Tajikistan and southern Kyrgyzstan.

The Tibetan Plateau (, also known as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau or as the Himalayan Plateau in India, is a vast elevated plateau in South Asia, Central Asia and East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region, most of Qinghai, Northwestern Yunnan, Western half of Sichuan, Southern Gansu provinces in Western China, southern Xinjiang, the Indian regions of Ladakh and Lahaul and Spiti (Himachal Pradesh) as well as Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan, Bhutan, northern Nepal, eastern Tajikistan and southern Kyrgyzstan.

Tibetan Buddhist stupa and houses outside the town of Ngawa, on the Tibetan Plateau.
NASA satellite image of the south-eastern area of Tibetan Plateau. Brahmaputra River is in the lower right.
Yamdrok Lake is one of the three largest sacred lakes in Tibet.
Yangbajain valley to the north of Lhasa
Pastoral nomads camping near Namtso.
The old town of Gyantse and surrounding fields.
Natural-colour satellite image of the Tibetan Plateau
The Himalayas as seen from space looking south from over the Tibetan Plateau.
Midui Glacier in Nyingchi

The plateau is bordered to the south by the inner Himalayan range, to the north by the Kunlun Mountains, which separate it from the Tarim Basin, and to the northeast by the Qilian Mountains, which separate the plateau from the Hexi Corridor and Gobi Desert.

South Asia

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Southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms.

Southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms.

Various definitions of South Asia, including the definition by UNSD which was created for "statistical convenience and does not imply any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories."
United Nations cartographic map of South Asia. However, the United Nations does not endorse any definitions or area boundaries.
While South Asia had never been a coherent geopolitical region, it has a distinct geographical identity
Indus Valley Civilisation during 2600–1900 BCE, the mature phase
The Trimurti is the trinity of supreme divinity in Hinduism, typically Brahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver, and Shiva the destroyer
Outreach of influence of early medieval Chola dynasty
Timur defeats the Sultan of Delhi, Nasir-u Din Mehmud, in the winter of 1397–1398
Emperor Shah Jahan and his son Prince Aurangzeb in Mughal Court, 1650
British Indian Empire in 1909. British India is shaded pink, the princely states yellow.
South Asia's Köppen climate classification map is based on native vegetation, temperature, precipitation and their seasonality.
Ethno-linguistic distribution map of South Asia
Mumbai is the financial capital of India with GDP of $400 billion
GDP per capita development in South Asia
Durbar High School, oldest secondary school of Nepal, established in 1854 CE
Lower class school in Sri Lanka
College of Natural Resources, Royal University of Bhutan
IInstitute of Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Nepal
Child getting vaccine in Bangladesh under the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI)
A weekly child examination performed at a hospital in Farah, Afghanistan

Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate and defined largely by the Indian Ocean on the south, and the Himalayas, Karakoram, and Pamir mountains on the north.

Uttarakhand

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State in the northern part of India.

State in the northern part of India.

Rope bridge across Alaknanda River at Srinagar, 1784-94 – the capital of the Garhwal Kingdom
Fort of Champawat, 1815 – the first capital of the Chand kings of Kumaon Kingdom
Uttarakhand as a part of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces
Uttarakhand as a part of Uttar Pradesh, 1950–2000
With the elevation of 7816 m above sea level, Nanda Devi is the highest mountain in Uttarakhand and the second-highest mountain in India, following Kangchenjunga in Sikkim.
With the elevation of 190 m above sea level, Sharda Sagar Reservoir is the lowest land point in Uttarakhand.
Topography of Uttarakhand.
Kumaon and Garhwal in Uttarakhand
Sumitranandan Pant Museum, Kausani
Bal Mithai, a popular sweet from Kumaon
Women performing Chanchari – a popular folk dance from Danpur region in Kumaon.
Pilgrims gather for the third Shahi Snan ("royal bath") at Har Ki Pauri in Haridwar, Uttarakhand on 14 April 2010 during Haridwar Kumbh Mela.
A woman winnowing rice, an important food crop in Uttarakhand.
Jolly Grant Airport, Dehradun
Schematic tourist map of Uttarakhand.
Garhwal Himalaya mountain range in Kedarnath, Uttarakhand.
Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium in Dehradun.
Mahasu Devta Temple at Hanol is notable for its traditional wooden architecture.
Architectural details of a Dharamshala, established 1822, Haridwar.
Abhisarika Nayika, a painting by Mola Ram.
The releasing of the Uttaranchal crafts map
Alpine Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster)
Golden Mahseer (Tor putitora)
Himalayan Monal (Lophophorus impejanus)
West Himalayan Common Peacock (Papilio bianor polyctor)
Brahma Kamal (Saussurea obvallata)
Burans (Rhododendron arboreum)
Kaphal (Myrica esculenta)
Kandali (Urtica dioica)
Valley of Flowers National Park
View of a Bugyal (meadow) in Uttarakhand
Har Ki Doon, a high-altitude hanging valley
Rishikesh view and 13 stories Shiva temple across Lakshman Jhula bridge over the Ganges
Kedarnath Temple is one of the 12 Jyotirlingas

Uttarakhand is known for the natural environment of the Himalayas, the Bhabar and the Terai regions.

Indian subcontinent

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Physiographical region in Southern Asia.

Physiographical region in Southern Asia.

Due to plate tectonics, the Indian Plate split from Madagascar and collided (c. 55 Mya) with the Eurasian Plate, resulting in the formation of the Himalayas.
The Indus defines much of the ecosystem on the Indian subcontinent
The rocky interiors of the Himalayas

It is situated on the Indian Plate, projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.