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Hindustani language

HindustaniHindi-UrduHindi
Modern Hindi is the standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language, which itself is based primarily on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi and other nearby areas of Northern India.
Hindustani (𑂯𑂱𑂢𑂹𑂠𑂳𑂮𑂹𑂞𑂰𑂢𑂲, Urdu: ), also known as Hindi-Urdu and historically also known as Hindavi, Dehlavi and Rekhta, is the lingua franca of Northern India and Pakistan.

Sanskrit

Sanskrit languageClassical SanskritSkt.
Modern Hindi is the standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language, which itself is based primarily on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi and other nearby areas of Northern India.
Examples include numerous, modern, North Indian, subcontinental daughter languages such as Hindi, Marathi, Bengali, Punjabi, Gujarati, Sindhi, Kashmiri, Kumaoni, Garhwali, Urdu, Dogri, Maithili, Konkani, Assamese, Odia, and Nepali.

Indo-Aryan languages

Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan languageIndic
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST/ISO 15919: Hindī) or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST/ISO 15919: Mānak Hindī), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in India and across the Indian subcontinent.
What is called "Hindi" in India is frequently Standard Hindi, the Sanskritized version of the colloquial Hindustani spoken in the Delhi area since the Mughals.

Official language

official languagesofficialadministrative language
Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, is one of the two official languages of the Government of India, along with the English language.
South Africa is the country with the most official languages, all at equal status to one another, in the world as Bolivia gives primacy to Spanish and India gives primacy to Hindi.

Khariboli dialect

Khari boliKhariboliKhadi boli
Modern Hindi is the standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language, which itself is based primarily on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi and other nearby areas of Northern India. This body of work included the early Rajasthani epics such as renditions of the Dhola Maru, the Prithviraj Raso in Braj Bhasha, and the works of Amir Khusrow in the Khariboli of Delhi.
Khariboli, also known as Dehlavi or the Delhi dialect, is the language dialect and variety that developed as the prestige dialect of Hindustani, of which Standard Hindi and Standard Urdu are standard registers and literary styles, which are the principal official languages of India and Pakistan respectively.

List of languages by total number of speakers

largest language by number of speakers3rd most spoken language in the world3rd-most spoken language in the world
Alongside Urdu as Hindustani, it is the third most-spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English.

List of languages by number of native speakers

numbermost spoken languages20 languages with the largest numbers of native speakers
As a linguistic variety, Hindi is the fourth most-spoken first language in the world, after Mandarin, Spanish and English.

Rajasthani language

RajasthaniRajasthani languagesdialects of Rajasthani
This body of work included the early Rajasthani epics such as renditions of the Dhola Maru, the Prithviraj Raso in Braj Bhasha, and the works of Amir Khusrow in the Khariboli of Delhi.
The Rajasthani language is distinct from neighbouring related Hindi languages as it is a western Indo-Aryan language.

Urdu

Urdu languageUrdu:Hindi
Apart from specialised vocabulary, spoken Hindi is mutually intelligible with standard Urdu, another recognised register of Hindustani.
Apart from specialised vocabulary, spoken Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, another recognised register of Hindustani.

Indus River

IndusIndus ValleySindhu
The term Hindī originally was used to refer to inhabitants of the region east of the Indus.
In other languages of the region, the river is known as सिन्धु (Sindhu) in Hindi, سنڌو (Sindhu) in Sindhi, (Sindh) in Shahmukhi Punjabi, ਸਿੰਧ ਨਦੀ (Sindh Nadī) in Gurmukhī Punjabi, اباسين (Abāsin lit. "Father of Rivers") in Pashto, نهر السند (Nahar al-Sind) in Arabic, སེང་གེ་གཙང་པོ། (singi khamban lit. "Lion River" or Lion Spring) in Tibetan, 印度 (Yìndù) in Chinese, Nilab in Turki and සින්දු නදී (Sindhu Nadi) in Sinhalese.

National language

main languagenationalmajority language
Contrary to the popular belief, Hindi is not the national language of India because no language was given such a status in the Indian constitution.
Hindi,Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, Bengali, Marathi, Assamese, Punjabi, Gujarati are majorly spoken by the native people.

Hazari Prasad Dwivedi

Hazariprasad Dwivedi
To this end, several stalwarts rallied and lobbied pan-India in favour of Hindi, most notably Beohar Rajendra Simha along with Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Kaka Kalelkar, Maithili Sharan Gupt and Seth Govind Das who even debated in Parliament on this issue.
Hazari Prasad Dwivedi (19 August 1907 – 19 May 1979) was a Hindi novelist, literary historian, essayist, critic and scholar.

Maithili Sharan Gupt

Maithili Sharan GuptaMaithilisharan Gupt
To this end, several stalwarts rallied and lobbied pan-India in favour of Hindi, most notably Beohar Rajendra Simha along with Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Kaka Kalelkar, Maithili Sharan Gupt and Seth Govind Das who even debated in Parliament on this issue.
Maithili Sharan Gupt (3 August 1886 – 12 December 1964) was one of the most important modern Hindi poets.

Caribbean Hindustani

HindustaniHindiSarnami Hindustani
Such languages include Fiji Hindi, which is official in Fiji, and Caribbean Hindustani, which is a recognised language in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Suriname.
Like the Hindustani spoken in the Indian subcontinent, Caribbean Hindustani is broken up into two registers Caribbean Hindi and Caribbean Urdu.

Lingua franca

trade languagecommon languagelingua francas
Hindi is the lingua franca of the Hindi belt and to a lesser extent other parts of India (usually in a simplified or pidginised variety such as Bazaar Hindustani or Haflong Hindi).
The Hindustani language (Hindi-Urdu) is the lingua franca of Pakistan and Northern India.

Haflong Hindi

Hindi is the lingua franca of the Hindi belt and to a lesser extent other parts of India (usually in a simplified or pidginised variety such as Bazaar Hindustani or Haflong Hindi).
It is a pidgin that stemmed from Hindi and included vocabulary from several other languages, such as Assamese, Bengali, Dimasa and the Zeme Naga dialect.

Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu

Anti-Hindi agitationsAnti-Hindi agitations of 1937-40anti-Hindi agitation
However, widespread resistance to the imposition of Hindi on non-native speakers, especially in South India (such as the those in Tamil Nadu) led to the passage of the Official Languages Act of 1963, which provided for the continued use of English indefinitely for all official purposes, although the constitutional directive for the Union Government to encourage the spread of Hindi was retained and has strongly influenced its policies.
The agitations involved several mass protests, riots, student and political movements in Tamil Nadu concerning the official status of Hindi in the state.

Jharkhand

Jharkhand StateJharkhand movementJarkhand
At the state level, Hindi is the official language of the following Indian states: Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Mizoram, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and West Bengal.
Hindi is the official language of the state.

Standard language

standardstandardizedstandard dialect
Modern Hindi is the standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language, which itself is based primarily on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi and other nearby areas of Northern India.
Two standardised registers of the Hindustani language have legal status in India: Standard Hindi (one of 23 co-official national languages) and Urdu (Pakistan’s official tongue), resultantly, Hindustani often called “Hindi-Urdu".

India

IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST/ISO 15919: Hindī) or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST/ISO 15919: Mānak Hindī), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in India and across the Indian subcontinent.
India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), – "Official name: Republic of India.";

Seth Govind Das

Govind Das Maheshwari
To this end, several stalwarts rallied and lobbied pan-India in favour of Hindi, most notably Beohar Rajendra Simha along with Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Kaka Kalelkar, Maithili Sharan Gupt and Seth Govind Das who even debated in Parliament on this issue.
Das was also a famous Hindi author.

Delhi

Delhi, IndiaNational Capital Territory of DelhiNational Capital Territory
Modern Hindi is the standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language, which itself is based primarily on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi and other nearby areas of Northern India. This body of work included the early Rajasthani epics such as renditions of the Dhola Maru, the Prithviraj Raso in Braj Bhasha, and the works of Amir Khusrow in the Khariboli of Delhi.
Another legend holds that the name of the city is based on the Hindi/Prakrit word dhili (loose) and that it was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the iron pillar of Delhi had a weak foundation and had to be moved.

Fiji Hindi

Fijian HindiHindiFijian Hindustani
Such languages include Fiji Hindi, which is official in Fiji, and Caribbean Hindustani, which is a recognised language in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Suriname.
Fiji Hindi tenses are relatively similar to tenses in Standard Hindi.

Awadhi language

AwadhiAvadhiawa
Outside India, several other languages are recognised officially as "Hindi" but do not refer to the Standard Hindi language described here and instead descend from other dialects of Hindustani, such as Awadhi and Bhojpuri.
In sociopolitical contexts, however, Awadhi is viewed simply as a style or spoken variety of Hindi and is not used as a medium of instruction in any institution, though its literary heritage is included as a part of Hindi literature.

Romanization

Romanizeromanizedromanisation
His lexicon of Hindustani was published in Arabic script, Nāgarī script, and in Roman transliteration.