Hindu philosophy

Hindu philosopherdarsanasDarshanasVishwasHinduHindu thoughtHindu philosophiesphilosophicalphilosophyHindu philosophical
Hindu philosophy refers to philosophies, world views and teachings that emerged in ancient India.wikipedia
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Samkhya

SankhyaSāṃkhyaSāṅkhya
These include six systems (ṣaḍdarśana) – Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and Vedanta.
Samkhya or Sankhya (सांख्य, IAST: ) is one of the six āstika schools of Hindu philosophy.

Darśana

darshandarshanaDarsana
These include six systems (ṣaḍdarśana) – Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and Vedanta.
The term also refers to six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy and their literature on spirituality and soteriology.

Vedanta

VedanticVedāntaVedantist
These include six systems (ṣaḍdarśana) – Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and Vedanta.
Vedanta (Sanskrit: वेदान्त, IAST: ') or Uttara Mīmāṃsā' is the most prominent of the six (āstika'') schools of Hindu philosophy.

History of Hinduism

Hindu historyearly BrahmanismEarly Hinduism
In the history of Hinduism, the six orthodox schools had emerged before the start of the Common Era.
In this period the six branches of Hindu philosophy evolved, namely Samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mīmāṃsā, and Vedanta.

Vedas

VedicVedaVedic literature
These are also called the Astika (orthodox) philosophical traditions and are those that accept the Vedas as an authoritative, important source of knowledge.
The various Indian philosophies and denominations have taken differing positions on the Vedas.

Ātman (Hinduism)

AtmanĀtmanAtma
The soteriology in Samkhya aims at the realization of Puruṣa as distinct from Prakriti; this knowledge of the Self is held to end transmigration and lead to absolute freedom (kaivalya).
In Hindu philosophy, especially in the Vedanta school of Hinduism, Ātman is the first principle, the true self of an individual beyond identification with phenomena, the essence of an individual.

Hinduism

HinduHindusHindu culture
Samkhya is the oldest of the orthodox philosophical systems in Hinduism, with origins in the 1st millennium BCE.
These texts discuss theology, philosophy, mythology, Vedic yajna, Yoga, agamic rituals, and temple building, among other topics.

Indian logic

logiclogicianIndia
6th century BC to 2nd century CE), founder of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy; and the tetralemma of Nagarjuna (c.

Madhvacharya

MadhvaMadhwacharyaMadhwa
Also called as Tattvavāda and Bimbapratibimbavāda, the Dvaita sub-school was founded by the 13th-century scholar Madhvacharya.
Madhva studied the classics of Hindu philosophy, particularly the Principal Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahma Sutras (Prasthanatrayi).

Vaishnavism

VaishnavaVaishnaviteVaishnavaite
Examples of such schools include Pāśupata Śaiva, Śaiva siddhānta, Pratyabhijña, Raseśvara and Vaiṣṇava. Like Vishishtadvaita Vedanta subschool, Dvaita philosophy also embraced Vaishnavism, with the metaphysical concept of Brahman in the Vedas identified with Vishnu and the one and only Supreme Being.
Krishna is also worshiped across many other traditions of Hinduism, and Krishna and the stories associated with him appear across a broad spectrum of different Hindu philosophical and theological traditions, where it is believed that God appears to his devoted worshippers in many different forms, depending on their particular desires.

Purusha

PurusaPuruṣaconsciousness
It regards the universe as consisting of two realities: Puruṣa (consciousness) and prakriti (matter).
In the Upanishads and later texts of Hindu philosophy, the Purusha concept moved away from the Vedic definition of Purusha and was no longer a person, cosmic man or entity.

Dualism (Indian philosophy)

dualismdualisticdualist
Samkhya school espouses dualism between consciousness and matter.
This mainly takes the form of either mind-matter dualism in Buddhist philosophy or consciousness-matter dualism in the Samkhya and Yoga schools of Hindu philosophy.

Kapila

KapilKapil MuniKapila Muni
Kapila is a given name of different individuals in ancient and medieval Indian texts, of which the most well known is the founder of the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy.

Panentheism

panentheisticpanentheistDivine Omnipresence
Earliest reference to panentheistic thought in Hindu philosophy is in a creation myth contained in the later section of Rig Veda called the Purusha Sukta, which was compiled before 1100 BCE.

Nyāya Sūtras

Nyaya SutrasAksapada GautamaGotama
The foundational text of the Nyāya school is the Nyāya Sūtras of the first millennium BCE.
The Nyāya Sūtras is an ancient Indian Sanskrit text composed by, and the foundational text of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy.

Vaisheshika

VaiśeṣikaVaisesikaVaiseshika
These include six systems (ṣaḍdarśana) – Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and Vedanta.
Vaisheshika or Vaiśeṣika is one of the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy (Vedic systems) from ancient India.

Jaimini

Jaimini BharataJaimini systemJaiminī
Key texts of the Mīmāṃsā school are the Purva Mimamsa Sutras of Jaimini.
Jaimini was an ancient Hindu scholar who founded the Mīmāṃsā school of Hindu philosophy.

Vācaspati Miśra

Vacaspati MisraVacaspatiVachaspati Mishra
Vācaspati Miśra was a prolific scholar and his writings are extensive, including bhasya (commentaries) on key texts of almost every 9th-century school of Hindu philosophy with notes on non-Hindu or nāstika traditions such as Buddhism and Carvaka.

Vishishtadvaita

VishistadvaitaVisishtadvaitaVishishtadvaita Vedanta
Like Vishishtadvaita Vedanta subschool, Dvaita philosophy also embraced Vaishnavism, with the metaphysical concept of Brahman in the Vedas identified with Vishnu and the one and only Supreme Being.
Vishishtadvaita (IAST ; विशिष्टाद्वैत) is one of the most popular schools of the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy.

Gaudapada

GauḍapādaGaudapadacharyaGaudapāda
Its first great consolidator was the 8th century scholar Adi Shankara, who continued the line of thought of the Upanishadic teachers, and that of his teacher's teacher Gaudapada.
Gauḍapāda (Sanskrit: गौडपाद; fl. c. 6th century CE), also referred as, was an early medieval era Hindu philosopher and scholar of the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy.

Jayanta Bhatta

Bhatta JayantaJayanta
9th Century CE) was a Kashmir poet and a philosopher of Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy.

Appayya Dikshita

Appayya DikshitarAppayya DīkṣitaAppaya Dikshita
Appayya Dikshita (IAST, often "Dikshitar"), 1520–1593 CE, was a performer of yajñas as well as an expositor and practitioner of the Advaita Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy but however, with a focus on Shiva or Shiva Advaita.

Adi Shankara

Adi ShankaracharyaShankaraAdi Sankara
Its first great consolidator was the 8th century scholar Adi Shankara, who continued the line of thought of the Upanishadic teachers, and that of his teacher's teacher Gaudapada.
While the details and chronology vary, most biographies mention Adi Shankara traveling widely within India, Gujarat to Bengal, and participating in public philosophical debates with different orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy, as well as heterodox traditions such as Buddhists, Jains, Arhatas, Saugatas, and Carvakas.

Samkhyakarika

Samkhya KarikaIshvara KrishnaSankhya Karika
The Samkhya karika, one of the key texts of this school of Hindu philosophy, opens by stating its goal to be "three kinds of human suffering" and means to prevent them.
The Samkhyakarika is the earliest surviving text of the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy.

Bhadreshdas Swami

Swami Bhadreshdas
This commentary on Hinduism’s three canonical texts: the Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita, and the Brahma sutras, forms the interpretive foundation of the philosophy of Akshar Purushottam darshana, also known as Swaminarayan darshana, illuminating the Vedic roots of the Akshar Purushottama philosophy, which was propagated by the 19th-century Hindu leader, Lord Swaminarayan and later by Shastriji Maharaj.