Hindustani language

HindustaniHindi-UrduHindiHindustani (Hindi-Urdu)Hindi/UrduHindaviUrduUrdu/HindiHindi and UrduHindawi
Hindustani (𑂯𑂱𑂢𑂹𑂠𑂳𑂮𑂹𑂞𑂰𑂢𑂲, Urdu: ), also known as Hindi-Urdu and historically also known as Hindavi, Dehlavi and Rekhta, is the lingua franca of Northern India and Pakistan.wikipedia
853 Related Articles

Urdu

Urdu languageUrdu:Hindi
Hindustani (𑂯𑂱𑂢𑂹𑂠𑂳𑂮𑂹𑂞𑂰𑂢𑂲, Urdu: ), also known as Hindi-Urdu and historically also known as Hindavi, Dehlavi and Rekhta, is the lingua franca of Northern India and Pakistan. It is a pluricentric language, with two official forms, Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu, which are its standardised registers.
Urdu (undefined ALA-LC: ) (also known as Lashkari, locally written )—or, more precisely, Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.

Rekhta

Hindustani (𑂯𑂱𑂢𑂹𑂠𑂳𑂮𑂹𑂞𑂰𑂢𑂲, Urdu: ), also known as Hindi-Urdu and historically also known as Hindavi, Dehlavi and Rekhta, is the lingua franca of Northern India and Pakistan.
Rekhta (undefined, रेख़्ता, rextā), was the Hindustani language as its dialectal basis shifted to the Khariboli dialect of Delhi.

Hindi

Hindi languageHindi-languageStandard Hindi
Hindustani (𑂯𑂱𑂢𑂹𑂠𑂳𑂮𑂹𑂞𑂰𑂢𑂲, Urdu: ), also known as Hindi-Urdu and historically also known as Hindavi, Dehlavi and Rekhta, is the lingua franca of Northern India and Pakistan. It is a pluricentric language, with two official forms, Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu, which are its standardised registers.
Modern Hindi is the standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language, which itself is based primarily on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi and other nearby areas of Northern India.

Indo-Aryan languages

Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan languageIndic
It is an Indo-Aryan language, deriving its base primarily from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi.
The largest in terms of speakers are Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu, about 329 million), Bengali (242 million), Punjabi (about 120 million), Marathi, (112 million), Gujarati (60 million), Bhojpuri (51 million), Odia (34 million), Maithili (about 34 million), Sindhi (25 million) and other languages, with a 2005 estimate placing the total number of native speakers at nearly 900 million.

Delhi

Delhi, IndiaNational Capital Territory of DelhiNational Capital Territory
It is an Indo-Aryan language, deriving its base primarily from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi.
Some historians believe that Dhilli or Dhillika is the original name for the city while others believe the name could be a corruption of the Hindustani words dehleez or dehali—both terms meaning 'threshold' or 'gateway'—and symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain.

Hindustani etymology

etymological rootsHindustani (Hindi-Urdu) word etymologyloanwords
The language incorporates a large amount of vocabulary from Prakrit, Sanskrit (via Prakrit and Tatsama borrowings), as well as loanwords from Persian and Arabic (via Persian).
Hindustānī, also known as Hindi-Urdu, comprises several closely related dialects in the northern, central and northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent.

Hindustani vocabulary

Hindi-Urdu vocabularyvocabularyvocabulary of Hindustani
The language incorporates a large amount of vocabulary from Prakrit, Sanskrit (via Prakrit and Tatsama borrowings), as well as loanwords from Persian and Arabic (via Persian). Hindustani retained the grammar and core vocabulary of the local Hindi dialect Khariboli.
As such the standardized registers of the Hindustani language (Hindi-Urdu) share a common vocabulary, especially on the colloquial level.

Arabic

Arabic languageArabic-languageArab
The language incorporates a large amount of vocabulary from Prakrit, Sanskrit (via Prakrit and Tatsama borrowings), as well as loanwords from Persian and Arabic (via Persian).
Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Azeri, Armenian, Hindustani (Hindi and Urdu), Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Maldivian, Pashto, Punjabi, Spanish, Tagalog, Assamese, Sindhi, Odia and Hausa and some languages in parts of Africa.

Lingua franca

trade languagecommon languagelingua francas
Hindustani (𑂯𑂱𑂢𑂹𑂠𑂳𑂮𑂹𑂞𑂰𑂢𑂲, Urdu: ), also known as Hindi-Urdu and historically also known as Hindavi, Dehlavi and Rekhta, is the lingua franca of Northern India and Pakistan.
Arabic, French, Mandarin Chinese, Spanish, Portuguese, Hindustani, and Russian serve a similar purpose as industrial/educational lingua francas, across regional and national boundaries.

Middle Indo-Aryan languages

Middle Indo-AryanMiddle IndicMiddle Indo-Aryan language
Early forms of present-day Hindustani developed from the Middle Indo-Aryan apabhraṃśa vernaculars of present-day North India in the 7th–13th centuries, chiefly the Khariboli dialect of the Western Hindi category of Indo-Aryan languages.
They are the descendants of Old Indo-Aryan (attested in Vedic Sanskrit) and the predecessors of the modern Indo-Aryan languages, such as Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu), Odia, Assamese, Bengali and Punjabi.

List of languages by total number of speakers

largest language by number of speakers3rd most spoken language in the world3rd-most spoken language in the world
According to Ethnologue's 2019 estimates, if Hindi and Urdu are taken together as Hindustani, the language is the 3rd-most spoken language in the world (after English and Mandarin Chinese), with approximately 409.8 million native speakers and a total of 785.6 million speakers.

Hindustani grammar

grammarGrammar of Modern Standard HindiHindi grammar
Hindustani retained the grammar and core vocabulary of the local Hindi dialect Khariboli.
Hindustani, the lingua franca of northern India and Pakistan, has two standardised registers: Hindi and Urdu.

Delhi Sultanate

Sultanate of DelhiSultan of DelhiDelhi
Amir Khusrow, who lived in the thirteenth century during the Delhi Sultanate period in North India, used these forms (which was the lingua franca of the period) in his writings and referred to it as Hindavi ( literally "of Hindus or Indians").
The time of their rule included the earliest forms of Indo-Islamic architecture, greater use of mechanical technology, increased growth rates in India's population and economy, and the emergence of the Hindi-Urdu language.

British Raj

British IndiaIndiaBritish rule
Next to English it was the official language of British Raj, was commonly written in Arabic or Persian characters, and was spoken by approximately 100,000,000 people.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Sanskrit and Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown on the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947.

Bollywood

HindiHindi filmHindi cinema
More recently, the word 'Hindustani' has been used for the colloquial language of Bollywood films, which are popular in both India and Pakistan and which cannot be unambiguously identified as either Hindi or Urdu.
Bollywood films tend to use a colloquial dialect of Hindi-Urdu (or Hindustani), mutually intelligible by Hindi and Urdu speakers, and modern Bollywood films increasingly incorporate elements of Hinglish.

Persian language

PersianNew PersianFarsi
The language incorporates a large amount of vocabulary from Prakrit, Sanskrit (via Prakrit and Tatsama borrowings), as well as loanwords from Persian and Arabic (via Persian).
Beginning in 1843, though, English and Hindustani gradually replaced Persian in importance on the subcontinent.

Pluricentric language

pluricentricPluricentric Serbo-Croatian languagepolycentric standard language
It is a pluricentric language, with two official forms, Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu, which are its standardised registers.
The medieval Hindustani (then known as Hindavi ) was based on a register of Delhi's Khariboli dialect and has two modern standard forms, Standard Hindi and Standard Urdu.

Sanskrit

Sanskrit languageClassical SanskritSkt.
The language incorporates a large amount of vocabulary from Prakrit, Sanskrit (via Prakrit and Tatsama borrowings), as well as loanwords from Persian and Arabic (via Persian).
Sanskrit has greatly influenced the languages of India that grew from its vocabulary and grammatical base; for instance, Hindi is a "Sanskritised register" of Hindustani.

Amir Khusrow

Amir KhusroAmir KhusrauAmir Khosrow
Amir Khusrow, who lived in the thirteenth century during the Delhi Sultanate period in North India, used these forms (which was the lingua franca of the period) in his writings and referred to it as Hindavi ( literally "of Hindus or Indians").
He wrote poetry primarily in Persian, but also in Hindavi.

Standard language

standardstandardizedstandard dialect
It is a pluricentric language, with two official forms, Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu, which are its standardised registers.
Two standardised registers of the Hindustani language have legal status in India: Standard Hindi (one of 23 co-official national languages) and Urdu (Pakistan’s official tongue), resultantly, Hindustani often called “Hindi-Urdu".

John Gilchrist (linguist)

John Borthwick GilchristJohn GilchristDr Gilchrist
In 1796, John Borthwick Gilchrist published a "A Grammar of the Hindoostanee Language".
He is principally known for his study of the Hindustani language, which led to it being adopted as the lingua franca of northern India (including present-day Pakistan) by British colonists and indigenous people.

Mughal Empire

MughalMughalsMughal India
The Delhi Sultanate, which comprised several Turkic and Afghan dynasties that ruled much of the subcontinent from Delhi, was succeeded by the Mughal Empire in 1526.
Subah (Urdu: صوبہ) was the term for a province in the Mughal Empire.

Turkic languages

TurkicTurkic languageTurkic-speaking
For socio-political reasons, though essentially the variant of Khariboli with Persian vocabulary, the emerging prestige dialect became also known as Zabān-e Urdū-e Mualla "language of the court" or Zabān-e Urdū زبان اردو, "language of the camp" in Persian, influenced from Turkic Ordū "camp", cognate with English horde, or in local translation Lashkari Zabān, which is shorted to Lashkari.
Various terminologies from the Turkic languages have passed into Persian, Hindustani, Russian, Chinese, and to a lesser extent, Arabic.

Lucknow

Lucknow, IndiaLukhnowMohanlalganj
Its majors centers of development included the Mughal courts of Delhi, Lucknow, and Agra, and the Rajput courts of Amber and Jaipur.
Although Uttar Pradesh's primary official language is Hindi, the most commonly spoken language is colloquial Hindustani.

George Abraham Grierson

GriersonGeorge A. GriersonGeorge Grierson
Grierson, in his highly influential Linguistic Survey of India, proposed that the names Hindustani, Urdu, and Hindi be separated in use for different varieties of the Hindustani language, rather than as the overlapping synonyms they frequently were:
He took a deep interest in languages, won prizes for studies in Sanskrit and Hindustani before leaving for the Bengal Presidency in 1873.