A report on Hindustani language

The phrase Zabān-e Urdu-ye Mualla in Nastaʿlīq
Lashkari Zabān title in the Perso-Arabic script
Hindustani, in its standardised registers, is one of the official languages of both India (Hindi) and Pakistan (Urdu).
"Surahi" in Samrup Rachna calligraphy

Ancestors of the language were known as: Hindui, Hindavi, Zabān-e Hind, Zabān-e Hindustan , Hindustan ki boli , Rekhta, and Hindi.

- Hindustani language

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Hindi

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Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in the Hindi Belt region encompassing parts of northern, central, eastern, and western India.

Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in the Hindi Belt region encompassing parts of northern, central, eastern, and western India.

Distribution of L1 speakers of the Hindi family of languages (as defined by the Government of India; includes Rajasthani, Western Pahari, Eastern Hindi, among others) in India.

Hindi has been described as a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language, which itself is based primarily on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi and neighbouring areas of North India.

Urdu

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Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia.

Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia.

The proportion of people with Urdu as their mother tongue in each Pakistani District as of the 2017 Pakistan Census
A trilingual signboard in Arabic, English and Urdu in the UAE. The Urdu sentence is not a direct translation of the English ("Your beautiful city invites you to preserve it.") It says, "apné shahar kī Khūbsūrtīi ko barqarār rakhié, or "Please preserve the beauty of your city."
A multilingual New Delhi railway station board. The Urdu and Hindi texts both read as: naī dillī.
Urdu and Hindi on a road sign in India. The Urdu version is a direct transliteration of the English; the Hindi is a part transliteration ("parcel" and "rail") and part translation "karyalay" and "arakshan kendra"
The phrase zubān-e-Urdū-e-muʿallā ("the language of the exalted camp") written in Nastaʿlīq script
Lashkari Zabān title in Naskh script
The Urdu Nastaʿliq alphabet, with names in the Devanagari and Latin alphabets
An English-Urdu bilingual sign at the archaeological site of Sirkap, near Taxila. The Urdu says: (right to left) دو سروں والے عقاب کی شبيہ والا مندر, dō sarōñ wālé u'qāb kī shabīh wāla mandir. "The temple with the image of the eagle with two heads."

Urdu has been described as a Persianised register of the Hindustani language.

Delhi

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Ancient built environment.

Ancient built environment.

The walls of the 16th-century Purana Qila built on a mound whose topography is thought to match the literary description of the citadel Indraprastha in the Sanskrit-epic Mahabharata, though excavations in the vicinity have yielded no evidence of construction.
At 72.5 m, the Qutb Minar, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Delhi, was completed during the reign of Sultan Illtutmish in the 13th century; although its style has some similarities with the Jarkurgan minaret, it is more closely related to the Ghaznavid and Ghurid minarets of Central Asia
Red Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, was the main residence of the Mughal emperors for nearly 200 years.
Six stamps issued by the Government of British India to mark the inauguration of New Delhi in February 1931
Khan Market in New Delhi, now a high-end shopping district, was established in 1951 to help refugees of the Partition of India, especially those from the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). It honours Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan, Chief Minister of NWFP during the Partition.
Aerial view of Delhi in April 2016 with river Yamuna in top-right.
A dense toxic smog in New Delhi blocks out the sun. In November 2017, Delhi's chief minister described the city as a "gas chamber".
Urban sustainability analysis of the greater urban area of the city using the 'Circles of Sustainability method of the UN Global Compact Cities Programme.
Districts of Delhi
Municipalities of Delhi
Connaught Place in New Delhi is an important economic hub of the National Capital Region.
The Khari Baoli market in Old Delhi is one of the oldest and busiest in the city.
Indira Gandhi International Airport's new terminal in Delhi. It is the busiest airport in South Asia. Shown here is the immigration counter in Terminal 3.
The Delhi Transport Corporation operates three types of compressed natural gas buses, the world's largest fleet. The red- and green-roofed buses seen in the picture have low floors whereas the orange buses have standard height. The elevated Delhi metro is seen above in Azadpur.
The cycle rickshaw and the auto rickshaw are commonly used in Delhi for travelling short distances.
A platform of the New Delhi railway station shows a passenger train and freight which awaits pick up or transportation to other destinations. The pedestrian bridge overhead connects the platforms.
Delhi Metro is widely used Delhi- NCR.
Traditional pottery on display in Dilli Haat
The Pragati Maidan in Delhi hosts the World Book Fair biennially
More than a quarter of the immigrants in Delhi are from Bihar and neighboring states. Chhath, a festival of rural Bihar is now popular in Delhi.
On Basant Panchmi eve, qawwali singers wearing yellow headbands gather at the dargah of Sufi saint Nizamuddin Auliya to sing verses from Amir Khusrau.
The kitchen of Karim's, Old Delhi, a historic restaurant located near Jama Masjid. 
 Established in 1913, the restaurant has been described as "arguably the city's most famous culinary destination".
Pitampura TV Tower broadcasts programming to Delhi
Indian athletes marching into the National Stadium during the opening ceremony of the 1951 Asian Games.
The 2010 Commonwealth Games opening ceremony in Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium.
Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium.
alt=The Birla temple in Delhi with its towers.|Birla Mandir, Delhi, a Hindu temple, was inaugurated by Mahatma Gandhi in 1933
The Jama Masjid was built by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan between 1650 and 1656
The prayer hall of Sikh Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Chandni Chowk, Old Delhi which dates to 1783
Municipalities of Delhi

Some historians believe that Dhilli or Dhillika is the original name for the city while others believe the name could be a corruption of the Hindustani words dehleez or dehali—both terms meaning "threshold" or "gateway"—and symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain.

Classification tree of the Indo-Aryan languages

Indo-Aryan languages

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The Indo-Aryan languages (or sometimes Indic languages ) are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family that are spoken natively by the Indo-Aryan peoples.

The Indo-Aryan languages (or sometimes Indic languages ) are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family that are spoken natively by the Indo-Aryan peoples.

Classification tree of the Indo-Aryan languages

The largest such languages in terms of first-speakers are Hindi–Urdu (c.

Kauravi dialect

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Any of several Central Indo-Aryan dialects spoken in and around Delhi.

Any of several Central Indo-Aryan dialects spoken in and around Delhi.

Kauravi contains some features, such as gemination, which give it a distinctive sound and differentiates it from standard Hindustani, Braj and Awadhi.

Western Hindi languages. Clockwise from the top: Hindustani, Kannauji, Bundeli, Braj, Haryanvi. The Eastern Hindi languages are not shown individually. They are Awadhi in the north, east of Hindustani and Kannauji; Bagheli in the center, to the east of Bundeli, and Chhattisgarhi to the southeast of Bundeli.

Central Indo-Aryan languages

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The Central Indo-Aryan languages or Hindi languages are a group of related language varieties Spoken across North India and Central India.

The Central Indo-Aryan languages or Hindi languages are a group of related language varieties Spoken across North India and Central India.

Western Hindi languages. Clockwise from the top: Hindustani, Kannauji, Bundeli, Braj, Haryanvi. The Eastern Hindi languages are not shown individually. They are Awadhi in the north, east of Hindustani and Kannauji; Bagheli in the center, to the east of Bundeli, and Chhattisgarhi to the southeast of Bundeli.

Located in the Hindi Belt, the Central Zone includes the Dehlavi (Delhi) dialect (one of several called 'Khariboli') of the Hindustani language, The lingua franca of Northern India that is the basis of the Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu literary standards.

Arabic

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Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.

Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.

Safaitic inscription
The Namara inscription, a sample of Nabataean script, considered a direct precursor of Arabic script.
Arabic from the Quran in the old Hijazi dialect (Hijazi script, 7th century AD)
The Qur'an has served and continues to serve as a fundamental reference for Arabic. (Maghrebi Kufic script, Blue Qur'an, 9th-10th century)
Coverage in Al-Ahram in 1934 of the inauguration of the Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo, an organization of major importance to the modernization of Arabic.
Taha Hussein and Gamal Abdel Nasser were both staunch defenders of Standard Arabic.
Flag of the Arab League, used in some cases for the Arabic language
Flag used in some cases for the Arabic language (Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz 1916–1925).The flag contains the four Pan-Arab colors: black, white, green and red.
Different dialects of Arabic
Arabic calligraphy written by a Malay Muslim in Malaysia. The calligrapher is making a rough draft.

Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Hindustani (Hindi and Urdu), Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Maldivian, Pashto, Punjabi, Albanian, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Sicilian, Spanish, Greek, Bulgarian, Tagalog, Sindhi, Odia Hebrew and Hausa and some languages in parts of Africa (e.g. Swahili, Somali).

The Mughal emperor Jahangir celebrating Holi with ladies of the zenana.

Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb

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The Mughal emperor Jahangir celebrating Holi with ladies of the zenana.
"Surahi" written in Samrup Rachna calligraphy used to write the Hindustani language, the lingua franca of the northern Indian subcontinent.

Ganga–Jamuni Tehzeeb (Hindustani for Ganges–Yamuna Culture), also spelled as Ganga-Jamni Tehzeeb or just Hindustani Tehzeeb, is the high culture that arose in the central plains of northern India, the Hindustan region of the plains, a syncretic fusion of Hindu Ganga-Jamuni society with the Islamic Persian culture.

Hindi cinema

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Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai .

Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai .

Dadasaheb Phalke is considered the father of Indian cinema, including Hindi cinema.
Nargis, Raj Kapoor and Dilip Kumar in Andaz (1949). Kapoor and Kumar are among the greatest and most influential movie stars in the history of Indian cinema, and Nargis is one of its greatest actresses.
Rajesh Khanna in 2010. The first Indian actor to be called a "superstar", he starred in 15 consecutive hit films from 1969 to 1971.
Amitabh Bachchan in 2014.
Salman Khan, one of the Three Khans, with Bollywood actresses (from left) Kareena Kapoor, Rani Mukerji, Preity Zinta, Katrina Kaif, Karisma Kapoor and Priyanka Chopra in Mumbai (2010).
Akshay Kumar in 2013.
Ajay Devgn and Rohit Shetty on the sets of Jhalak Dikhhlaa Jaa 5.
Melodrama and romance are common ingredients in Bollywood films, such as Achhut Kanya (1936).
Group of Bollywood singers at the 2015 Indian Singers' Rights Association (ISRA) meeting
Bollywood dance performance by students in college.
Bollywood dancing show in London
Michelle Obama joining students for a Bollywood dance clinic with Nakul Dev Mahajan in the White House State Dining Room, 2013

Earlier Hindi films tended to use vernacular Hindustani, mutually intelligible by speakers of either Hindi or Urdu, while modern Hindi productions increasingly incorporate elements of Hinglish.

Delhi Sultanate

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Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of South Asia for 320 years .

Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of South Asia for 320 years .

Map of the Delhi Sultanate at its zenith under the Turko–Indian Tughlaq dynasty.
Delhi Sultanate from 1206 to 1290 AD under the Mamluk dynasty.
Alai Gate and Qutub Minar were built during the Mamluk and Khalji dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate.
Delhi Sultanate from 1321 to 1330 AD under the Tughlaq dynasty. After 1330, various regions rebelled against the Sultanate and the kingdom shrank.
Daulatabad Fort in the 1700s
A base metal coin of Muhammad bin Tughlaq that led to an economic collapse.
The Mahmud Gawan Madrasah built by the resultant Bahmanid kingdom
Delhi Sultanate during Babur's invasion.
The Qutb Minar (left, begun c. 1200) next to the Alai Darwaza gatehouse (1311); Qutb Complex in Delhi
Tomb of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq (d. 1325), Delhi
Screen of the Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra mosque, Ajmer, {{circa|1229}}; Corbel arches, some cusped.
Mausoleum of Iltutmish, Delhi, by 1236, with corbel arches
Possibly the first "true" arches in India; Tomb of Balban (d. 1287) in Delhi
Pavilions in the Hauz Khas Complex, Delhi
The Sheesh Gumbad in the Lodi Gardens, Delhi
Tomb of Sikander Lodi in the Lodi Gardens, Delhi
The Somnath Temple in Gujarat was repeatedly destroyed by Muslim armies and rebuilt by Hindus. It was destroyed by Delhi Sultanate's army in 1299 CE.<ref name=eaton200080>Eaton (2000), Temple desecration in pre-modern India Frontline, p. 73, item 16 of the Table, Archived by Columbia University</ref>
The Kashi Vishwanath Temple was destroyed by the army of Qutb-ud-din Aibak.<ref name="SPUday2005">{{cite book |author=S. P. Udayakumar |title=Presenting the Past: Anxious History and Ancient Future in Hindutva India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=XjkEERJrRdwC&pg=PA99 |date=1 January 2005 |publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group |isbn=978-0-275-97209-7 |pages=99 }}</ref>
Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, the military general of Delhi Sultan Qutb al-Din Aibak, was responsible for the destruction of Nalanda university.<ref>History of Ancient India: Earliest Times to 1000 A. D.; Radhey Shyam Chaurasia, Atlantic, 2009 [p191]</ref>
The armies of Delhi Sultanate led by Muslim Commander Malik Kafur plundered the Meenakshi Temple and looted it of its valuables.<ref name="Ernst2004p109">{{cite book|author=Carl W. Ernst| title=Eternal Garden: Mysticism, History, and Politics at a South Asian Sufi Center| url=https://books.google.com/books?id=9bNAAQAAIAAJ|year=2004|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-566869-8|page=109}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author=Sarojini Chaturvedi|title=A short history of South India|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=qXcwAQAAIAAJ| year=2006|publisher= Saṁskṛiti|isbn=978-81-87374-37-4|page=209}}</ref><ref name="Eraly2015chid">{{cite book|author=Abraham Eraly|title=The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=vyEoAwAAQBAJ&pg=PT155| year=2015|publisher= Penguin Books|isbn=978-93-5118-658-8|pages=155–156}}</ref>
Kakatiya Kala Thoranam (Warangal Gate) built by the Kakatiya dynasty in ruins; one of the many temple complexes destroyed by the Delhi Sultanate.
Rani ki vav is a stepwell, built by the Chaulukya dynasty, located in Patan; the city was sacked by Sultan of Delhi Qutb-ud-din Aybak between 1200 and 1210, and again by the Allauddin Khilji in 1298.{{sfn|Lal|1950|p=84}}
Artistic rendition of the Kirtistambh at Rudra Mahalaya Temple. The temple was destroyed by Alauddin Khalji.<ref name="Burgess1874">{{cite book|last1=Burgess|last2=Murray|title=Photographs of Architecture and Scenery in Gujarat and Rajputana|chapter-url=https://archive.org/stream/photographsofarc00murr#page/n17/mode/2up|access-date=23 July 2016|year=1874|publisher=Bourne and Shepherd|page=19|chapter=The Rudra Mala at Siddhpur}}</ref>
Exterior wall reliefs at Hoysaleswara Temple. The temple was twice sacked and plundered by the Delhi Sultanate.<ref name="Bradnock2000p959">{{cite book|author1=Robert Bradnock|author2=Roma Bradnock|title=India Handbook|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=2hCFDsTbmhoC|year=2000|publisher=McGraw-Hill |isbn=978-0-658-01151-1|page=959}}</ref>

The establishment of the Sultanate drew the Indian subcontinent more closely into international and multicultural Islamic social and economic networks.(as seen concretely in the development of the Hindustani language and Indo-Islamic architecture), being one of the few powers to repel attacks of the Mongols (from the Chagatai Khanate) and for enthroning one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana, who reigned from 1236 to 1240.