Hip

hip jointhipship-jointhippedhip jointscoxaeacetabular angleacetabulofemoralacetabulofemoral jointbroke his hip
In vertebrate anatomy, hip (or "coxa" in medical terminology) refers to either an anatomical region or a joint.wikipedia
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Femur

femorathigh bonefemoral
The hip region is located lateral and anterior to the gluteal region (i.e., the buttock), inferior to the iliac crest, and overlying the greater trochanter of the femur, or "thigh bone".
The head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum in the pelvic bone forming the hip joint, while the distal part of the femur articulates with the tibia and kneecap forming the knee joint.

Buttocks

buttockassarse
The hip region is located lateral and anterior to the gluteal region (i.e., the buttock), inferior to the iliac crest, and overlying the greater trochanter of the femur, or "thigh bone".
In the case of humans, females tend to have proportionally wider and thicker buttocks due to higher subcutaneous fat and proportionally wider hips.

Pelvis

pelvicpelvic girdlehip
coxae''), is the joint between the femur and acetabulum of the pelvis and its primary function is to support the weight of the body in both static (e.g. standing) and dynamic (e.g. walking or running) postures.
They are attached to the sacrum posteriorly, connected to each other anteriorly, and joined with the two femurs at the hip joints.

Hip pain

hippain around the hipPain of the hip
Pain of the hip may be the result of numerous causes, including nervous, osteoarthritic, infectious, trauma-related, and genetic.
Pain in the hip is the experience of pain in the muscles or joints in the hip/ pelvic region, a condition commonly arising from any of a number of factors.

Acetabulum

acetabularacetabulahip socket
coxae''), is the joint between the femur and acetabulum of the pelvis and its primary function is to support the weight of the body in both static (e.g. standing) and dynamic (e.g. walking or running) postures. In adults, three of the bones of the pelvis have fused into the hip bone or acetabulum which forms part of the hip region. The hip joint is a synovial joint formed by the articulation of the rounded head of the femur and the cup-like acetabulum of the pelvis.
The head of the femur meets with the pelvis at the acetabulum, forming the hip joint.

Hip bone

pelvic bonepelvic bonesinnominate
In adults, three of the bones of the pelvis have fused into the hip bone or acetabulum which forms part of the hip region.
Each hip bone is connected to the corresponding femur (thigh bone) (forming the primary connection between the bones of the lower limb and the axial skeleton) through the large ball and socket joint of the hip.

Osteoporosis

bone lossosteoporoticpostmenopausal osteoporosis
The head of the femur is attached to the shaft by a thin neck region that is often prone to fracture in the elderly, which is mainly due to the degenerative effects of osteoporosis.
Bones that commonly break include the vertebrae in the spine, the bones of the forearm, and the hip.

Ischium

ischiainferior ramus of the ischiumischial
The cuplike acetabulum forms at the union of three pelvic bones — the ilium, pubis, and ischium. The extracapsular ligaments are the iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and pubofemoral ligaments attached to the bones of the pelvis (the ilium, ischium, and pubis respectively).
Situated below the ilium and behind the pubis, it is one of these three bones whose fusion creates the hip.

Ball and socket joint

ball and socketball-and-socket jointball and socket joints
It is a special type of spheroidal or ball and socket joint where the roughly spherical femoral head is largely contained within the acetabulum and has an average radius of curvature of 2.5 cm. The acetabulum grasps almost half the femoral ball, a grip augmented by a ring-shaped fibrocartilaginous lip, the acetabular labrum, which extends the joint beyond the equator.
Examples of this form of articulation are found in the hip, where the round head of the femur (ball) rests in the cup-like acetabulum (socket) of the pelvis, and in the glenohumeral joint of the shoulder, where the rounded head of the humerus (ball) rests in the cup-like glenoid fossa (socket) of the shoulder blade.

Joint

jointsarticulationarticulated
coxae''), is the joint between the femur and acetabulum of the pelvis and its primary function is to support the weight of the body in both static (e.g. standing) and dynamic (e.g. walking or running) postures.
1) Simple joint: two articulation surfaces (e.g. shoulder joint, hip joint)

Cartilage

cartilaginouscartilagesArticular cartilage
Both joint surfaces are covered with a strong but lubricated layer called articular hyaline cartilage.
The mechanical properties of articular cartilage in load bearing joints such as knee and hip have been studied extensively at macro, micro and nano-scales.

Iliofemoral ligament

iliofemoralhip tendonY-ligament
The extracapsular ligaments are the iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and pubofemoral ligaments attached to the bones of the pelvis (the ilium, ischium, and pubis respectively). Lateral or external rotation (30° with the hip extended, 50° with the hip flexed): gluteus maximus; quadratus femoris; obturator internus; dorsal fibers of gluteus medius and minimus; iliopsoas (including psoas major from the vertebral column); obturator externus; adductor magnus, longus, brevis, and minimus; piriformis; and sartorius. The iliofemoral ligament inhibits lateral rotation and extension, this is why the hip can rotate laterally to a greater degree when it is flexed.
The iliofemoral ligament is a ligament of the hip joint which extends from the ilium to the femur in front of the joint.

Ischiofemoral ligament

ischiofemoralischiocapsular ligament
The extracapsular ligaments are the iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and pubofemoral ligaments attached to the bones of the pelvis (the ilium, ischium, and pubis respectively).
The ischiocapsular ligament (ischiofemoral ligament, ischiocapsular band; ligament of Bertin) consists of a triangular band of strong fibers on the posterior side of the hip joint.

Ligament of head of femur

ligamentum teresligamentum teres femorisround ligament
The intracapsular ligament, the ligamentum teres, is attached to a depression in the acetabulum (the acetabular notch) and a depression on the femoral head (the fovea of the head).
In human anatomy, the ligament of the head of the femur (round ligament of the femur, ligamentum teres femoris, or the foveal ligament) is a ligament located in the hip.

Pubofemoral ligament

pubocapsularpubofemoral
The extracapsular ligaments are the iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and pubofemoral ligaments attached to the bones of the pelvis (the ilium, ischium, and pubis respectively).
The pubofemoral ligament (pubocapsular ligament) is a ligament on the inferior side of the hip joint.

Femur neck

femoral neckneckneck of the femur
The zona orbicularis, which lies like a collar around the most narrow part of the femoral neck, is covered by the other ligaments which partly radiate into it. The zona orbicularis acts like a buttonhole on the femoral head and assists in maintaining the contact in the joint.
Along the upper part of the line of junction of the anterior surface with the head is a shallow groove, best marked in elderly subjects; this groove lodges the orbicular fibers of the capsule of the hip-joint.

Iliotibial tract

iliotibial bandIT-band
On the lateral side of the hip joint the fascia lata is strengthened to form the iliotibial tract which functions as a tension band and reduces the bending loads on the proximal part of the femur.
The part of the iliotibial band which lies beneath the tensor fasciae latae is prolonged upward to join the lateral part of the capsule of the hip-joint.

Avascular necrosis

osteonecrosisaseptic bone necrosisavascular necrosis of the hip
There is also a small contribution from the foveal artery, a small vessel in the ligament of the head of the femur which is a branch of the posterior division of the obturator artery, which becomes important to avoid avascular necrosis of the head of the femur when the blood supply from the medial and lateral circumflex arteries are disrupted (e.g. through fracture of the neck of the femur along their course).
Avascular necrosis primarily affects the joints at the shoulder, knee, and hip.

Gluteus maximus

gluteus maximus muscleglutesglute
Lateral or external rotation (30° with the hip extended, 50° with the hip flexed): gluteus maximus; quadratus femoris; obturator internus; dorsal fibers of gluteus medius and minimus; iliopsoas (including psoas major from the vertebral column); obturator externus; adductor magnus, longus, brevis, and minimus; piriformis; and sartorius. The iliofemoral ligament inhibits lateral rotation and extension, this is why the hip can rotate laterally to a greater degree when it is flexed.
It is the largest and most superficial of the three gluteal muscles and makes up a large portion of the shape and appearance of each side of the hips.

Quadratus femoris muscle

quadratus femoris
Lateral or external rotation (30° with the hip extended, 50° with the hip flexed): gluteus maximus; quadratus femoris; obturator internus; dorsal fibers of gluteus medius and minimus; iliopsoas (including psoas major from the vertebral column); obturator externus; adductor magnus, longus, brevis, and minimus; piriformis; and sartorius. The iliofemoral ligament inhibits lateral rotation and extension, this is why the hip can rotate laterally to a greater degree when it is flexed.
Located on the posterior side of the hip joint, it is a strong external rotator and adductor of the thigh, but also acts to stabilize the femoral head in the acetabulum.

Femoral artery

femoralsuperficial femoral arteryfemoral arteries
The hip joint is supplied with blood from the medial circumflex femoral and lateral circumflex femoral arteries, which are both usually branches of the deep artery of the thigh (profunda femoris), but there are numerous variations and one or both may also arise directly from the femoral artery.
Posteriorly: The artery lies on the psoas, which separates it from the hip joint, the pectineus, and the adductor longus. The femoral vein intervenes between the artery and the adductor longus.

Synovial joint

synovialsynovial jointsjoint space
The hip joint is a synovial joint formed by the articulation of the rounded head of the femur and the cup-like acetabulum of the pelvis.
The normal joint space is at least 2 mm in the hip (at the superior acetabulum), at least 3 mm in the knee, and 4–5 mm in the shoulder joint.

Lateral circumflex femoral artery

lateral femoral circumflex arterylateral femoral circumflexlateral circumflex femoral
The hip joint is supplied with blood from the medial circumflex femoral and lateral circumflex femoral arteries, which are both usually branches of the deep artery of the thigh (profunda femoris), but there are numerous variations and one or both may also arise directly from the femoral artery.
1) The ascending branch of lateral circumflex femoral artery passes upward, beneath the tensor fasciae latae muscle, to the lateral aspect of the hip, and anastomoses with the terminal branches of the superior gluteal and deep circumflex iliac artery.

Fascia lata

deep fascia
On the lateral side of the hip joint the fascia lata is strengthened to form the iliotibial tract which functions as a tension band and reduces the bending loads on the proximal part of the femur.
The part of the iliotibial band which lies beneath the tensor fasciae latae is prolonged upward to join the lateral part of the capsule of the hip joint.

Internal obturator muscle

obturator internusobturator internus muscleinternal obturator
Lateral or external rotation (30° with the hip extended, 50° with the hip flexed): gluteus maximus; quadratus femoris; obturator internus; dorsal fibers of gluteus medius and minimus; iliopsoas (including psoas major from the vertebral column); obturator externus; adductor magnus, longus, brevis, and minimus; piriformis; and sartorius. The iliofemoral ligament inhibits lateral rotation and extension, this is why the hip can rotate laterally to a greater degree when it is flexed. Additionally, the inferior and superior gemelli may be termed triceps coxae together with the obturator internus, and their function simply is to assist the latter muscle.
The internal obturator is situated partly within the lesser pelvis, and partly at the back of the hip-joint.