Hippopotamus

hippohipposhippopotamihippopotamusesHippopotamus amphibiusCommon hippopotamusH. amphibiusNile hippohippopatamushippotamus
The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), or hippo, is a large, mostly herbivorous, semiaquatic mammal and ungulate native to sub-Saharan Africa.wikipedia
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Ungulate

ungulatesunguligradeEuungulata
The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), or hippo, is a large, mostly herbivorous, semiaquatic mammal and ungulate native to sub-Saharan Africa. Despite their physical resemblance to pigs and other terrestrial even-toed ungulates, the closest living relatives of the Hippopotamidae are cetaceans (whales, dolphins, porpoises, etc.) from which they diverged about 55 million years ago.
These include odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotamuses, as well as sub-ungulates such as elephants.

List of largest mammals

largestList of largest carnivoranslargest carnivorous marsupial
After the elephant and rhinoceros, the common hippopotamus is the third-largest type of land mammal and the heaviest extant artiodactyl.

Hippopotamidae

hipposhippopotamidhippopotamus
It is one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis or Hexaprotodon liberiensis).
There are two living species of hippopotamus in two genera; the pygmy hippo, Choeropsis liberiensis of the forests of west Africa, and the common hippo, Hippopotamus amphibius.

Whale

whalesflukeflukes
Despite their physical resemblance to pigs and other terrestrial even-toed ungulates, the closest living relatives of the Hippopotamidae are cetaceans (whales, dolphins, porpoises, etc.) from which they diverged about 55 million years ago.
Their closest living relatives are the hippopotamuses, having diverged about 40 million years ago.

Porpoise

PhocoenidaeporpoisesPhocoenidae indet.
Despite their physical resemblance to pigs and other terrestrial even-toed ungulates, the closest living relatives of the Hippopotamidae are cetaceans (whales, dolphins, porpoises, etc.) from which they diverged about 55 million years ago.
Porpoises, and other cetaceans, belong to the clade Cetartiodactyla with even-toed ungulates, and their closest living relatives are the hippopotamuses, having diverged from them about 40 million years ago.

Even-toed ungulate

artiodactyleven-toed ungulatesCetartiodactyla
After the elephant and rhinoceros, the common hippopotamus is the third-largest type of land mammal and the heaviest extant artiodactyl.
The roughly 220 land-based even-toed ungulate species include pigs, peccaries, hippopotamuses, camels, llamas, alpacas, mouse deer, deer, giraffes, antelopes, sheep, goats, and cattle.

Ivory

elephant ivorymammoth ivoryivories
They are threatened by habitat loss and poaching for their meat and ivory canine teeth.
Elephant ivory is the most important source, but ivory from mammoth, walrus, hippopotamus, sperm whale, killer whale, narwhal and warthog are used as well.

Cetacea

cetaceancetaceanswhales
Despite their physical resemblance to pigs and other terrestrial even-toed ungulates, the closest living relatives of the Hippopotamidae are cetaceans (whales, dolphins, porpoises, etc.) from which they diverged about 55 million years ago. One branch would evolve into cetaceans, possibly beginning about, with the protowhale Pakicetus and other early whale ancestors collectively known as Archaeoceti, which eventually underwent aquatic adaptation into the completely aquatic cetaceans.
They diverged from even-toed ungulates; their closest living relatives are hippopotamuses and others such as cows and pigs.

Cattle

cowcowsBos taurus
Other artiodactyls include camels, cattle, deer and pigs, although hippos are not closely related to these groups.

Evolution of cetaceans

evolve into cetaceansevolution of the whalesevolution of whales
One branch would evolve into cetaceans, possibly beginning about, with the protowhale Pakicetus and other early whale ancestors collectively known as Archaeoceti, which eventually underwent aquatic adaptation into the completely aquatic cetaceans.
Cetaceans are thought to have evolved during the Eocene or earlier, sharing a closest common ancestor with hippopotamuses.

Anthracotheriidae

anthracothereanthracotheresanthracotheriid
Further, some taxonomists group hippos and anthracotheres in the superfamily Anthracotheroidea.
Anthracotheriidae is a family of extinct, hippopotamus-like artiodactyl ungulates related to hippopotamuses and whales.

Dolphin

dolphinsgenital slitaquatic mammal
Despite their physical resemblance to pigs and other terrestrial even-toed ungulates, the closest living relatives of the Hippopotamidae are cetaceans (whales, dolphins, porpoises, etc.) from which they diverged about 55 million years ago.
Today, the closest living relatives of cetaceans are the hippopotamuses; these share a semi-aquatic ancestor that branched off from other artiodactyls some 60 million years ago.

Rhinoceros

rhinoRhinocerotidaerhinos
After the elephant and rhinoceros, the common hippopotamus is the third-largest type of land mammal and the heaviest extant artiodactyl.
The amynodontids were hippopotamus-like in their ecology and appearance, inhabiting rivers and lakes, and sharing many of the same adaptations to aquatic life as hippos.

Malagasy hippopotamus

Hippopotamus lemerleiHippopotamus madagascariensisHexaprotodon madagascariensis
Three species of Malagasy hippopotamus became extinct during the Holocene on Madagascar, one of them within the past 1,000 years.
The animals were very similar to the extant hippopotamus and pygmy hippopotamus.

Pygmy hippopotamus

pygmy hippoChoeropsispygmy hippos
It is one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis or Hexaprotodon liberiensis).
It is one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being its much larger relative, the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) or Nile hippopotamus.

Cyprus dwarf hippopotamus

Hippopotamus minorpygmy hipposdwarf hippos
The Pleistocene also saw a number of dwarf species evolve on several Mediterranean islands, including Crete (Hippopotamus creutzburgi), Cyprus (the Cyprus dwarf hippopotamus, Hippopotamus minor), Malta (Hippopotamus melitensis), and Sicily (Hippopotamus pentlandi).
The Cyprus dwarf hippopotamus or Cypriot pygmy hippopotamus (Hippopotamus minor) is an extinct species of hippopotamus that inhabited the island of Cyprus until the early Holocene.

Chad

Republic of ChadTchadChadian
Elephants, lions, buffalo, hippopotamuses, rhinoceroses, giraffes, antelopes, leopards, cheetahs, hyenas, and many species of snakes are found here, although most large carnivore populations have been drastically reduced since the early 20th century.

Ruminantia

ruminantruminants
The common ancestor of hippos and whales branched off from Ruminantia and the rest of the even-toed ungulates; the cetacean and hippo lineages split soon afterwards.
Tylopoda (such as camels, which chew a cud) and Hippopotamidae (such as hippopotami, which do not chew a cud) are classified as pseudoruminants.

Megafauna

megaherbivoremegaherbivoresmegafaunal extinction
Amongst the extant African megafauna, behind the two African elephant species, they average smaller than the white rhinoceros but are larger by body mass than the black rhinoceros and the giraffe.
It is also commonly used for the largest extant wild land animals, especially elephants, giraffes, hippopotami, rhinoceroses, and large bovines.

South Africa

South AfricanRepublic of South AfricaRSA
Hippos are still found in the rivers and lakes of the northern Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya, north through to Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan, west to The Gambia, and south to South Africa.
Numerous mammals are found in the Bushveld including lions, African leopards, South African cheetahs, southern white rhinos, blue wildebeest, kudus, impalas, hyenas, hippopotamuses and South African giraffes.

Pakicetus

Pakicetus attockiPakicetus inachus
One branch would evolve into cetaceans, possibly beginning about, with the protowhale Pakicetus and other early whale ancestors collectively known as Archaeoceti, which eventually underwent aquatic adaptation into the completely aquatic cetaceans.
Reconstructions of pakicetids that followed the discovery of composite skeletons often depicted them with fur; however, given their relatively close relationships with hippos, they may have had sparse body hair.

Hippopotamus gorgops

H. gorgopsHippopotamus sirensisHippopotamus
Three species of hippopotamus, the European hippopotamus (Hippopotamus antiquus), Hippopotamus major and Hippopotamus gorgops, ranged throughout continental Europe and the British Isles.
Hippopotamus gorgops is an extinct species of hippopotamus.

Hippopotamus major

Three species of hippopotamus, the European hippopotamus (Hippopotamus antiquus), Hippopotamus major and Hippopotamus gorgops, ranged throughout continental Europe and the British Isles.
Hippopotamus major or the giant European hippo is an extinct species of hippopotamus found in Pleistocene fossil sites in Europe and Great Britain.

Anthracotherium

A rough evolutionary lineage can be traced from Eocene and Oligocene species: Anthracotherium and Elomeryx to the Miocene species Merycopotamus and Libycosaurus and the very latest anthracotheres in the Pliocene.
In many respects, especially the anatomy of the lower jaw, Anthracotherium, as with the other members of the family, is allied to the hippopotamus, of which it is probably an ancestral form.

African Great Lakes

Great LakesGreat Lakes regionGreat Lakes region of Africa
Mammals include elephants, gorillas and hippopotamus.