Hispania

SpainRomanRomansHispano-RomanSpanishHispanicRoman SpainRoman timesSpanish provincesIberia
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces.wikipedia
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Hispania Ulterior

Further SpainSpainFarther Spain
Under the Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior.
Hispania Ulterior (English: "Further Iberia", or occasionally "Thither Iberia" ) was a region of Hispania during the Roman Republic, roughly located in Baetica and in the Guadalquivir valley of modern Spain and extending to all of Lusitania (modern Portugal, Extremadura and a small part of Salamanca province) and Gallaecia (modern Northern Portugal and Galicia).

Hispania Citerior

HispaniaHither SpainNearer Spain
Under the Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior.
Hispania Citerior (English: "Hither Iberia", or "Nearer Iberia") was a Roman Province in Hispania during the Roman Republic.

Gallaecia

GaliciaCalaicians or GallaeciGallaecian
Subsequently, the western part of Tarraconensis was split off, first as Hispania Nova, later renamed Callaecia (or Gallaecia, whence modern Galicia).
Gallaecia or Callaecia, also known as Hispania Gallaecia, was the name of a Roman province in the north-west of Hispania, approximately present-day Galicia, northern Portugal, Asturias and Leon and the later Suebic Kingdom of Gallaecia.

Spain

đŸ‡Ș🇾SpanishESP
The modern placenames Spain and Hispaniola are both derived from Hispania.
Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Sp(a)n or Spania.

Ancient Rome

RomanRomansRome
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces.
Hannibal, son of Hamilcar Barca, rapidly marched through Hispania to the Italian Alps, causing panic among Rome's Italian allies.

Hispaniola

Santo DomingoIsland of HispaniolaSan Domingo
The modern placenames Spain and Hispaniola are both derived from Hispania.
When Columbus took possession of the island in 1492, he named it Insula Hispana in Latin and La Isla Española in Spanish, with both meaning "the Spanish island".

Seville

SevillaSeville, SpainSevillian
Another theory, proposed by the etymologist Eric Partridge in his work Origins, is that it is of Iberian derivation and that it is to be found in the pre-Roman name for Seville, Hispalis, which strongly hints at an ancient name for the country of *Hispa, an Iberian or Celtic root whose meaning is now lost.
The city was known from Roman times as Hispal and later as Hispalis.

Isidore of Seville

IsidoreSt. IsidoreSaint Isidore
Isidore of Sevilla considered Hispania derived from Hispalis. The Latin term Hispania, often used during Antiquity and the Low Middle Ages as a geographical name, starts to be used also with political connotations, as shown in the expression "Laus Hispaniae" ("Praise to Hispania") to describe the history of the peoples of the Iberian Peninsula of Isidore of Seville's :
He was influential in the inner circle of Sisebut, Visigothic king of Hispania.

Hispania Carthaginensis

CarthaginensisCarthaginensis provinceCarthaginiensis
From Diocletian's Tetrarchy (AD 284) onwards, the south of remaining Tarraconensis was again split off as Carthaginensis, and probably then too the Balearic Islands and all the resulting provinces formed one civil diocese under the vicarius for the Hispaniae (that is, the Celtic provinces).
Hispania Carthaginensis was a Roman province segregated from Hispania Tarraconensis in the new division of Hispania by emperor Diocletian in 298.

Visigothic Kingdom

VisigothsVisigothicKing
The name, Hispania, was also used in the period of Visigothic rule. In James Ist Chronicle Llibre dels fets, written between 1208 and 1276, there are many instances of this: when it talks about the different Kings, "los V regnes de Espanya" ("The 5 Kingdoms of Spain"); when it talks about a military fort built by the Christians saying that it is "de los meylors de Espanya" ("from the best of Spain"); when it declared that Catalonia, one of the integral parts of the Crown of Aragon, is "lo meylor Regne Despanya, el pus honrat, el pus noble" ("the best kingdom of Spain, the most honest, the most noble"); when it talks about the conflict that has existed for long "entre los sarrains e los chrestians, en Espanya" ("between Saracens and Christians, in Spain") Since the borders of modern Spain do not coincide with those of the Roman province of Hispania or of the Visigothic Kingdom, it is important to understand the context of medieval Spain versus modern Spain.
Theoderic took control over Hispania Baetica, Carthaginiensis and southern Lusitania.

Roman Republic

RomanRepublicRomans
Under the Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior.
Meanwhile, Carthage compensated the loss of Sicily and Sardinia with the conquest of Southern Hispania (up to Salamanca), and its rich silver mines.

Basque language

BasqueEuskeraBasque-language
Another theory holds that the name derives from Ezpanna, the Basque word for "border" or "edge", thus meaning the farthest area or place.
Some authors even argue for late Basquisation, that the language moved westward during Late Antiquity after the fall of the Western Roman Empire into the northern part of Hispania into what is now Basque Country.

Hispan

During Antiquity and Middle Ages, the literary texts derive the term Hispania from an eponymous hero named Hispan, who is mentioned for the first time in the work of the Roman historian Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus, in the 1st century BC.
Hispan, Espan, Hispalo or Hispano, is a mythological character of Antiquity, who would derive the name Hispania, according to some ancient writers.

Portuguese language

PortuguesePortuguese-languageBrazilian Portuguese
This sentiment was also shared by the Portuguese people, as shown by who is considered Portugal's and Portuguese language's greatest poet, Luís de CamÔes, when in 1572 he defined the Portuguese people as "Uma gente fortíssima de Espanha" ("A very strong people of Spain").
For some time, it was the language of preference for lyric poetry in Christian Hispania, much as Occitan was the language of the poetry of the troubadours in France.

Principality of Catalonia

CataloniaCatalanPrincipality
In James Ist Chronicle Llibre dels fets, written between 1208 and 1276, there are many instances of this: when it talks about the different Kings, "los V regnes de Espanya" ("The 5 Kingdoms of Spain"); when it talks about a military fort built by the Christians saying that it is "de los meylors de Espanya" ("from the best of Spain"); when it declared that Catalonia, one of the integral parts of the Crown of Aragon, is "lo meylor Regne Despanya, el pus honrat, el pus noble" ("the best kingdom of Spain, the most honest, the most noble"); when it talks about the conflict that has existed for long "entre los sarrains e los chrestians, en Espanya" ("between Saracens and Christians, in Spain") Since the borders of modern Spain do not coincide with those of the Roman province of Hispania or of the Visigothic Kingdom, it is important to understand the context of medieval Spain versus modern Spain.
After the Carthaginian defeat, it became, along with the rest of Hispania, a part of the Roman Empire, Tarraco being one of the main Roman posts in the Iberian Peninsula and the capital of the province of Tarraconensis.

Iberian Peninsula

IberiaIberianPeninsula
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces.
The Roman geographers and other prose writers from the time of the late Roman Republic called the entire peninsula Hispania.

Roman province

provinceprovincesprovincial
Under the Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. In James Ist Chronicle Llibre dels fets, written between 1208 and 1276, there are many instances of this: when it talks about the different Kings, "los V regnes de Espanya" ("The 5 Kingdoms of Spain"); when it talks about a military fort built by the Christians saying that it is "de los meylors de Espanya" ("from the best of Spain"); when it declared that Catalonia, one of the integral parts of the Crown of Aragon, is "lo meylor Regne Despanya, el pus honrat, el pus noble" ("the best kingdom of Spain, the most honest, the most noble"); when it talks about the conflict that has existed for long "entre los sarrains e los chrestians, en Espanya" ("between Saracens and Christians, in Spain") Since the borders of modern Spain do not coincide with those of the Roman province of Hispania or of the Visigothic Kingdom, it is important to understand the context of medieval Spain versus modern Spain.
Octavian himself assumed the title "Augustus" and was given to govern, in addition to Egypt, the strategically important provinces of Gaul, Hispania and Syria (including Cilicia and Cyprus).

Visigoths

VisigothicVisigothGothic
Even after the fall of Rome and the invasion of the Germanic Visigoths and Suebi, Latin was spoken by nearly all of the population, but in its common form known as Vulgar Latin, and the regional changes which led to the modern Iberian Romance languages had already begun.
After the Visigoths sacked Rome, they began settling down, first in southern Gaul and eventually in Hispania, where they founded the Visigothic Kingdom and maintained a presence from the 5th to the 8th centuries AD.

Vicarius

vicarvicariiVicars
From Diocletian's Tetrarchy (AD 284) onwards, the south of remaining Tarraconensis was again split off as Carthaginensis, and probably then too the Balearic Islands and all the resulting provinces formed one civil diocese under the vicarius for the Hispaniae (that is, the Celtic provinces).
For example, in the diocese of Hispania, his staff included:

Reconquista

ReconquestChristian reconquestreconquered
The Estoria de España ("The History of Spain") written on the initiative of Alfonso X of Castile "El Sabio" ("the Wise"), between 1260 and 1274, during the Reconquest of Spain, is believed to be the first extended history of Spain in Old Spanish using the words "España" ("Spain") and "Españoles"("Spaniards") to refer to Medieval Hispania.
He adopted the title Imperator totius Hispaniae ("Emperor of all Hispania", referring to all the Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula, and not just the modern country of Spain).

Cantabrian Wars

Astur-Cantabrian warAstur-Cantabrian Warscampaign against the Cantabrians
It was not until 19 BC that the Roman emperor Augustus (r. 27 BC–AD 14) was able to complete the conquest (see Cantabrian Wars).
Under the reign of Augustus, Rome waged a bloody conflict against the last independent Celtic nations of Hispania: the Cantabri and the Astures.

Hadrian

Emperor HadrianPublius Aelius HadrianusHadrian Temple
The emperors Trajan (r. 98–117), Hadrian (r. 117–138), and Theodosius were of Hispanic origin.
He was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus in Italica, near Santiponce (in modern-day Spain), into a Hispano-Roman family.

Lisbon

LisboaLisbon, Portugalcapital
The Romans improved existing cities, such as Lisbon (Olissipo) and Tarragona (Tarraco), established Zaragoza (Caesaraugusta), MĂ©rida (Augusta Emerita), and Valencia (Valentia), and reduced other native cities to mere villages.
Lisbon's name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by the geographer Pomponius Mela, a native of Hispania.

Classical antiquity

antiquityclassicalancient
The Latin term Hispania, often used during Antiquity and the Low Middle Ages as a geographical name, starts to be used also with political connotations, as shown in the expression "Laus Hispaniae" ("Praise to Hispania") to describe the history of the peoples of the Iberian Peninsula of Isidore of Seville's :
Rome acquired imperial character de facto from the 130s BC with the acquisition of Cisalpine Gaul, Illyria, Greece and Hispania, and definitely with the addition of Iudaea, Asia Minor and Gaul in the 1st century BC. At the time of the empire's maximal extension under Trajan (AD 117), Rome controlled the entire Mediterranean as well as Gaul, parts of Germania and Britannia, the Balkans, Dacia, Asia Minor, the Caucasus and Mesopotamia.

Cartagena, Spain

CartagenaNew CarthageCarthago Nova
The frontier between both was a sinuous line which ran from Cartago Nova (now Cartagena) to the Cantabrian Sea.
The city had its heyday during the Roman Empire, when it was known as Carthago Nova (the New Carthage) and Carthago Spartaria, capital of the province of Carthaginensis.