Hispaniola

San DomingoSanto DomingoIsland of HispaniolaLa EspañolaHispanolaLa HispaniolaHispaniola IslandIsland of Santo DomingoAyiti or Quisqueya (Kiskeya)Aytí
Hispaniola (, also ; La Española; Latin and Hispaniola; Ispayola; ) is an island in the Caribbean archipelago known as the Greater Antilles.wikipedia
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Dominican Republic

DominicanDOMDominicans
Since 1808, the 76192 km2 island has been divided into two separate, sovereign nations: the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic (48,445 km 2, 18,705 sq mi) to the east and French / French-based Haitian Creole-speaking Haiti (27,750 km 2, 10,710 sq mi) to the west.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana, ) is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.

Haiti

Republic of HaitiHaïtiHaitian
Since 1808, the 76192 km2 island has been divided into two separate, sovereign nations: the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic (48,445 km 2, 18,705 sq mi) to the east and French / French-based Haitian Creole-speaking Haiti (27,750 km 2, 10,710 sq mi) to the west.
Haiti (Haïti ; Ayiti ), officially the Republic of Haiti (République d'Haïti; Repiblik Ayiti) and formerly called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea, to the east of Cuba and Jamaica and south of The Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands.

Cuba

Republic of CubaCubanCUB
It is the most populous island in the West Indies and the region's second largest after Cuba.
The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 km2, and the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants.

Greater Antilles

GreaterGreater AntilleanAntillas Mayores
Hispaniola (, also ; La Española; Latin and Hispaniola; Ispayola; ) is an island in the Caribbean archipelago known as the Greater Antilles.
The Greater Antilles (Grandes Antillas; Grandes Antilles Gwo Zantiy ) is a grouping of the larger islands in the Caribbean Sea, including Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and the Cayman Islands.

Taíno

TainoTaínosTaíno people
The island was called by various names by its native people, the Taíno Amerindians.
At the time of European contact in the late fifteenth century, they were the principal inhabitants of most of Cuba, Hispaniola (the Dominican Republic and Haiti), Jamaica, Puerto Rico, The Bahamas and the northern Lesser Antilles.

Caribbean

the CaribbeanWest IndiesWest Indian
Hispaniola (, also ; La Española; Latin and Hispaniola; Ispayola; ) is an island in the Caribbean archipelago known as the Greater Antilles.
Others possess rugged towering mountain-ranges like the islands of Saint Martin, Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Dominica, Montserrat, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Tortola, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Trinidad and Tobago.

Christopher Columbus

ColumbusCristoforo ColomboColón
Hispaniola is the site of the first permanent European settlement in the Americas, founded by Christopher Columbus on his voyages in 1492 and 1493.
Columbus subsequently visited the islands now known as Cuba and Hispaniola, establishing a colony in what is now Haiti—the first European settlement in the Americas since the Norse colonies nearly 500 years earlier.

Saint-Domingue

Saint DomingueSt. DomingueSt. Domingo
The colonial terms Saint-Domingue and Santo Domingo are sometimes still applied to the whole island, though these names refer, respectively, to the colonies that became Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
Saint-Domingue was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804, in what is now Haiti.

Captaincy General of Santo Domingo

Santo DomingoColony of Santo DomingoSan Domingo
The colonial terms Saint-Domingue and Santo Domingo are sometimes still applied to the whole island, though these names refer, respectively, to the colonies that became Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
The island was named "La Española" (Hispaniola) by Christopher Columbus.

Hispania

SpainRoman SpainHispano-Roman
When Columbus took possession of the island in 1492, he named it Insula Hispana in Latin and La Isla Española in Spanish, with both meaning "the Spanish island".
The modern place names Spain and Hispaniola are both derived from Hispania.

Bartolomé de las Casas

Las CasasBartolome de las CasasFriar Bartolomé de Las Casas
No known Taíno texts exist, hence, historical evidence for those names comes through three European historians: the Italian Pietro Martyr d‘Anghiera, and the Spaniards Bartolomé de las Casas and Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo.
With his father, Las Casas immigrated to the island of Hispaniola in 1502, on the expedition of Nicolás de Ovando.

Indigenous peoples of the Americas

Native AmericanNative Americansindigenous
The island was called by various names by its native people, the Taíno Amerindians.
The first indigenous group encountered by Columbus, the 250,000 Taínos of Hispaniola, represented the dominant culture in the Greater Antilles and the Bahamas.

Taíno language

TaínoTainoaboriginal name
No known Taíno texts exist, hence, historical evidence for those names comes through three European historians: the Italian Pietro Martyr d‘Anghiera, and the Spaniards Bartolomé de las Casas and Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo.
Classic Taíno (Taíno proper) was the native language of the northern Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, the Turks and Caicos Islands, and most of Hispaniola, and it was expanding into Cuba.

Santo Domingo

Ciudad TrujilloSanto Domingo, Dominican RepublicSanto Domingo de Guzmán
After being destroyed by a hurricane, it was rebuilt on the opposite side of the Ozama River and called Santo Domingo.
Prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492, the native Taíno people populated the island which they called Quisqueya (mother of all lands) and Ayiti (the land of the high mountains), and which Columbus later named Hispaniola, including the territory of today's Republic of Haiti.

Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés

Gonzalo Fernández de OviedoOviedoFernández de Oviedo
No known Taíno texts exist, hence, historical evidence for those names comes through three European historians: the Italian Pietro Martyr d‘Anghiera, and the Spaniards Bartolomé de las Casas and Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo.
In 1514 he was appointed supervisor of gold smeltings at Santo Domingo, and on his return to Spain in 1523 was appointed historiographer of the Indies.

Encomienda

encomenderoencomenderosencomiendas
Colonial administrators and Dominican and Hyeronimite priests observed that the search for gold and agrarian enslavement through the encomienda system were depressing population.
This was not true in all areas as in some parts of Hispaniola, Nicaragua, and Guatemala entire regions were depopulated by enslavement.

Caonabo

On Columbus's return during his second voyage, he learned it was the cacique Caonabo who had massacred his settlement at Navidad.
Caonabo (died 1496) was a Taíno cacique (chieftain) of Hispaniola at the time of Christopher Columbus's arrival to the island.

Santiago de los Caballeros

SantiagoSantiago, Dominican RepublicSantiago de los Caballeros, Dominican Republic
Two major mining areas resulted, one along San Cristobal-Buenaventura, and another in Cibao within the La Vega-Cotuy-Bonao triangle, while Santiago de los Caballeros, Concepcion, and Bonao became mining towns.
In granting in 1508 the Royal Privilege of Concession de Armas to the Villa de Santiago of Hispaniola, the heraldic emblem that was included in his shield was venerated.

Tortuga (Haiti)

TortugaTortuga IslandÎle de la Tortue
By the early 17th century, the island and its smaller neighbors (notably Tortuga) became regular stopping points for Caribbean pirates.
Tortuga Island (Île de la Tortue, ; Latòti; Isla Tortuga, Turtle Island) is a Caribbean island that forms part of Haiti, off the northwest coast of Hispaniola.

La Navidad

a colonyNavidad
A contingent of men were left at an outpost christened La Navidad, on the north coast of present-day Puerto Plata.
Columbus sailed around the island of Hispaniola on Christmas Eve of 1492, during his first voyage.

Nicolás de Ovando

Nicolás de Ovando y CáceresNicolas de OvandoNicolas Ovando
Under Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres' governorship, the Indians were made to work in the gold mines.
He was Governor of the Indies (Hispaniola) from 1502 until 1509, sent by the Spanish crown to investigate the administration of Francisco de Bobadilla and re-establish order.

Piracy in the Caribbean

piratespiracypirate
By the early 17th century, the island and its smaller neighbors (notably Tortuga) became regular stopping points for Caribbean pirates.
On the Spanish Main, the key early settlements were Cartagena in present-day Colombia, Porto Bello and Panama City on the Isthmus of Panama, Santiago on the southeastern coast of Cuba, and Santo Domingo on the island of Hispaniola.

Francisco de Garay

Francisco Garay
Miguel Diaz and Francisco de Garay discovered large gold nuggets on the lower Haina River in 1496.
He was a companion to Christopher Columbus on his second voyage to the New World and arrived in Hispaniola in 1493.

Guacanagaríx

GuacanagariGuacanaboGuacanagaric
On 24 March 1495, Columbus with his ally Guacanagarix, embarked on a war of revenge against Caonabo, capturing him and his family while killing and capturing many natives.
Guacanagaríx (alternate transcriptions: Guacanacaríc, Guacanagarí) was one of the five Taíno caciques of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola; at the date of its European discovery in 1492, by the first of the Voyages of Christopher Columbus for Spain.

Jamaica

JAMJamaicanJamaica, West Indies
The island of Cuba lies 80 km to the northwest across the Windward Passage; 190 km to the southwest lies Jamaica, separated by the Jamaica Channel.
Spanning 10,990 sqkm in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the Caribbean (after Cuba and Hispaniola).