Historian

Objective historianhistoriansamateur historianart historianHistoryIslamic historiansmilitary historianAmerican historianAustralian Historianbusiness historian
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.wikipedia
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David Irving

author of the same nameDavidDavid Irving "Accident — The Death of General Sikorski
This was necessary so that there would be a legal bench mark to compare and contrast the scholarship of an objective historian against the illegitimate methods employed by David Irving, as before the Irving v Penguin Books and Lipstadt trial, there was no legal precedent for what constituted an objective historian.

Historical negationism

revisionisthistorical revisionismnegationist
Justice Gray leant heavily on the research of one of the expert witnesses, Richard J. Evans, who compared illegitimate distortion of the historical record practice by holocaust deniers with established historical methodologies.
Historical negationism is applied to cultivate a specific political myth – sometimes with official consent from the government – whereby self-taught, amateur, and dissident academic historians either manipulate or misrepresent historical accounts to achieve political ends.

Thucydides

ThucidydesThucididesThuc.
Thucydides largely eliminated divine causality in his account of the war between Athens and Sparta, establishing a rationalistic element that set a precedent for subsequent Western historical writings.
460 BC) was an Athenian historian and general.

Xenophon

Xenophon of AthensXen.Constitution of the Lacedemonians
He was also the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event, while his successor Xenophon introduced autobiographical elements and character studies in his Anabasis.
431 BC – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.

Strabo

StrabonStrab.Strabo the geographer
Strabo was an important exponent of the Greco-Roman tradition of combining geography with history, presenting a descriptive history of peoples and places known to his era.
undefined AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

David Hume

HumeHumeanHume, David
At the same time, philosopher David Hume was having a similar impact on history in Great Britain.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish Enlightenment philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, scepticism, and naturalism.

Al-Waqidi

WaqidiAl-WaqediAl-Waqid
761), al-Waqidi (745–822), Ibn Hisham (d.
Al-Waqidi was an early Muslim historian and biographer of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, specializing in his military campaigns.

Leslie Stephen

Sir Leslie StephenStephen, LeslieLeslie
Biographer Leslie Stephen wrote that thereafter, "His fame was as rapid as it has been lasting."
Sir Leslie Stephen (28 November 1832 – 22 February 1904) was an English author, critic, historian, biographer, and mountaineer, and father of Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell.

Thomas Carlyle

CarlyleCarlyle, ThomasCarlyles
Thomas Carlyle published his magnum opus, the three-volume The French Revolution: A History in 1837.
Thomas Carlyle (4 December 1795 – 5 February 1881) was a Scottish historian, satirical writer, essayist, translator, philosopher, mathematician, and teacher.

Reasonable person

reasonablenessreasonablereasonable man
During the Irving v Penguin Books and Lipstadt trial, it became evident that the court needed to identify what was an "objective historian" in the same vein as the reasonable person, and reminiscent of the standard traditionally used in English law of "the man on the Clapham omnibus".

Recorded history

written historyhistorical recordhistorical records
If the individual is concerned with events preceding written history, the individual is a historian of prehistory.
The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history.

Hippolyte Taine

TaineHyppolyte TaineH. Taine
Another important French historian of the period was Hippolyte Taine.
Hippolyte Adolphe Taine (21 April 1828 – 5 March 1893) was a French critic and historian.

Economics

economiceconomisteconomic theory
Modern historical analysis usually draws upon other social sciences, including economics, sociology, politics, psychology, anthropology, philosophy, and linguistics.
Historians have employed political economy to explore the ways in the past that persons and groups with common economic interests have used politics to effect changes beneficial to their interests.

The French Revolution: A History

The French RevolutionThe French Revolution, A Historyclassic recounting
Thomas Carlyle published his magnum opus, the three-volume The French Revolution: A History in 1837.
The French Revolution: A History was written by the Scottish essayist, philosopher, and historian Thomas Carlyle.

Jacob Burckhardt

Jakob BurckhardtBurckhardtBurckhardt, Jacob
One of the major progenitors of the history of culture and art, was the Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt Burckhardt's best-known work is The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860).
Carl Jacob Christoph Burckhardt (May 25, 1818 – August 8, 1897) was a Swiss historian of art and culture and an influential figure in the historiography of both fields.

Karl Marx

MarxMarx, KarlMarxist
Karl Marx introduced the concept of historical materialism into the study of world historical development.
Karl Marx ( 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist, journalist and socialist revolutionary.

The man on the Clapham omnibus

man on the Clapham omnibusClapham omnibus
During the Irving v Penguin Books and Lipstadt trial, it became evident that the court needed to identify what was an "objective historian" in the same vein as the reasonable person, and reminiscent of the standard traditionally used in English law of "the man on the Clapham omnibus".

William Stubbs

StubbsStubbs, WilliamBishop Stubbs
William Stubbs's Constitutional History of England (3 vols., 1874–78) was an important influence on this developing field.
Rev William Stubbs HFRSE (21 June 1825 – 22 April 1901) was an English historian and Anglican bishop.

Leopold von Ranke

RankeLeopold Rankevon Ranke
Leopold von Ranke was a pivotal influence in this regard, and is considered as the founder of modern source-based history.
Leopold von Ranke (21 December 1795 – 23 May 1886) was a German historian and a founder of modern source-based history.

Daubert standard

DaubertDaubert'' standardDaubert Test
Schneider uses the concept of the "objective historian" to suggest that this could be an aid in assessing what makes an historian suitable as an expert witnesses under the Daubert standard in the United States.

History

historical recordshistoricalhistoric
Leopold von Ranke was a pivotal influence in this regard, and is considered as the founder of modern source-based history.
Scholars who write about history are called historians.

Livy

Titus LiviusLiviusTitus Livy
Livy records the rise of Rome from city-state to empire.

Christopher Hill (historian)

Christopher HillHill, ChristopherJ. E. C. Hill
Members included Christopher Hill, Eric Hobsbawm and E. P. Thompson.
John Edward Christopher Hill (6 February 1912 – 23 February 2003) was an English Marxist historian and academic, specialising in 17th-century English history.

Renaissance

the RenaissanceEarly RenaissanceEuropean Renaissance
In his main work Histoire de France, French historian Jules Michelet coined the term Renaissance (meaning "Re-birth" in French language), as a period in Europe's cultural history that represented a break from the Middle Ages, creating a modern understanding of humanity and its place in the world.
It was first used in the eighteenth century and was later popularized by French historian Jules Michelet (1798–1874) in his 1855 work, Histoire de France (History of France).

Arnold J. Toynbee

Arnold ToynbeeArnold Joseph ToynbeeToynbee
Arnold J. Toynbee's ten-volume A Study of History, written between 1933 and 1954, was an important influence on this developing field.
Arnold Joseph Toynbee (14 April 1889 – 22 October 1975) was a British historian, philosopher of history, author of numerous books and research professor of international history at the London School of Economics and King's College in the University of London.