Historical Vedic religion

BrahmanismVedicVedic religionBrahmanicalBrahmanicBrahminicalVedismancient HinduismVedic HinduismVedic ritual
The historical Vedic religion (also known as Vedism or ancient Hinduism) refers to the religious ideas and practices among most Indo-Aryan-speaking peoples of ancient India after about 1500 BCE.wikipedia
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Bhakti

bhaktadevoteeBhakthi
The Hindu religion was thought to be linked to the Hindu epics and the Puranas through sects based on Purohita, Tantras and Bhakti.
The term also refers to a movement, pioneered by Alvars and Nayanars, that developed around the gods Vishnu (Vaishnavism), Brahma (Brahmanism), Shiva (Shaivism) and Devi (Shaktism) in the second half of the 1st millennium CE.

Reincarnation

reincarnatedrebirthpast lives
Vedic religion is now generally accepted to be a predecessor of Hinduism, but they are not the same because the textual evidence suggests significant differences between the two, such as the belief in an afterlife instead of the later developed reincarnation and samsāra concepts.
The idea of reincarnation, saṃsāra, did not exist in the early Vedic religions.

Jainism

JainJainsJaina
Both of these traditions impacted Indic religions such as Buddhism and Jainism, and in particular Hinduism.
The idea of reverence for non-violence (ahiṃsā) is founded in Hindu and Buddhist canonical texts, and it may have origins in more ancient Brahmanical Vedic thoughts.

Hinduism

HinduHindusHindu culture
Vedic religion is now generally accepted to be a predecessor of Hinduism, but they are not the same because the textual evidence suggests significant differences between the two, such as the belief in an afterlife instead of the later developed reincarnation and samsāra concepts.
The major kinds, according to McDaniel are, Folk Hinduism, based on local traditions and cults of local deities and is the oldest, non-literate system; Vedic Hinduism based on the earliest layers of the Vedas traceable to 2nd millennium BCE; Vedantic Hinduism based on the philosophy of the Upanishads, including Advaita Vedanta, emphasizing knowledge and wisdom; Yogic Hinduism, following the text of Yoga Sutras of Patanjali emphasizing introspective awareness; Dharmic Hinduism or "daily morality", which McDaniel states is stereotyped in some books as the "only form of Hindu religion with a belief in karma, cows and caste"; and Bhakti or devotional Hinduism, where intense emotions are elaborately incorporated in the pursuit of the spiritual.

Ṛta

Rtaṛtár'ta
The Old Indic term r'ta, meaning "cosmic order and truth", the central concept of the Rig Veda, was also employed in the Mitanni kingdom.
In the Vedic religion, Ṛta (Sanskrit ऋत "order, rule; truth") is the principle of natural order which regulates and coordinates the operation of the universe and everything within it.

Soma (drink)

Somapava-manaSoma as a ritual drink
This syncretic influence is supported by at least 383 non-Indo-European words that were borrowed from this culture, including the god Indra and the ritual drink Soma. The Rigveda is a collection of hymns to various deities, most notably heroic Indra, Agni the sacrificial fire and messenger of the gods, and Soma, the deified sacred drink of the Indo-Iranians.
In both the ancient religions of Historical Vedic religion and Zoroastrianism, the name of the drink and the plant are the same.

Vedic period

VedicVedic civilizationVedic age
The idea of reincarnation and karma have roots in the Upanishads of the late Vedic period, predating the Buddha and the Mahavira.
Vedic religion developed into Brahmanical orthodoxy, and around the beginning of the Common Era, the Vedic tradition formed one of the main constituents of"Hindu synthesis".

Buddhism

BuddhistBuddhistsBuddhadharma
Both of these traditions impacted Indic religions such as Buddhism and Jainism, and in particular Hinduism.
New ideas developed both in the Vedic tradition in the form of the Upanishads, and outside of the Vedic tradition through the Śramaṇa movements.

Homa (ritual)

homahavanGoma
It is rooted in the Vedic religion, and was adopted in ancient times by Buddhism and Jainism.

Proto-Indo-European mythology

Proto-Indo-European religionIndo-EuropeanProto-Indo-European
The Vedic beliefs and practices of the pre-classical era has been proposed to be closely related to the hypothesised Proto-Indo-European religion, and shows relations with rituals from the Andronovo culture, from which the Indo-Aryan people descended.
The Greek Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux) are the "sons of Zeus"; the Vedic Divó nápātā (Aśvins) are the "sons of Dyaús", the sky-god, the Lithuanian Dievo sūneliai (Ašvieniai) are the "sons of the God" (Dievas); and the Latvian Dieva dēli are likewise the "sons of the God" (Dievs).

Vedi (altar)

vedikundVedic altars
Vedi is the term for "sacrificial altar" in the Vedic religion.

Ashvamedha

AshwamedhaAswamedhaAsvamedha
The Ashvamedha (Sanskrit: अश्वमेध aśvamedha) is a horse sacrifice ritual followed by the Śrauta tradition of Vedic religion.

Polytheism

polytheisticpolytheistspolytheist
Ancient Vedic religion was an complex animistic religion with polytheistic and pantheistic aspects.

Gautama Buddha

BuddhaSakyamuniShakyamuni
The idea of reincarnation and karma have roots in the Upanishads of the late Vedic period, predating the Buddha and the Mahavira.
The more egalitarian gana-sangha form of government, as a political alternative to the strongly hierarchical kingdoms, may have influenced the development of the śramanic Jain and Buddhist sanghas, where monarchies tended toward Vedic Brahmanism.

Vedas

VedicVedaVedic literature
These ideas and practices are found in the Vedic texts, and they were one of the major influences that shaped contemporary Hinduism.

Rajasuya

Rajasuya YagnaRajasuya sacrificeRajasuya Yaaga
Rajasuya (Imperial Sacrifice or the king's inauguration sacrifice) is a Śrauta ritual of the Vedic religion.

Indus Valley Civilisation

Indus Valley CivilizationHarappanIndus Valley
Some scholars consider the Vedic religion to have been a composite of the religions of the Indo-Aryans, "a syncretic mixture of old Central Asian, new Indo-European elements", which borrowed "distinctive religious beliefs and practices" from the Bactria–Margiana culture, and the remnants of the Harappan culture of the Indus Valley.
In the Cemetery H culture (the late Harappan phase in the Punjab region), some of the designs painted on the funerary urns have been interpreted through the lens of Vedic literature: for instance, peacocks with hollow bodies and a small human form inside, which has been interpreted as the souls of the dead, and a hound that can be seen as the hound of Yama, the god of death.

Cemetery H culture

Cemetery HLate HarappanLate Harappan culture
The Hindu rites of cremation are seen since the Rigvedic period; while they are attested from early times in the Cemetery H culture, there is a late Rigvedic reference invoking forefathers "both cremated (agnidagdhá-) and uncremated (ánagnidagdha-)".
Some of the designs painted on the Cemetery H funerary urns have been interpreted through the lens of Vedic mythology: for instance, peacocks with hollow bodies and a small human form inside, which has been interpreted as the souls of the dead, and a hound that can be seen as the hound of Yama, the god of death.

Mitra

*mitráman important deityBischofsmütze
The Devas (Mitra, Varuna, Aryaman, Bhaga, Amsa, etc.) are deities of cosmic and social order, from the universe and kingdoms down to the individual.
Vedic Mitra is a prominent deity of the Rigveda distinguished by a relationship to Varuna, the protector of rta.

Dharma

DhammaDharmicdharmas
The term dharma was already used in the later Brahmanical thoughts, where it was conceived as an aspect of ṛta.
The concept of dharma was already in use in the historical Vedic religion, and its meaning and conceptual scope has evolved over several millennia.

Vaishnavism

VaishnavaVaishnaviteVaishnavaite
Deities such as Shiva and Vishnu became more prominent and gave rise to Shaivism and Vaishnavism.
Vaishnavism originates in the latest centuries BCE and the early centuries CE, as an amalgam of the heroic Krishna Vasudeva, the "divine child" Bala Krishna of the Gopala traditions, and syncretism of these non-Vedic traditions with the Mahabharata canon, thus affiliating itself with Vedism in order to become acceptable to the orthodox establishment.

Kuru Kingdom

KuruKurusKuru dynasty
The Vedic religion of the later Vedic period was consolidated in the Kuru Kingdom, and co-existed with local religions, such as the Yaksha cults, and was itself the product of "a composite of the Indo-Aryan and Harappan cultures and civilizations".

Mandala

mandalasmaṇḍalamandalic
The term appears in the Rigveda as the name of the sections of the work, and Vedic rituals use mandalas such as the Navagraha mandala to this day.

Rigveda

Rig VedaRigvedicRig-Veda
The Rigveda is a collection of hymns to various deities, most notably heroic Indra, Agni the sacrificial fire and messenger of the gods, and Soma, the deified sacred drink of the Indo-Iranians.
The Rigveda records an early stage of Vedic religion.

Vedic mythology

VedicIndian mythologyVedic religion
Vedic mythology refers to the mythological aspects of the historical Vedic religion and Vedic literature, alluded to in the hymns of the Rigveda.