Historical race concepts

Historical definitions of raceraceraceshistorical race conceptRace (historical definitions)Caucasian, Mongolian, Malayan, Ethiopian (or Negroid), and American Indian.classification of human populationsearly racial conceptsgreat raceshistorical construction and development of racial categories
The concept of race as a rough division of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) has a long and complicated history.wikipedia
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Race and society

racerace as a social constructrace as a sociological concept
The politicization of the field under the concept of racism in the 20th century led to a decline in racial studies during the 1930s to 1980s, culminating in a poststructuralist deconstruction of race as a social construct.
Some interpretations are often deconstructionist and poststructuralist in that they critically analyze the historical construction and development of racial categories.

Race (human categorization)

raceracialraces
The concept of race as a rough division of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) has a long and complicated history.

Caucasian race

CaucasianwhiteCaucasoid
Its first statement suggested in particular to "drop the term 'race' altogether and speak of 'ethnic groups, which proved to be controversial. The 1950 statement was most concerned with dispelling the notion of race as species. It did not reject the idea of a biological basis to racial categories. Instead it defined the concept of race in terms as a population defined by certain anatomical and physiological characteristics as being divergent from other populations; it gives the examples of the Caucasian, Mongoloid and Negroid races. The statements maintain that there are no "pure races" and that biological variability was as great within any race as between races. It argued that there is no scientific basis for believing that there are any innate differences in intellectual, psychological or emotional potential among races.
The Caucasian race (also Caucasoid or Europid) is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon, which, depending on which of the historical race classifications is used, has usually included ancient and modern populations from Europe, Western Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa.

Semitic people

SemiticSemitesSemitic peoples
European medieval models of race generally mixed Classical ideas with the notion that humanity as a whole was descended from Shem, Ham and Japheth, the three sons of Noah, producing distinct Semitic (Asiatic), Hamitic (African), and Japhetic (Indo-European) peoples.
The terminology is now largely obsolete outside linguistics.

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach

BlumenbachJohann BlumenbachJ. F. Blumenbach
It is considered one of the most influential works in the development of subsequent concepts of "human races."

Miscegenation

interracialadmixtureamalgamation
He came to believe that race created culture, arguing that distinctions between the three "black", "white", and "yellow" races were natural barriers, and that "race-mixing" breaks those barriers down and leads to chaos.
As the different connotations and etymologies of miscegenation and mestizaje suggest, definitions of race, "race mixing" and multiraciality have diverged globally as well as historically, depending on changing social circumstances and cultural perceptions.

Nordic race

NordicNordicistNordic theory
By the late nineteenth century, Huxley's Xanthochroi group had been redefined as the Nordic race, whereas his Melanochroi became the Mediterranean race.
The Nordic race is one of the putative sub-races into which some late-19th to mid-20th century anthropologists has divided the Caucasian race.

Aryan

AryaAryansAryas
He thought it corresponded to the ancient Indo-European culture, also known as "Aryan".
Drawing on misinterpreted references in the Rig Veda by Western scholars in the 19th century, the term "Aryan" was adopted as a racial category through the works of Arthur de Gobineau, whose ideology of race was based on an idea of blonde northern European "Aryans" who had migrated across the world and founded all major civilizations, before being diluted through racial mixing with local populations.

Mongoloid

MongolianMongoloid raceMongoloids
Its first statement suggested in particular to "drop the term 'race' altogether and speak of 'ethnic groups, which proved to be controversial. The 1950 statement was most concerned with dispelling the notion of race as species. It did not reject the idea of a biological basis to racial categories. Instead it defined the concept of race in terms as a population defined by certain anatomical and physiological characteristics as being divergent from other populations; it gives the examples of the Caucasian, Mongoloid and Negroid races. The statements maintain that there are no "pure races" and that biological variability was as great within any race as between races. It argued that there is no scientific basis for believing that there are any innate differences in intellectual, psychological or emotional potential among races.
HM-Hsr.jpg, Chinese & Indochinese, Japanese & Korean, Tibetan & Burmese, Malay, Polynesian, Maori, Micronesian, Eskimo, and Native American.

Negroid

CongoidNegroidsNegro
Its first statement suggested in particular to "drop the term 'race' altogether and speak of 'ethnic groups, which proved to be controversial. The 1950 statement was most concerned with dispelling the notion of race as species. It did not reject the idea of a biological basis to racial categories. Instead it defined the concept of race in terms as a population defined by certain anatomical and physiological characteristics as being divergent from other populations; it gives the examples of the Caucasian, Mongoloid and Negroid races. The statements maintain that there are no "pure races" and that biological variability was as great within any race as between races. It argued that there is no scientific basis for believing that there are any innate differences in intellectual, psychological or emotional potential among races.

Scientific racism

biological racismscientific racistrace science
Scientific racism employs anthropology (notably physical anthropology), anthropometry, craniometry, and other disciplines or pseudo-disciplines, in proposing anthropological typologies supporting the classification of human populations into physically discrete human races, that might be asserted to be superior or inferior.

Polygenism

polygenistpolygenesispolygenic
The systematization of race concepts during the Enlightenment period brought with it the conflict between monogenism (a single origin for all human races) and polygenism (the hypothesis that races had separate origins).

History of anthropometry

Craniofacial anthropometryBertillon systemanthropometry

Homo sapiens

anatomically modern humanshumananatomically modern human
The concept of race as a rough division of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) has a long and complicated history.

Nation

nationsnationalnationhood
The word race itself is modern and was used in the sense of "nation, ethnic group" during the 16th to 19th centuries and acquired its modern meaning in the field of physical anthropology only from the mid-19th century.

Racism

racistracial prejudiceracial discrimination
The politicization of the field under the concept of racism in the 20th century led to a decline in racial studies during the 1930s to 1980s, culminating in a poststructuralist deconstruction of race as a social construct.

Post-structuralism

post-structuralistpoststructuralismpoststructuralist
The politicization of the field under the concept of racism in the 20th century led to a decline in racial studies during the 1930s to 1980s, culminating in a poststructuralist deconstruction of race as a social construct.

Deconstruction

deconstructdeconstructionismdeconstructionist
The politicization of the field under the concept of racism in the 20th century led to a decline in racial studies during the 1930s to 1980s, culminating in a poststructuralist deconstruction of race as a social construct.

Common descent

common ancestorcommon ancestryapical ancestor
The word "race", interpreted to mean an identifiable group of people who share a common descent, was introduced into English in about 1580, from the Old French ' (1512), from Italian '.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
The word "race", interpreted to mean an identifiable group of people who share a common descent, was introduced into English in about 1580, from the Old French ' (1512), from Italian '.

Cognate

cognatescognationequivalent
An earlier but etymologically distinct word for a similar concept was the Latin word meaning a group sharing qualities related to birth, descent, origin, race, stock, or family; this Latin word is cognate with the Greek words "genos", meaning "race or kind", and "gonos", which has meanings related to "birth, offspring, stock ...".

Society

societiessocialsocietal
In many ancient civilizations, individuals with widely varying physical appearances became full members of a society by growing up within that society or by adopting that society's cultural norms.

Culture

culturalculturesculturally
In many ancient civilizations, individuals with widely varying physical appearances became full members of a society by growing up within that society or by adopting that society's cultural norms.

Social norm

social normsnormsnorm
In many ancient civilizations, individuals with widely varying physical appearances became full members of a society by growing up within that society or by adopting that society's cultural norms.