History

historical recordshistoricalhistorichistorianHistoricallyhistorieshistorical eventshistorianshistorical narrativeheritage
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning 'inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation') is the past as it is described in written documents, and the study thereof.wikipedia
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Historiography

historiographicalhistoriographerhistoriographic
Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.

Hellenic historiography

Greek historianGreek historiographyGreek historians
Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is often considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", or by some the "father of lies", and, along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history.
Greek historiography refers to Hellenic efforts to track and record history.

Herodotus

HerodotosHerodotus of HalicarnassusHerod.
Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is often considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", or by some the "father of lies", and, along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history.
He is known for having written the book The Histories (Greek: Ἱστορίαι - Historíai), a detailed record of his "inquiry" (ἱστορία historía) on the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars.

Big History

factual historymacro-history
The area called Big History resists this specialization, and searches for universal patterns or trends.
Big History is an academic discipline which examines history from the Big Bang to the present.

Humanities

Humanitythe humanitieshumanistic
The study of history has sometimes been classified as part of the humanities and at other times as part of the social sciences.
The humanities include ancient and modern languages, literature, philosophy, history, human geography, law, politics, religion, and art.

Anthropology

anthropologistanthropologicalanthropologists
In the 20th century, French historian Fernand Braudel revolutionized the study of history, by using such outside disciplines as economics, anthropology, and geography in the study of global history.
The abstract noun anthropology is first attested in reference to history.

Archaeology

archaeologistarchaeologicalarchaeologists
Archaeology is a discipline that is especially helpful in dealing with buried sites and objects, which, once unearthed, contribute to the study of history.
It draws upon anthropology, history, art history, classics, ethnology, geography, geology, literary history, linguistics, semiology, sociology, textual criticism, physics, information sciences, chemistry, statistics, paleoecology, paleography, paleontology, paleozoology, and paleobotany.

Philosophy of history

philosopher of historyHistory is written by the victorslinear
Thirdly, it may refer to why history is produced: the Philosophy of history.
Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and the past.

Primary source

primary sourcesprimaryprimary documents
The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history.
In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called an original source) is an artifact, document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study.

Historical method

historical evidencehistorical researchmethodology
Firstly, it can refer to how history has been produced: the story of the development of methodology and practices (for example, the move from short-term biographical narrative towards long-term thematic analysis).
Historical method is the collection of techniques and guidelines that historians use to research and write histories of the past.

Historic recurrence

cyclicalconstantly recurringcycle
Greek historians also viewed history as cyclical, with events regularly recurring.
Historic recurrence is the repetition of similar events in history.

Knowledge

knowhuman knowledgesituated knowledge
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning 'inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation') is the past as it is described in written documents, and the study thereof.
Fundamentally, both argue the contingency of knowledge on the presence of history; power, and geography, as well as the rejection of universal rules or laws or elementary structures; and the idea of power as an inherited trait of objectification.

Renaissance

the RenaissanceEarly RenaissanceEuropean Renaissance
With the Renaissance, older senses of the word were revived, and it was in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the late 16th century, when he wrote about "Natural History".
Humanist education was based on the programme of 'Studia Humanitatis', the study of five humanities: poetry, grammar, history, moral philosophy and rhetoric.

Leopold von Ranke

RankeLeopold Rankevon Ranke
Contrary to Buckle's dream, the 19th-century historian with greatest influence on methods became Leopold von Ranke in Germany.
Leopold von Ranke (21 December 1795 – 23 May 1886) was a German historian and a founder of modern source-based history.

Muqaddimah

MuqaddimaMuqadimmahAl-Muqaddimah
In the preface to his book, the Muqaddimah (1377), the Arab historian and early sociologist, Ibn Khaldun, warned of seven mistakes that he thought that historians regularly committed.
Ibn Khaldun wrote the work in 1377 as the introduction chapter and the first book of his planned work of world history, the Kitābu l-ʻibar ("Book of Lessons"; full title: Kitābu l-ʻibari wa Dīwāni l-Mubtada' wal-Ḥabar fī ayāmi l-ʻarab wal-ʿajam wal-barbar, waman ʻĀsarahum min Dhawī sh-Shalṭāni l-Akbār, i.e.: "Book of Lessons, Record of Beginnings and Events in the history of the Arabs and Foreigners and Berbers and their Powerful Contemporaries"), but already in his lifetime it became regarded as an independent work on its own.

Social science

social sciencessocial scientistsocial
The study of history has sometimes been classified as part of the humanities and at other times as part of the social sciences.
The disciplines include, but are not limited to: anthropology, archaeology, communication studies, economics, folkloristics, history, musicology, human geography, jurisprudence, linguistics, political science, psychology, public health, and sociology.

Digital history

More recently, the field of digital history has begun to address ways of using computer technology to pose new questions to historical data and generate digital scholarship.
Digital history is the use of digital media to further historical analysis, presentation, and research.

Cultural history

cultural historianculturalKulturgeschichte
French historians associated with the Annales School introduced quantitative history, using raw data to track the lives of typical individuals, and were prominent in the establishment of cultural history (cf.
Cultural history combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience.

Social history

social historiansocialnew social history
Another genre of social history to emerge in the post-WWII era was Alltagsgeschichte (History of Everyday Life).
Social history, often called the new social history, is a field of history that looks at the lived experience of the past.

Herbert Butterfield

Sir Herbert ButterfieldButterfieldButterfield, H.
Intellectual historians such as Herbert Butterfield, Ernst Nolte and George Mosse have argued for the significance of ideas in history.
Sir Herbert Butterfield (7 October 1900 – 20 July 1979) was Regius Professor of History and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge.

History of mentalities

histoire des mentalitésmentalitiesmentalité
histoire des mentalités).
The history of mentalities or histoire des mentalités (French: 'history of attitudes') is the body of historical works aimed at describing and analyzing the ways in which people of a given time period thought about, interacted with, and classified the world around them, as opposed to the history of particular events, or economic trends.

Science

scientificsciencesscientific knowledge
For him, historia was "the knowledge of objects determined by space and time", that sort of knowledge provided by memory (while science was provided by reason, and poetry was provided by fantasy).
It has many branches that include, but are not limited to, anthropology, archaeology, communication studies, economics, history, human geography, jurisprudence, linguistics, political science, psychology, public health, and sociology.

Historian

Objective historianhistoriansamateur historian
In the 20th century, French historian Fernand Braudel revolutionized the study of history, by using such outside disciplines as economics, anthropology, and geography in the study of global history. The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. Scholars who write about history are called historians.
Leopold von Ranke was a pivotal influence in this regard, and is considered as the founder of modern source-based history.

Keith Windschuttle

Windschuttle, KeithHoax
Another defence of history from post-modernist criticism was the Australian historian Keith Windschuttle's 1994 book, The Killing of History.
Keith Windschuttle (born 1942) is an Australian writer, historian, and former ABC board member.

Eric Hobsbawm

Eric HobsbawnHobsbawm, EricE. J. Hobsbawm
Marxist historians such as Eric Hobsbawm, E. P. Thompson, Rodney Hilton, Georges Lefebvre, Eugene Genovese, Isaac Deutscher, C. L. R. James, Timothy Mason, Herbert Aptheker, Arno J. Mayer and Christopher Hill have sought to validate Karl Marx's theories by analyzing history from a Marxist perspective.
He also took a double-starred first in History and was elected to the Cambridge Apostles.