History

historical recordshistoricalhistorichistorianhistorieshistorianshistorical eventshistorical narrativehistoricallyheritage
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.wikipedia
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Writing

writtentextwriter
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
Writing has been instrumental in keeping history, maintaining culture, dissemination of knowledge through the media and the formation of legal systems.

Greek historiography

Greek historianGreek historiansGreek
Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", and, along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history.
Greek historiography refers to Hellenic efforts to track and record history.

Herodotus

Herod.HerodotosHerodotean
Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", and, along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history.
He is known for having written the book The Histories, a detailed record of his "inquiry" (ἱστορία historía) on the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars.

Benedetto Croce

CroceCroce, Benedettoaesthetic expressivism
In the words of Benedetto Croce, "All history is contemporary history".
Benedetto Croce (25 February 1866 – 20 November 1952) was an Italian idealist philosopher, historian and politician, who wrote on numerous topics, including philosophy, history, historiography and aesthetics.

Big History

factual historymacro-history
The area called Big History resists this specialization, and searches for universal patterns or trends.
Big History is an academic discipline which examines history from the Big Bang to the present.

Humanities

HumanityArtshumanistic
The study of history has sometimes been classified as part of the humanities and at other times as part of the social sciences.
The humanities include ancient and modern languages, literature, philosophy, history, human geography, law, politics, religion, and art.

Anthropology

anthropologistanthropologicalanthropologists
In the 20th century, French historian Fernand Braudel revolutionized the study of history, by using such outside disciplines as economics, anthropology, and geography in the study of global history.
The abstract noun anthropology is first attested in reference to history.

Archaeology

archaeologistarchaeologicalarchaeologists
Archaeology is a discipline that is especially helpful in dealing with buried sites and objects, which, once unearthed, contribute to the study of history.
It draws upon anthropology, history, art history, classics, ethnology, geography, geology, literary history, linguistics, semiology, textual criticism, physics, information sciences, chemistry, statistics, paleoecology, paleography, paleontology, paleozoology, and paleobotany.

Philosophy of history

philosopher of historylinearphilosophies of history
Thirdly, it may refer to why history is produced: the Philosophy of history.
Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and the past.

Primary source

primary sourcesprimaryprimary documents
The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history.
In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called an original source) is an artifact, document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study.

Historic recurrence

cyclicalconstantly recurringcycle
Greek historians also viewed history as cyclical, with events regularly recurring.
Historic recurrence is the repetition of similar events in history.

Renaissance

the Renaissanceearly RenaissanceRenaissance Europe
With the Renaissance, older senses of the word were revived, and it was in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the late sixteenth century, when he wrote about "Natural History".
Humanist education was based on the programme of 'Studia Humanitatis', the study of five humanities: poetry, grammar, history, moral philosophy and rhetoric.

Knowledge

knowhuman knowledgesituated knowledge
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
Fundamentally, both argue the contingency of knowledge on the presence of history; power, and geography, as well as the rejection of universal rules or laws or elementary structures; and the idea of power as an inherited trait of objectification.

Historical method

historical researchhistorical evidencecritical
Firstly, it can refer to how history has been produced: the story of the development of methodology and practices (for example, the move from short-term biographical narrative towards long-term thematic analysis).
Historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence, including the evidence of archaeology, to research and then to write histories in the form of accounts of the past.

Leopold von Ranke

Rankevon Rankeempirical reliance on historical documents
The 19th-century historian with greatest influence on methods was Leopold von Ranke in Germany.
Leopold von Ranke (21 December 1795 – 23 May 1886) was a German historian and a founder of modern source-based history.

Social science

social sciencessocial scientistsocial
The study of history has sometimes been classified as part of the humanities and at other times as part of the social sciences.
These social sciences include, but are not limited to: anthropology, archaeology, communication studies, economics, history, human geography, jurisprudence, linguistics, political science, psychology, public health, and sociology.

Muqaddimah

al-MuqaddimahmuqaddimaMuqaddimat
In the preface to his book, the Muqaddimah (1377), the Arab historian and early sociologist, Ibn Khaldun, warned of seven mistakes that he thought that historians regularly committed.
Ibn Khaldun wrote the work in 1377 as the introduction chapter and the first book of his planned work of world history, the Kitābu l-ʻibar ("Book of Lessons"; full title: Kitābu l-ʻibari wa Dīwāni l-Mubtada' wal-Ḥabar fī ayāmi l-ʻarab wal-ʿajam wal-barbar, waman ʻĀsarahum min Dhawī sh-Shalṭāni l-Akbār, i.e.: "Book of Lessons, Record of Beginnings and Events in the history of the Arabs and Foreigners and Berbers and their Powerful Contemporaries"), but already in his lifetime it became regarded as an independent work on its own.

Digital history

More recently, the field of digital history has begun to address ways of using computer technology to pose new questions to historical data and generate digital scholarship.
Digital history is the use of digital media to further historical analysis, presentation, and research.

Cultural history

cultural historianculturalcultural historical
French historians associated with the Annales School introduced quantitative history, using raw data to track the lives of typical individuals, and were prominent in the establishment of cultural history (cf.
Cultural history combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience.

Social history

socialsocial historiansocial historians
Another genre of social history to emerge in the post-WWII era was Alltagsgeschichte (History of Everyday Life).
Social history, often called the new social history, is a field of history that looks at the lived experience of the past.

Herbert Butterfield

Sir Herbert ButterfieldButterfield Butterfield
histoire des mentalités). Intellectual historians such as Herbert Butterfield, Ernst Nolte and George Mosse have argued for the significance of ideas in history.
Sir Herbert Butterfield (7 October 1900 – 20 July 1979) was Regius Professor of History and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge.

Science

scientificsciencesscientific knowledge
For him, historia was "the knowledge of objects determined by space and time", that sort of knowledge provided by memory (while science was provided by reason, and poetry was provided by fantasy).
It has many branches that include, but are not limited to, anthropology, archaeology, communication studies, economics, history, human geography, jurisprudence, linguistics, political science, psychology, public health, and sociology.

History of mentalities

histoire des mentalitésmentalitiesmentalité
histoire des mentalités). Intellectual historians such as Herbert Butterfield, Ernst Nolte and George Mosse have argued for the significance of ideas in history.
The history of mentalities is a calque of the French term histoire des mentalités, which might also be translated as "history of attitudes", "mindsets" or "world-views".

Historian

historiansamateur historianart historian
In the 20th century, French historian Fernand Braudel revolutionized the study of history, by using such outside disciplines as economics, anthropology, and geography in the study of global history. The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. Scholars who write about history are called historians.
Leopold von Ranke was a pivotal influence in this regard, and is considered as the founder of modern source-based history.

World view

worldviewweltanschauungworld-view
As a meta-level analysis of descriptions of the past, this third conception can relate to the first two in that the analysis usually focuses on the narratives, interpretations, world view, use of evidence, or method of presentation of other historians.
These worldviews of causality not only underlie religious traditions but also other aspects of thought like the purpose of history, political and economic theories, and systems like democracy, authoritarianism, anarchism, capitalism, socialism and communism.