History of Athens
Athensancient AthensAthenianAtheniansancient Athenianancient AtheniansAthenian stateancient Athenian RepublicAthenaiAthenian constitution
Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for at least 5000 years.wikipedia
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Plato's dialoguesDialogues of PlatoPlatonic dialogues
Plato, in his dialogue Cratylus, offers his own etymology of Athena's name connecting it to the phrase ἁ θεονόα or hē theoû nóēsis (ἡ θεοῦ νόησις, 'the mind of god'). Some of the most important figures of Western cultural and intellectual history lived in Athens during this period: the dramatists Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides and Aristophanes, the physician Hippocrates, the philosophers Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, the historians Herodotus, Thucydides and Xenophon, the poet Simonides, the orators Antiphon, Isocrates, Aeschines, and Demosthenes, and the sculptor Phidias.
Plato ( Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Athenian philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought, and the Academy, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Pnyx HillAssembly areaPnyka
The hill of the Pnyx, where the Athenian Assembly met, lay at the western end of the city.
Beginning as early as 507 BC (Fifth-century Athens), the Athenians gathered on the Pnyx to host their popular assemblies, thus making the hill one of the earliest and most important sites in the creation of democracy.
Both Athena and Poseidon requested to be patrons of the city and to give their name to it, so they competed with one another for the honour, offering the city one gift each.
Poseidon was a major civic god of several cities: in Athens, he was second only to Athena in importance, while in Corinth and many cities of Magna Graecia he was the chief god of the polis.
During this period, Athens succeeded in bringing the other towns of Attica under its rule.
Ancient Attica (Athens city-state) was divided into demoi or municipalities from the reform of Cleisthenes in 508/7 BC, grouped into three zones: urban (astu) in the region of Athens main city and Piraeus (port of Athens), coastal (paralia) along the coastline and inland (mesogeia) in the interior.
MarathonGreek victory over the Persians10000 metres and set a new
In 490 BC, the Athenians, led by the soldier-statesman Miltiades, defeated the first invasion of the Persians under Darius I at the Battle of Marathon.
It was fought between the citizens of Athens, aided by Plataea, and a Persian force commanded by Datis and Artaphernes.
PlataeaBattle of Plateaat Plataea in 479 BCE
In 479 BC, the Athenians and Spartans, with their allies, defeated the Persian army conclusively at the Battle of Plataea.
It took place in 479 BC near the city of Plataea in Boeotia, and was fought between an alliance of the Greek city-states (including Sparta, Athens, Corinth and Megara), and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I (allied with Boeotians, Thessalians, and Macedonians).
Sparta's former allies soon turned against her, due to her imperialist policy, and soon Athens' former enemies Thebes and Corinth had become her allies; they fought with Athens and Argos against Sparta in the indecisive Corinthian War (395 – 387 BC).
The Corinthian War was an ancient Greek conflict lasting from 395 BC until 387 BC, pitting Sparta against a coalition of four allied states, Thebes, Athens, Corinth, and Argos, backed by the Achaemenid Empire.
Battle of EphesusBattle of Ephesus (498 BC)Siege of Sardis (498 BC)
In 499 BC, Athens sent troops to aid the Ionian Greeks of Asia Minor, who were rebelling against the Persian Empire (the Ionian Revolt).
In 498 BC, supported by troops from Athens and Eretria, the Ionians marched on, captured, and burnt Sardis.
Pentelic marblePentelicPenteliko Mountain
To the east lies Mount Hymettus, to the north Mount Pentelicus.
Pentelic marble was used for the construction of buildings in ancient Athens, particularly the Acropolis.
bonded labourbonded labordebt slavery
The economic power of the Eupatridae was reduced by forbidding the enslavement of Athenian citizens as a punishment for debt (debt bondage), by breaking up large landed estates and freeing up trade and commerce, which allowed the emergence of a prosperous urban trading class.
The only city-state known to have abolished it is Athens, as early as the Archaic period under the debt reform legislation of Solon.
Démosthène Demosthenes Demosthenem
Some of the most important figures of Western cultural and intellectual history lived in Athens during this period: the dramatists Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides and Aristophanes, the physician Hippocrates, the philosophers Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, the historians Herodotus, Thucydides and Xenophon, the poet Simonides, the orators Antiphon, Isocrates, Aeschines, and Demosthenes, and the sculptor Phidias.
Demosthenes (Δημοσθένης; ; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens.
The name of Athens, connected to the name of its patron goddess Athena, originates from an earlier Pre-Greek language.
A Tyrrhenian/Etruscan substratum was proposed on the basis of (firstly) statements by Thucydides, to the effect that Tyrrhenian languages were spoken in an area including Athens, before the Tyrrhenians were expelled to the island of Lemnos, and (secondly) the Lemnos funerary stele: four pottery sherds inscribed in Etruscan that were found in 1885 at Ephestia in Lemnos.
These victories enabled it to bring most of the Aegean and many other parts of Greece together in the Delian League, an Athenian-dominated alliance.
The Greek states of Athens and Eretria allowed themselves to be drawn into this conflict by Aristagoras, and during their only campaigning season (498 BC) they contributed to the capture and burning of the Persian regional capital of Sardis.
The city was sacked by the Heruli in AD 267, resulting in the burning of all the public buildings, the plundering of the lower city and the damaging of the Agora and Acropolis.
Acropolis became the nuclei of large cities of classical antiquity, such as ancient Athens, and for this reason they are sometimes prominent landmarks in modern cities with ancient pasts, such as modern Athens.
This position may well have resulted from its central location in the Greek world, its secure stronghold on the Acropolis and its access to the sea, which gave it a natural advantage over inland rivals such as Thebes and Sparta.
Sparta was subject of considerable admiration in its day, even in rival Athens.
By the mid-4th century BC, however, the northern Greek kingdom of Macedon was becoming dominant in Athenian affairs.
After the Greek victory at Salamis in 480BC, the Persian commander Mardonius had Alexander I of Macedon sent to Athens as a chief envoy to orchestrate an alliance between the Achaemenid Empire and Athens.
KimonCimon of AthensCimon/Kimon
510– 450BC) or Kimon (, Kimōn) was an Athenian statesman and general in mid-5th century BC Greece.
The metics, i.e. those who did not have citizen rights and paid for the right to reside in Athens, numbered a further 70,000, whilst slaves were estimated at between 150,000 and 400,000.
The new system laid the foundations for what eventually became Athenian democracy, but in the short-term it failed to quell class conflict and after twenty years of unrest the popular party, led by Peisistratus, seized power (in 541 BC).
Peisistratos (died 528/7 BC), Latinized Pisistratus, the son of Hippocrates, was a ruler of ancient Athens during most of the period between 561 and 527 BC.
Nicias (Νικίας Nikias; c. 470–413 BC), was an Athenian politician and general during the period of the Peloponnesian War.
undefined 450–404 BC), from the deme of Scambonidae, was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general.
The first owner (malikhane sahib), Ismail Agha, a local Turk from Livadeia, had been humane and popular, appointing good voevodas, so that he was nicknamed "the Good".
Pausanias relates that this height was originally occupied by the Homeric city of Mideia, from whence the inhabitants, under the conduct of Lebadus, an Athenian, migrated into the plain, and founded there the city named after him.
The following is a of the history of the city of Athens, Greece.
The leading statesman of the mid-fifth century BC was Pericles, who used the tribute paid by the members of the Delian League to build the Parthenon and other great monuments of classical Athens.
The name of Athens, connected to the name of its patron goddess Athena, originates from an earlier Pre-Greek language. Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for at least 5000 years.