History of Bengal

ancient BengalBengalBangla, Bengali: বাংলা/বঙ্গBengal regionBengal's historyhistoricallyhistoryits historysultanate of Bengal
The history of Bengal is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions of South Asia and Southeast Asia.wikipedia
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West Bengal

West Bengal, IndiaBengalWestern Bengal
It includes modern-day Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam's Barak Valley, located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, at the apex of the Bay of Bengal and dominated by the fertile Ganges delta.
Several regional and pan−Indian empires throughout Bengal's history have shaped its culture, cuisine, and architecture.

Bengali alphabet

BengaliBengali scriptBangla
This era saw the development of Bengali language, script, literature, music, art and architecture.
It later continued to be specifically used in the Bengal region.

Bengal Sultanate

Sultanate of BengalSultan of BengalBengal
An independent Bengal Sultanate was formed in 1352 and ruled the region for two centuries, during which a distinct form of Islam based on Sufism and the Bengali language emerged and the region was known as a major trading nation in the world.
The Bengal Sultanate was also the largest and most prestigious authority among the independent medieval Muslim-ruled states in the history of Bengal.

Harikela

The Chandra kingdom covered the Harikela region, which was known as the Kingdom of Ruhmi to Arab traders.
Harikela was a kingdom in ancient Bengal encompassing much of the eastern regions of the Indian Subcontinent.

Partition of Bengal (1947)

partition of BengalPartitionpartitioned
A hotbed of the Indian independence movement through the early 20th century, Bengal was divided during India's independence in 1947 along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal—a state of India—and East Bengal—a part of the newly created Dominion of Pakistan that later became the independent nation of Bangladesh in 1971.
Radcliffe's line split Bengal, which historically was always a single economic zone, single cultural and ethnic (Bengali-Hindu or Bengali-Muslim) zone, into two-halves.

Gauḍa (city)

GaurGaudaLakhnauti
The citadel of Gauda served as capital of the Gauda Kingdom, the Buddhist Pala Empire (eighth to 11th century) and Hindu Sena Empire (11th–12th century). These included a realm led by Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah (and later his son) in Sonargaon; a realm led by Alauddin Ali Shah in Gauda (also called Lakhnauti); and a realm led by Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah in Satgaon.
Gauda was one of the prominent capitals in the history of Bengal and the history of the Indian subcontinent.

Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah

Jalal-ud-Din Muhammad Shah
The Bengal Sultanate was notable for its Hindu aristocracy, including the rise of Raja Ganesha and his son Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah as usurpers.

Alauddin Husain Shah

Alauddin Hussain ShahHussein ShahHussain Shah
Under the patronage of Sultans like Alauddin Hussain Shah, Bengali literature began replacing the strong influence of Sanskrit in the region.

Raja Ganesha

GaneshGanesha
The Bengal Sultanate was notable for its Hindu aristocracy, including the rise of Raja Ganesha and his son Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah as usurpers.

Isa Khan

Khan, IssaSyeda Momena Khatun
In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Isa Khan, a Muslim Rajput chief, who led the Baro Bhuiyans (twelve landlords), dominated the Bengal delta.

Bengali Renaissance

Bengal RenaissanceHindu RenaissanceIndian Renaissance
The early and prolonged exposure to British administration resulted in the expansion of Western education, culminating in development of science, institutional education, and social reforms in the region, including what became known as the Bengali Renaissance.

Murshidabad

KarnasuvarnaMoorshedabadMoorshedábád
Dutch settlements in Bengal included the Dutch settlement in Rajshahi, the main Dutch port in Baliapal, as well as factories in Chhapra (saltpetre), Dhaka (muslin), Balasore, Patna, Cossimbazar, Malda, Mirzapur, Murshidabad, Rajmahal and Sherpur.
The area was part of the Gauda Kingdom and Vanga Kingdom in ancient Bengal.

History of rulers of Bengal

List of rulers of Bengalcomplete listBengal
* List of rulers of Bengal
For much of its history, Bengal was split up into several independent kingdoms, completely unifying only several times.

Deva dynasty

DevaDeva KingdomDevas
The Deva dynasty was a Hindu dynasty of medieval Bengal that ruled over eastern Bengal after the collapse Sena Empire.

Sena dynasty

SenaSena EmpireSenas
The citadel of Gauda served as capital of the Gauda Kingdom, the Buddhist Pala Empire (eighth to 11th century) and Hindu Sena Empire (11th–12th century).

Middle kingdoms of India

Classical IndiaClassical periodmiddle kingdoms
It was the largest Bengali empire that was known to ancient and classical India.

Mahmud Shah of Bengal

Nasiruddin Mahmud ShahMahmud ShahNasiruddin Mahmud Shah I
The Ilyas Shahi Dynasty was interrupted in 1414 by a native uprising but was restored by Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah in 1433.

Alivardi Khan

Ali Vardi KhanAlwardi KhanMirza Muhammad Ali
The dynasty was founded by Alivardi Khan.

Vijaya Sena

Vijay SenBijoy Sen
Vijaya Sena, second ruler of the dynasty, defeated the last Pala emperor, Madanapala, and established his reign formally.

Ballala Sena

Ballal SenBallal SenaBallala
Ballala Sena, third ruler of the dynasty, was a scholar and philosopher king.

Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah

Ilyas ShahShamsuddin Iliyas ShahIlyas Shah Shamsuddin
These included a realm led by Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah (and later his son) in Sonargaon; a realm led by Alauddin Ali Shah in Gauda (also called Lakhnauti); and a realm led by Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah in Satgaon.

Sarfaraz Khan

Sarfraz KhanSarfaraz Khan BahadurMirza Asadullah
Its other rulers included Sarfaraz Khan and Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan.

Sher Shah Suri

Sher ShahShershah SuriSher Khan
In the 16th century, the Mughal emperor Humayun was forced to take shelter in Persia as the conqueror Sher Shah Suri rampaged through the subcontinent.

Murshid Quli Khan

Murshid Quli Jafar KhanMurshid Kuli KhanNawab Murshid Quli Khan
The dynasty was founded by the first Nawab of Bengal Murshid Quli Khan.