History of CP/CMS

time-sharing operating systems
This article covers the History of CP/CMS — the historical context in which the IBM time-sharing virtual machine operating system was built.wikipedia
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CP/CMS

CP-40 CP[-67]/CMSCMS
CP/CMS development occurred in a complex political and technical milieu.
This effort occurred in a complex political and technical milieu, discussed at some length and supported by first-hand quotes in the Wikipedia article History of CP/CMS.

Virtual machine

virtual machinesVMvirtual server
This article covers the History of CP/CMS — the historical context in which the IBM time-sharing virtual machine operating system was built. Robert Creasy left Project MAC to lead the CSC team, which promptly began work on what was to become CP-40, the first successful virtual machine operating system based on fully virtualized hardware.
The first widely available virtual machine architecture was the CP-67/CMS (see History of CP/CMS for details).

Time-sharing

timesharingtime sharingtime-sharing system
This article covers the History of CP/CMS — the historical context in which the IBM time-sharing virtual machine operating system was built. The seminal first-generation time-sharing system was CTSS, first demonstrated at MIT in 1961 and in production use from 1964–74.

IBM CP-40

CP-40CP-40/CMS
Robert Creasy left Project MAC to lead the CSC team, which promptly began work on what was to become CP-40, the first successful virtual machine operating system based on fully virtualized hardware.
Also see History of CP/CMS for additional context.

History of IBM

IBMIBM Federal Systems Divisionunbundling of software and services
At the time of the S/360-67, software was "bundled" into computer hardware purchases; see "IBM's unbundling of software and services".

VM (operating system)

VM/CMSVMVM/370
In the summer of 1970, the CP/CMS team had begun work on a System/370 version of CP/CMS; this would become VM/370.
The early history of VM is described in the articles CP/CMS and History of CP/CMS.

VP/CSS

This operating system was soon renamed VP/CSS; the company went public, and was renamed National CSS.
As described in History of CP/CMS, IBM's primary emphasis on MVS and its successors as its core mainframe operating system led IBM to waste the substantial technical advantage represented by VM/370.

Operating system

operating systemsOScomputer operating system
This article covers the History of CP/CMS — the historical context in which the IBM time-sharing virtual machine operating system was built.

Compatible Time-Sharing System

CTSSCompatible Time Sharing System
The seminal first-generation time-sharing system was CTSS, first demonstrated at MIT in 1961 and in production use from 1964–74.

Computational science

scientific computingscientific computationcomputational
Time-sharing concepts were first articulated in the late 50s, particularly as a way to meet the needs of scientific computing.

Batch processing

batchbatch jobbatch mode
At the time, computers were primarily used for batch processing — where jobs were submitted on punch cards, and run in sequence.

MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory

Project MACMIT Artificial Intelligence LaboratoryComputer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
MIT researchers spearheaded this effort, launching Project MAC, which was intended to develop the next generation of time-sharing technology and which would ultimately build Multics, an extremely feature-rich time-sharing system that would later inspire the initial development of UNIX.

Software feature

feature-richfeaturefeatures
MIT researchers spearheaded this effort, launching Project MAC, which was intended to develop the next generation of time-sharing technology and which would ultimately build Multics, an extremely feature-rich time-sharing system that would later inspire the initial development of UNIX.

Unix

UNIX operating systemAT&T UnixUnix-like
MIT researchers spearheaded this effort, launching Project MAC, which was intended to develop the next generation of time-sharing technology and which would ultimately build Multics, an extremely feature-rich time-sharing system that would later inspire the initial development of UNIX.

Dartmouth BASIC

ANSI BASIC
Most early time-sharing systems sidestepped these problems by giving users new or modified languages, such as Dartmouth BASIC, which were accessed through interpreters or restricted execution contexts.

IBM System/360

System/360IBM 360IBM/360
IBM embarked on a very risky undertaking: the System/360.

IBM 700/7000 series

IBM 705IBM 7010FAP
This product line was intended to replace IBM's diverse earlier offerings, including the IBM 7000 series, the canceled IBM 8000 series, the IBM 1130 series, and various other specialized machines used for scientific and other applications.

IBM 8000

This product line was intended to replace IBM's diverse earlier offerings, including the IBM 7000 series, the canceled IBM 8000 series, the IBM 1130 series, and various other specialized machines used for scientific and other applications.

IBM 1130

11301130 computing systemVariations
This product line was intended to replace IBM's diverse earlier offerings, including the IBM 7000 series, the canceled IBM 8000 series, the IBM 1130 series, and various other specialized machines used for scientific and other applications.

Backward compatibility

backward compatiblebackward-compatiblebackwards compatible
The System/360 would span an unprecedented range of processing power, memory size, device support, and cost; and more important, it was based on a pledge of backward compatibility, such that any customer could move software to a new system without modification. In today's world of standard interfaces and portable systems, this may not seem such a radical goal; but at the time, it was revolutionary.

Diseconomies of scale

Diseconomy of scaledecreasingdiseconomies
IBM took on one of the largest and most ambitious engineering projects in history, and in the process discovered diseconomies of scale and the mythical man-month.

The Mythical Man-Month

The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software EngineeringMythical man monthmythical man-month
IBM took on one of the largest and most ambitious engineering projects in history, and in the process discovered diseconomies of scale and the mythical man-month.

Fred Brooks

Frederick P. Brooks, Jr.Brooks, FredBrooks, Jr., Frederick P.
Extensive literature on the period, such as that by Fred Brooks, illustrate the pitfalls.

Virtual memory

virtual storagememoryswap
Many of the concepts involved, such as virtual memory, remained unproven.