A report on History of Greece

Proto-Greek linguistic area according to linguist Vladimir I. Georgiev.
Mycenaean Greece, c. undefined 1400–1100 BC.
The ancient theatre of Dodona
The Temple of Hephaestus in Athens
Bust of Herodotus in Stoa of Attalus, one of the earliest nameable historians whose work survives.
Leonidas at Thermopylae by Jacques-Louis David.
Map of the Delian League ("Athenian Empire or Alliance") in 431 BC, just prior to the Peloponnesian War.
The Stag Hunt Mosaic at the Archaeological Museum of Pella (3rd BC)
Scene of the Battle of Corinth (146 BC): last day before the Roman legions looted and burned the city of Corinth. The last day on Corinth, Tony Robert-Fleury, 1870
View of the Roman Odeon of Patras
Byzantine era monasteries in Meteora
Depiction of the Greek fire by John Skylitzes' Chronicle (late 11th century).
Part of the Byzantine Walls of Thessaloniki
Exterior view of Hosios Loukas monastery, artistic example of the Macedonian Renaissance
The division of the Byzantine Empire after the Fourth Crusade.
The Battle of Navarino, in October 1827, marked the effective end of Ottoman rule in Greece.
Nafplio, the first capital of independent Greece during the governance of Ioannis Kapodistrias
The territorial evolution of Kingdom of Greece until 1947
George I was King of the Hellenes from 1862 to 1913
The landing of Greek troops in Kavala during the Balkan Wars
The I Battalion of the Army of National Defence marches on its way to the front, 1916. Greece joined united with the Allies side in summer 1917.
A map of Greater Greece after the Treaty of Sèvres, when the Megali Idea seemed close to fulfillment, featuring Eleftherios Venizelos.
Greek cavalry attacking during the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922).
Proclamation of the Second Hellenic Republic in 1924. Crowds holding placards depicting Alexandros Papanastasiou, Georgios Kondylis and Alexandros Hatzikyriakos
Members of the National Organisation of Youth (EON) salute in presence of dictator Metaxas (1938)
Georgios Tsolakoglou with Wehrmacht officers arrives at Macedonia Hall of Anatolia College in Thessaloniki, to sign the surrender (April 1941)
Greek Resistance cavalry during the Axis occupation
Clashes in Athens during the Dekemvriana events
Organization and military bases of the Communist led "Democratic Army", as well as entry routes to Greece.
Protest against the junta by Greek political exiles in Germany, 1967
The socialist prime minister Andreas Papandreou
The major Hellenistic realms included the Diadoch kingdoms:
Kingdom of Ptolemy I Soter
Kingdom of Cassander
Kingdom of Lysimachus
Kingdom of Seleucus I Nicator
Epirus
Also shown on the map:
Greek colonies
Carthage (non-Greek)
Rome (non-Greek)
The orange areas were often in dispute after 281 BC. The Kingdom of Pergamon occupied some of this area. Not shown: Indo-Greek Kingdom.

The history of Greece encompasses the history of the territory of the modern nation-state of Greece as well as that of the Greek people and the areas they inhabited and ruled historically.

- History of Greece
Proto-Greek linguistic area according to linguist Vladimir I. Georgiev.

18 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Battle of Salamis

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Naval battle fought between an alliance of Greek city-states under Themistocles and the Persian Empire under King Xerxes in 480 BC. It resulted in a decisive victory for the outnumbered Greeks.

Naval battle fought between an alliance of Greek city-states under Themistocles and the Persian Empire under King Xerxes in 480 BC. It resulted in a decisive victory for the outnumbered Greeks.

Map showing the Greek world at the time of the battle
Battle of Salamis, 1785 engraving
Greek trireme.
Fleet of triremes based on the full-sized replica Olympias
The Lycian dynast Kybernis (520-480 BCE) led 50 Lycian ships in the Achaemenid fleet.
The Ionian fleet, here seen joining with Persian forces at the Bosphorus in preparation of the European Scythian campaign of Darius I in 513 BC, was part of the Achaemenid fleet at Salamis. 19th century illustration.
The battle of Salamis, 19th century illustration.
Greek triremes at Salamis.
Battle of Salamis, by Wilhelm von Kaulbach (detail).
Death of the Persian admiral Ariabignes (a brother of Xerxes) early in the battle; illustration from Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls c. 1910
Artemisia, Queen of Halicarnassus, and commander of the Carian contingent of the Achaemenid fleet, at the Battle of Salamis, shooting arrows at the Greeks. Wilhelm von Kaulbach (detail).
The triumph of Themistocles after Salamis. 19th century illustration.
The wrath of Xerxes looking at the Battle of Salamis from his promontory, by Wilhelm von Kaulbach (detail).
Serpent Column, a monument to their alliance, dedicated by the victorious Allies in the aftermath of Plataea; now at the Hippodrome of Constantinople

A congress of city states met at Corinth in late autumn of 481 BC, and a confederate alliance of Greek city-states was formed.

Persian soldier (left) and Greek hoplite (right) depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC

Greco-Persian Wars

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The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC. The collision between the fractious political world of the Greeks and the enormous empire of the Persians began when Cyrus the Great conquered the Greek-inhabited region of Ionia in 547 BC. Struggling to control the independent-minded cities of Ionia, the Persians appointed tyrants to rule each of them.

The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC. The collision between the fractious political world of the Greeks and the enormous empire of the Persians began when Cyrus the Great conquered the Greek-inhabited region of Ionia in 547 BC. Struggling to control the independent-minded cities of Ionia, the Persians appointed tyrants to rule each of them.

Persian soldier (left) and Greek hoplite (right) depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
Herodotus, the main historical source for this conflict
Thucydides continued Herodotus's narrative
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent under Darius the Great
Persian and Median Immortals in ceremonial dress, bas-relief in Persepolis
According to Herodotus, the Athenians, hoping for protection against Sparta, made the gift of "Earth and Water" to the Persians in 507 BC.
Coinage of Athens at the time of Cleisthenes. Effigy of Athena, with owl and ΑΘΕ, initials of "Athens". Circa 510-500/490 BC.
The burning of Sardis by the Greeks and the Ionians during the Ionian Revolt in 498 BC.
Map showing main events of the Ionian Revolt.
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars
The Greek wings envelop the Persians
Achaemenid king fighting hoplites, seal and seal holder, Cimmerian Bosporus.
The soldiers of Xerxes I, of all ethnicities, on the tomb of Xerxes I, at Naqsh-e Rostam.
Probable Spartan hoplite (Vix crater, c. 500 BC).
Major events in the second invasion of Greece
The pass of Thermopylae
Schematic diagram illustrating events during the Battle of Salamis
Spartans fighting against Persian forces at the Battle of Plataea. 19th century illustration.
Athens and her "empire" in 431 BC. The empire was the direct descendant of the Delian League
Map showing the locations of battles fought by the Delian League, 477–449 BC
Dynast of Lycia, Kherei, with Athena on the obverse, and himself wearing the Persian cap on the reverse. Circa 440/30–410 BC.
Coinage of Tiribazos, Satrap of Lydia, with Faravahar on the obverse. 388–380 BC.

A congress of states met at Corinth in late autumn of 481 BC, and a confederate alliance of Greek city-states was formed.

The gymnasium and palaestra at Olympia, the site of the ancient Olympic games. The archaic period conventionally dates from the first Olympiad.

Archaic Greece

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The gymnasium and palaestra at Olympia, the site of the ancient Olympic games. The archaic period conventionally dates from the first Olympiad.
Ruins of the Temple of Apollo within the polis of Ancient Corinth, built c.540BC, with the Acrocorinth (the city's acropolis) seen in the background
The lawgiver Solon reformed the Athenian constitution at the beginning of the sixth century BC
Areas settled by Greeks by the close of the archaic period
Ruins of the Temple of Heracles, Agrigento, Sicily, built in the late 6th century BC. Sicily was the site of the earliest Greek colonies.
An ear of barley, symbol of wealth in the city of Metapontum in Magna Graecia (i.e. the Greek colonies of southern Italy), on a stamped stater, minted c. 530–510 BCE
The Vix Krater, an imported Greek wine-mixing bronze vessel found in the Hallstatt/La Tène grave of the "Lady of Vix", Burgundy, France, c. 500 BC
Attic black-figure vessel with double alphabet inscription, showing new letters ΥΧ[Φ]Ψ, and ΥΧΦΨΩ. Probably early 6th c. BC
Homer, author of the earliest surviving Greek literature
The remains of the Temple of Apollo at Corinth, the first Greek temple to be built in stone.

Archaic Greece was the period in Greek history lasting from circa 800 BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC, following the Greek Dark Ages and succeeded by the Classical period.

Persians and Spartans fighting at Plataea. 19th century illustration.

Battle of Plataea

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The final land battle during the second Persian invasion of Greece.

The final land battle during the second Persian invasion of Greece.

Persians and Spartans fighting at Plataea. 19th century illustration.
A map showing the Greek world at the time of the battle
The Achaemenid Empire and its allied Greek states (Macedonia, Thessaly, Malis, Locris, Phocis and Boeotia) at the time of the Battle of Plataea.
Movements of the Persian and Greek armies in 480–479 BC
Answer of Aristides to the ambassadors of Mardonius: "As long as the sun holds to its present course, we shall never come to terms with Xerxes".
The initial movements at the Battle of Plataea. The Greek line moves forward to the Asopus ridge.
Death of Masistius in early skirmishes.
The Spartan general Pausanias commanded the Allied Greek troops.
Disposition of Achaemenid troops beyond the Asopos river at the beginning of the Battle of Plataea. From left to right: Greek allies, Sacae, Indians, Bactrians, Medes and Persians.
Aristides, commander of the Athenians, informed by Alexander I of Macedon (a nominal ally of the Achaemenids) that delaying the encounter with the Persians would help further diminish their already low supplies. Battle of Plataea, 479 BC.
The battlefield of Plataea from the Achaemenid (northern) side.
Pausanias offering sacrifice to the Gods before the battle
Scene of the Battle of Plataea. 19th century illustration.
The main phase of the battle at Plataea. The Greek retreat becomes disorganised, and the Persians cross the Asopus to attack.
Scene of the Battle of Plataea on the south frieze of the Temple of Athena Nike, Athens. The scene on the right may show the fight over the body of Masistius. British Museum.
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting on an ancient kylix. 5th century BC
Coin of Alexander I of Macedon in the decade following the Battle of Plataea and the departure of Achaemenid forces (struck in 480/79-470 BC).

A congress of city states met at Corinth in the late autumn of 481 BC, and a confederate alliance of Greek city-states was formed (hereafter referred to as "the Allies").

Leonidas at Thermopylae, by Jacques-Louis David, 1814.

Battle of Thermopylae

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Fought in 480 BC between the Achaemenid Persian Empire under Xerxes I and an alliance of Greek city-states led by Sparta under Leonidas I.

Fought in 480 BC between the Achaemenid Persian Empire under Xerxes I and an alliance of Greek city-states led by Sparta under Leonidas I.

Leonidas at Thermopylae, by Jacques-Louis David, 1814.
A map of almost all the parts of the Greek world that partook in the Persian Wars
The Spartans throw Persian envoys into a well
The site of the battle today. Mount Kallidromon on the left, and the wide coastal plain formed by accretion of fluvial deposits over the centuries; the road to the right approximates the 480 BC shoreline.
Map showing Greek and Persian advances to Thermopylae and Artemisium
5th century hoplite.
A flow map of the battle
Map of Thermopylae area with a reconstructed shoreline of 480 BC.
Contemporary depictions: probable Spartan hoplite (Vix crater, c.500 BC), and Scythian warrior of the Achaemenid army (tomb of Xerxes I, c.480 BC), at the time of the Second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC).
Spartans surrounded by Persians, Battle of Thermopylae. 19th century illustration.
Crown-wearing Achaemenid king killing a Greek hoplite. Impression from a cylinder seal, sculpted circa 500 BC–475 BC, at the time of Xerxes I. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
A Persian soldier at the time of the Second Achaemenid invasion of Greece.
The Capture of the Acropolis and the destruction of Athens by the Achaemenids, following the battle of Thermopylae.
Hidush (Indian soldier of the Achaemenid army), circa 480 BC. Xerxes I tomb. Herodotus explained that Indians participated on the Second Persian invasion of Greece.
Epitaph with Simonides' epigram
The Battle of Thermopylae, 19th century engraving
The Persian Gates narrow pass
Scene of the Battle of the Thermopylae (19th century illustration).
Leonidas Monument
Thespian monument

A congress met at Corinth in late autumn of 481 BC, and a confederate alliance of Greek city-states was formed.

The Parthenon, in Athens, a temple to Athena

Classical Greece

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Period of around 200 years in Ancient Greece, marked by much of the eastern Aegean and northern regions of Greek culture (such as Ionia and Macedonia) gaining increased autonomy from the Persian Empire; the peak flourishing of democratic Athens; the First and Second Peloponnesian Wars; the Spartan and then Theban hegemonies; and the expansion of Macedonia under Philip II.

Period of around 200 years in Ancient Greece, marked by much of the eastern Aegean and northern regions of Greek culture (such as Ionia and Macedonia) gaining increased autonomy from the Persian Empire; the peak flourishing of democratic Athens; the First and Second Peloponnesian Wars; the Spartan and then Theban hegemonies; and the expansion of Macedonia under Philip II.

The Parthenon, in Athens, a temple to Athena
Construction of the Parthenon began in the 5th century BC
Map of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars (500–479 BC)
Cities at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War
Athenian empire.
A soldier's helmet on black-figure pottery
The Greek theater in Taormina
Artemision Bronze, thought to be either Poseidon or Zeus, c. 460 BC, National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Found by fishermen off the coast of Cape Artemisium in 1928. The figure is more than 2 m in height.
Grave relief of Thraseas and Euandria from Athens, 375–350 BC, Pergamon Museum (Berlin)
A Kylix (drinking cup) from Attica showing a goddess performing a libation, 470 BC, white ground technique pottery
The Temple of Hephaestus at the Agora of Athens, built 449–415 BC
Boetian art, dating from mid-5th century BC
Thessalian cavalryman on the Alexander Sarcophagus, late 4th century BC (Istanbul Archaeological Museum)
A wall mural of a charioteer from the Macedonian royal tombs at Vergina, late 6th century BC

Much of the early defining politics, artistic thought (architecture, sculpture), scientific thought, theatre, literature and philosophy of Western civilization derives from this period of Greek history, which had a powerful influence on the later Roman Empire.

Second Persian invasion of Greece

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The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece.

The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece.

A map showing the Greek world at the time of the invasion
The Spartans throw Persian envoys into a well.
The soldiers of Xerxes I, of all ethnicities, on the tomb of Xerxes I, at Naqsh-e Rostam.
Crossing the Hellespont by Xerxes with his huge army
Xerxes attending the lashing and "chaining" of the Hellespont (Illustration from 1909)
Probable Spartan Hoplite, Vix krater, circa 500 BC.
The ancient Achaemenid fort at Eion (hill to the left) and the mouth of the Strymon River (right), seen from Ennea Hodoi (Amphipolis).
Battle of Thermopylae and movements to Salamis, 480 BC.
The pass of Thermopylae in modern times
Achaemenid king killing a Greek hoplite. Circa 500 BC–475 BC, at the time of Xerxes I. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
A few Athenians resisted in the Acropolis of Athens, which was stormed and burned down by the Achaemenid Army of Xerxes.
Remains of the Old Temple of Athena on the Acropolis, destroyed by the armies of Xerxes I during the Destruction of Athens.
Part of the archaeological remains called Perserschutt, or "Persian rubble": remnants of the destruction of Athens by the armies of Xerxes. Photographed in 1866, just after excavation.
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Battle of Plataea.
The main battle at Plataea. The Greek retreat becomes disorganised, and the Persians cross the Asopus to attack.
Achaemenid troops at the Battle of Plataea: Greek allies, Sacae, Indians, Bactrians, Medes and Persians, under Mardonius.
The Serpent Column, a monument dedicated by the victorious Allies
Diagram reconstructing the armament of a Greek hoplite
Persian soldiers, possibly Immortals, a frieze in Darius's palace at Susa. Silicious glazed bricks, c. 510 BC, Louvre.
The Scythians (Sakas) formed a large portion of the Achaemenid army. Detail of the tomb of Xerxes I at Naqsh-e Rostam, circa 480 BC.
A Persian soldier of the Achaemenid army. Detail of the tomb of Xerxes I at Naqsh-e Rostam, circa 480 BC.
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting. Ancient kylix, 5th century BC.

A congress of states met at Corinth in late autumn of 481 BC, and a confederate alliance of Greek city-states was formed.

A map of the Bronze Age collapse

Greek Dark Ages

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A map of the Bronze Age collapse
Geometric-style box in the shape of a barn. On display in the Ancient Agora Museum in Athens, housed in the Stoa of Attalus. From early geometric cremation burial of a pregnant wealthy woman, 850 BC.
Finds from an early geometric Cremation Burial of a pregnant wealthy woman, from the N.W. of the Areopagus, about 850 BC, Ancient Agora Museum (Athens); exhibit 14–16: broad gold finger rings; exhibit 17–19: gold finger rings; 20: pair of gold earrings with trapezoid endings
Ancient Greek pair of terracotta boots. Early geometric period cremation burial of a woman, 900 BC. Ancient Agora Museum in Athens.

The Greek Dark Ages is the period of Greek history from the end of the Mycenaean palatial civilization around 1100 BC to the beginning of the Archaic age around 750 BC.

Scene of the Battle of Corinth (146 BC): last day before the Roman legions looted and burned the Greek city of Corinth. The last day on Corinth, Tony Robert-Fleury, 1870

Greece in the Roman era

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Scene of the Battle of Corinth (146 BC): last day before the Roman legions looted and burned the Greek city of Corinth. The last day on Corinth, Tony Robert-Fleury, 1870
The Roman conquest of Ancient Greece in the 2nd century BC

Greece in the Roman era describes the Roman conquest of Greece, as well as the period of Greek history when Greece was dominated first by the Roman Republic and then by the Roman Empire.

The beginning of Frankokratia: the division of the Byzantine Empire after the Fourth Crusade

Frankokratia

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The beginning of Frankokratia: the division of the Byzantine Empire after the Fourth Crusade
Greek and Latin states in southern Greece, c. undefined 1210
The Eastern Mediterranean c. undefined 1450 AD, showing the Ottoman Empire, the surviving Byzantine empire (purple) and the various Latin possessions in Greece
The Frankish tower on the Acropolis of Athens, demolished in 1874
Chlemoutsi castle
Rhodes (city), around 1490
Palace of the Grand Master of the Knights of Rhodes
Church of Virgin, Rhodes (city)
Genoese Castle of Mytilene
Platamon Castle
Stato da Màr of the Republic of Venice
Map of the Kingdom of Candia
Venetian map of Negroponte (Chalkis)
Fortress of Nafpaktos
Old Fortress, Corfu
Palamidi, Nafplion
Rocca a Mare fortress in Heraklion
The Morosini fountain, Lions Square, Heraklion

The Frankokratia (Φραγκοκρατία, Francocratia, sometimes anglicized as Francocracy, lit. "rule of the Franks"), also known as Latinokratia (Λατινοκρατία, Latinocratia, "rule of the Latins") and, for the Venetian domains, Venetokratia or Enetokratia (Βενετοκρατία or Ενετοκρατία, Venetocratia, "rule of the Venetians"), was the period in Greek history after the Fourth Crusade (1204), when a number of primarily French and Italian states were established by the Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae on the territory of the dissolved Byzantine Empire.