History of India

ancient IndiaIndiaIndian historyIndianancient IndianhistoryancientIndian civilizationsecond urbanisationIndians
According to consensus in modern genetics anatomically modern humans first arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa between 73,000 and 55,000 years ago.wikipedia
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Vedas

VedicVedaVedic literature
The resulting Vedic period was marked by the composition of the Vedas, large collections of hymns of these tribes whose postulated religious culture, through synthesis with the preexisting religious cultures of the subcontinent, gave rise to Hinduism.
The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India.

Middle kingdoms of India

Classical IndiaClassical periodmiddle kingdoms
During the Classical period, various parts of India were ruled by numerous dynasties for the next 1,500 years, among which the Gupta Empire stands out.
The invasion of India by Scythian tribes from Central Asia, often referred to as the "Indo-Scythian invasion", played a significant part in the history of India as well as nearby countries.

Cradle of civilization

first civilizationcradles of civilizationcradle of civilisation
Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, the Indus valley region was one of three early cradles of civilisation of the Old World.
Current thinking is that there was no single "cradle", but several civilizations that developed independently, with the Fertile Crescent (Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia), Ancient India, and Ancient China understood to be the earliest.

Vedic period

VedicVedic civilizationVedic age
The resulting Vedic period was marked by the composition of the Vedas, large collections of hymns of these tribes whose postulated religious culture, through synthesis with the preexisting religious cultures of the subcontinent, gave rise to Hinduism.
1500), is the period in the history of the northern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation which began in the central Indo-Gangetic Plain c.

Indian philosophy

philosophyIndianIndian philosopher
Many of the concepts of Indian philosophy espoused later, like dharma, trace their roots to Vedic antecedents. During the Late Vedic Period, the kingdom of Videha emerged as a new centre of Vedic culture, situated even farther to the East (in what is today Nepal and Bihar state in India); reaching its prominence under the king Janaka, whose court provided patronage for Brahmin sages and philosophers such as Yajnavalkya, Aruni, and Gargi Vachaknavi.
Indian philosophy refers to ancient philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent.

Delhi Sultanate

Sultanate of DelhiSultan of DelhiDelhi
Islamic conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Sindh as early as the 8th century, and the Delhi Sultanate was founded in 1206 CE by Central Asian Turks who ruled a major part of the northern Indian subcontinent in the early 14th century, but declined in the late 14th century.
During and in the Delhi Sultanate, there was a synthesis of Indian civilization with that of Islamic civilization, and the further integration of the Indian subcontinent with a growing world system and wider international networks spanning large parts of Afro-Eurasia, which had a significant impact on Indian culture and society, as well as the wider world.

Kosala

Kingdom of KosalaKosala KingdomKaushal
The Iron Age in the Indian subcontinent from about 1200 BCE to the 6th century BCE is defined by the rise of Janapadas, which are realms, republics and kingdoms—notably the Iron Age Kingdoms of Kuru, Panchala, Kosala, Videha. Ancient Buddhist texts, like the Anguttara Nikaya, make frequent reference to these sixteen great kingdoms and republics—Anga, Assaka, Avanti, Chedi, Gandhara, Kashi, Kamboja, Kosala, Kuru, Magadha, Malla, Matsya (or Machcha), Panchala, Surasena, Vriji, and Vatsa.
Kingdom of Kosala was an ancient Indian kingdom, corresponding roughly in area with the region of Awadh in present-day Uttar Pradesh.

Vishvamitra

VishwamitraViswamitraKaushika
In the 14th century BCE, the Battle of the Ten Kings, between the Puru Vedic Aryan tribal kingdoms of the Bharatas, allied with other tribes of the Northwest India, guided by the royal sage Vishvamitra, and the Trtsu-Bharata (Puru) king Sudas, who defeats other Vedic tribes—leading to the emergence of the Kuru Kingdom, first state level society during the Vedic period.
Brahmarshi Vishvamitra is one of the most venerated rishis or sages of ancient India.

Kingdom of the Videhas

VidehaMithila KingdomMithila
The Iron Age in the Indian subcontinent from about 1200 BCE to the 6th century BCE is defined by the rise of Janapadas, which are realms, republics and kingdoms—notably the Iron Age Kingdoms of Kuru, Panchala, Kosala, Videha. During the Late Vedic Period, the kingdom of Videha emerged as a new centre of Vedic culture, situated even farther to the East (in what is today Nepal and Bihar state in India); reaching its prominence under the king Janaka, whose court provided patronage for Brahmin sages and philosophers such as Yajnavalkya, Aruni, and Gargi Vachaknavi.
The Kingdom of the Videhas (also known as Mithila and Tirabhukti ) was an ancient Indian kingdom in Late Vedic India which rose to prominence under King Janaka (c.

Iron Age in India

Iron Age IndiaIron AgeIndia
The Iron Age in the Indian subcontinent from about 1200 BCE to the 6th century BCE is defined by the rise of Janapadas, which are realms, republics and kingdoms—notably the Iron Age Kingdoms of Kuru, Panchala, Kosala, Videha.
In the prehistory of the Indian subcontinent, an "Iron Age" is recognized as succeeding the Late Harappan (Cemetery H) culture.

Janaka

JanakKing JanakaKing Janak
During the Late Vedic Period, the kingdom of Videha emerged as a new centre of Vedic culture, situated even farther to the East (in what is today Nepal and Bihar state in India); reaching its prominence under the king Janaka, whose court provided patronage for Brahmin sages and philosophers such as Yajnavalkya, Aruni, and Gargi Vachaknavi.
Janaka was an ancient Indian king of Videha, approximately in the 8th or 7th century BCE,.

Ramayana

RamayanValmiki RamayanaRāmāyaṇa
The Sanskrit epics Ramayana and Mahabharata were composed during this period.
Ramayana is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Mahābhārata.

Mahabharata

MahābhārataMahabharatMahabharatha
The Sanskrit epics Ramayana and Mahabharata were composed during this period.
The Mahābhārata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.

Gautama Buddha

BuddhaSakyamuniShakyamuni
549–477 BCE), proponent of Jainism, and Gautama Buddha (c.
He is believed to have lived and taught mostly in the northeastern part of ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE.

Avanti (Ancient India)

AvantiMalavasAvanti Kingdom
Ancient Buddhist texts, like the Anguttara Nikaya, make frequent reference to these sixteen great kingdoms and republics—Anga, Assaka, Avanti, Chedi, Gandhara, Kashi, Kamboja, Kosala, Kuru, Magadha, Malla, Matsya (or Machcha), Panchala, Surasena, Vriji, and Vatsa.
Avanti was an ancient Indian Mahajanapada (Great Realm), roughly corresponded to the present day Malwa region.

Kharosthi

KharoshthiKharoṣṭhīKharoshti
Especially focused in the Central Ganges plain but also spreading across vast areas of the northern and central Indian subcontinent, this culture is characterized by the emergence of large cities with massive fortifications, significant population growth, increased social stratification, wide-ranging trade networks, construction of public architecture and water channels, specialized craft industries (e.g., ivory and carnelian carving), a system of weights, punch-marked coins, and the introduction of writing in the form of Brahmi and Kharosthi scripts.
The Kharosthi script, also spelled Kharoshthi or Kharoṣṭhī (Kharosthi: 𐨑𐨪𐨆𐨮𐨿𐨛𐨁𐨌), formerly called "Arian-Pali", was an ancient Indian script used in Gandhara (now Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan) to write Gandhari Prakrit and Sanskrit.

Bihar

Bihar stateBihar, IndiaState of Bihar
During the Late Vedic Period, the kingdom of Videha emerged as a new centre of Vedic culture, situated even farther to the East (in what is today Nepal and Bihar state in India); reaching its prominence under the king Janaka, whose court provided patronage for Brahmin sages and philosophers such as Yajnavalkya, Aruni, and Gargi Vachaknavi. The core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar south of the Ganges; its first capital was Rajagriha (modern Rajgir) then Pataliputra (modern Patna).
Mithila gained prominence after the establishment of the Videha Kingdom in ancient India.

Kambojas

KambojaKamboja KingdomKamvojas
Ancient Buddhist texts, like the Anguttara Nikaya, make frequent reference to these sixteen great kingdoms and republics—Anga, Assaka, Avanti, Chedi, Gandhara, Kashi, Kamboja, Kosala, Kuru, Magadha, Malla, Matsya (or Machcha), Panchala, Surasena, Vriji, and Vatsa.
The tribe coalesced to become one of the shodhasha (sixteen) Mahajanapadas (great kingdoms) of ancient India mentioned in the Anguttara Nikaya.

Mahajanapadas

Kingdoms of Ancient IndiaMahajanapadaancient India
The small Indo-Aryan chieftaincies, or janapadas, were consolidated into larger states, or mahajanapadas.
The Mahājanapadas (महाजनपद, from maha, "great", and janapada "foothold of a people") were sixteen kingdoms or oligarchic republics that existed in ancient India from the sixth to fourth centuries BCE.

Kingdom of Kashi

KasiKashiKasis
Ancient Buddhist texts, like the Anguttara Nikaya, make frequent reference to these sixteen great kingdoms and republics—Anga, Assaka, Avanti, Chedi, Gandhara, Kashi, Kamboja, Kosala, Kuru, Magadha, Malla, Matsya (or Machcha), Panchala, Surasena, Vriji, and Vatsa.
The Kingdom of Kashi was an ancient Indian kingdom located in the region around its capital Varanasi, bounded by the Varuna and Asi rivers in the north and south which gave Varanasi its name.

Gandhara

GandhāraGandharanGandahara
Ancient Buddhist texts, like the Anguttara Nikaya, make frequent reference to these sixteen great kingdoms and republics—Anga, Assaka, Avanti, Chedi, Gandhara, Kashi, Kamboja, Kosala, Kuru, Magadha, Malla, Matsya (or Machcha), Panchala, Surasena, Vriji, and Vatsa. These Mahajanapadas evolved and flourished in a belt stretching from Gandhara in the northwest to Bengal in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent and included parts of the trans-Vindhyan region.
Gandhara was one of sixteen mahajanapadas (large conglomerations of urban and rural areas) of ancient India mentioned in Buddhist sources such as Anguttara Nikaya.

Assaka

AshmakaAśmakaAsakajanapadasa
Ancient Buddhist texts, like the Anguttara Nikaya, make frequent reference to these sixteen great kingdoms and republics—Anga, Assaka, Avanti, Chedi, Gandhara, Kashi, Kamboja, Kosala, Kuru, Magadha, Malla, Matsya (or Machcha), Panchala, Surasena, Vriji, and Vatsa.
Assaka (Pali) or Asmaka (IAST: ), was a region of ancient India (700–300 BCE) around and between the river Godavari.

Pataliputra

PatliputraPāṭaliputraPushpapura
The core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar south of the Ganges; its first capital was Rajagriha (modern Rajgir) then Pataliputra (modern Patna).
Pataliputra, IAST: ), adjacent to modern-day Patna, was a city in ancient India, originally built by Magadha ruler Udayin in 490 BCE as a small fort near the Ganges river.

Alexander the Great

AlexanderAlexander III of MacedonAlexander of Macedon
However, the Nanda Empire did not have the opportunity to see their army face Alexander, who invaded north-western India at the time of Dhana Nanda, since Alexander was forced to confine his campaign to the plains of Punjab and Sindh, for his forces mutinied at the river Beas and refused to go any further upon encountering Nanda and Gangaridai forces.
He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, and by the age of thirty, he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to northwestern India.

Haryanka dynasty

HaryankaHaryanka KingdomMagadha Empire
Early sources, from the Buddhist Pāli Canon, the Jain Agamas and the Hindu Puranas, mention Magadha being ruled by the Haryanka dynasty for some 200 years, c. 600–413 BCE.
The Haryanka dynasty is believed to have been the second ruling dynasty of Magadha, an empire of ancient India, which succeeded the mythological Barhadratha dynasty.