Soviet Prime Minister Vyacheslav Molotov signs the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. Behind him stand (left) Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop of Germany and (right) Joseph Stalin. The non-aggression pact had a secret protocol attached in which arrangements were made for a partition of Poland's territory.
Polish infantry in action during the Invasion of Poland in September 1939
A reconstruction of a Bronze Age, Lusatian culture settlement in Biskupin, 8th century BC
Polish anti-aircraft artillery in September 1939
Poland under the rule of Mieszko I, whose acceptance of Christianity under the auspices of the Latin Church and the Baptism of Poland marked the beginning of statehood in 966.
Polish cavalry at Battle of the Bzura
Casimir III the Great is the only Polish king to receive the title of Great. He built extensively during his reign, and reformed the Polish army along with the country's legal code, 1333–70.
Survivor of bombing of Warsaw
The Battle of Grunwald was fought against the German Order of Teutonic Knights, and resulted in a decisive victory for the Kingdom of Poland, 15 July 1410.
Soviet invasion of Poland, September 1939
Wawel Castle in Kraków, seat of Polish kings from 1038 until the capital was moved to Warsaw in 1596.
Poland was partitioned in 1939 as agreed by Germany and the Soviet Union in their treaty; division of Polish territories in 1939–41
King John III Sobieski defeated the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683.
Changes in administration of Polish territories following the 1941 German invasion of the Soviet Union
Stanisław II Augustus, the last King of Poland, reigned from 1764 until his abdication on 25 November 1795.
Hans Frank
The partitions of Poland, carried out by the Kingdom of Prussia (blue), the Russian Empire (brown), and the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy (green) in 1772, 1793 and 1795.
Public execution of 54 Poles in Rożki village, 1942
Chief of State Marshal Józef Piłsudski was a hero of the Polish independence campaign and the nation's premiere statesman from 1918 until his death on 12 May 1935.
Photos from The Black Book of Poland, published in London in 1942 by the Polish Government-in-Exile
Polish Army 7TP tanks on military manoeuvres shortly before the invasion of Poland in 1939
One of the mass graves of the Katyn massacre (spring 1940), exhumed in 1943. The number of victims is estimated at 22,000, with a lower limit of confirmed dead of 21,768. Of them 4,421 were from Kozelsk, 3,820 from Starobelsk, 6,311 from Ostashkov, and 7,305 from Byelorussian and Ukrainian prisons.
Pilots of the 303 Polish Fighter Squadron during the Battle of Britain, October 1940
Wanda Wasilewska
Map of the Holocaust in German-occupied Poland with deportation routes and massacre sites. Major ghettos are marked with yellow stars. Nazi extermination camps are marked with white skulls in black squares. The border in 1941 between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union is marked in red.
German recruitment poster: "Let's do agricultural work in Germany: report immediately to your Vogt"
At High Noon, 4 June 1989 — political poster featuring Gary Cooper to encourage votes for the Solidarity party in the 1989 elections
An announcement of fifty Poles tried and sentenced to death by a Standgericht in retaliation for the assassination of one German policeman, 1944
Flowers in front of the Presidential Palace following the death of Poland's top government officials in a plane crash on 10 April 2010
Battalion Zośka soldiers in Wola during the Warsaw Uprising
Topographic map of Poland
Warsaw Uprising in the Old Town
Morskie Oko alpine lake in the Tatra Mountains. Poland has one of the highest densities of lakes in the world.
Starving Jewish children in the Warsaw Ghetto (1940–1943), during the German occupation of Poland
The wisent, one of Poland's national animals, is commonly found at the ancient and UNESCO-protected Białowieża Forest.
The entrance to the Auschwitz I concentration camp, established by Nazi Germany in Poland
The Sejm is the lower house of the parliament of Poland.
Victims of a massacre committed by the UPA in the village of Lipniki in Volhynia, 1943
The Constitution of 3 May adopted in 1791 was the first modern constitution in Europe.
Władysław Sikorski
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, located in Warsaw
Polish volunteers to Anders' Army, released from a Soviet POW camp
Polish Air Force F-16s, a single-engine multirole fighter aircraft
January 1945 aerial photo of destroyed Warsaw
A Mercedes-Benz Sprinter patrol van belonging to the Polish State Police Service (Policja)
The PKWN Manifesto was issued on 22 July 1944
The Old City of Zamość is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The legacy of World War II: Poland's old and new borders
PKP Intercity Pendolino at the Wrocław railway station
Physicist and chemist Maria Skłodowska-Curie was the first person to win two Nobel Prizes.
Nicolaus Copernicus, the 16th century Polish astronomer who formulated the heliocentric model of the solar system.
Population of Poland from 1900 to 2010 in millions of inhabitants
Dolina Jadwigi — a bilingual Polish-Kashubian road sign with the village name
John Paul II, born Karol Wojtyła, held the papacy between 1978-2005 and was the first Pole to become a Roman Catholic Pope.
Jagiellonian University in Kraków
The Polish White Eagle is Poland's enduring national and cultural symbol
All Saints' Day on 1 November is one of the most important public holidays in Poland.
Lady with an Ermine (1490) by Leonardo da Vinci. It symbolises Poland's cultural heritage and identity.
Selection of hearty traditional comfort food from Poland, including bigos, gołąbki, żurek, pierogi, placki ziemniaczane, and rye bread.
Traditional polonaise dresses, 1780–1785.
Andrzej Wajda, the recipient of an Honorary Oscar, the Palme d'Or, as well as Honorary Golden Lion and Golden Bear Awards.
Headquarters of the publicly funded national television network TVP in Warsaw
The Stadion Narodowy in Warsaw, home of the national football team, and one of the host stadiums of Euro 2012.

Following the German–Soviet non-aggression pact, Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany on 1 September 1939 and by the Soviet Union on 17 September.

- History of Poland (1939–1945)

In September 1939, the German-Soviet invasion of Poland marked the beginning of World War II, which resulted in the Holocaust and millions of Polish casualties.

- Poland

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