History of Warsaw

1659 image of the Warsaw Siren
1411 St. Mary's Church in Warsaw New Town.
View of Warsaw near the end of the 16th century, by Frans Hogenberg
View of Warsaw in 1656 by Erik Dahlbergh
1705 map from Theatrum Europeanum.
1762 map (detail).
The Saxon Axis in about 1781.
Hanging of traitors in effigie at Warsaw's Old Town Market, a contemporary painting by Jan Piotr Norblin. The supporters of the Targowica Confederation, responsible for the second partition of Poland, became public enemies. If they could not be captured, their portraits were hanged instead.
Slaughter of Praga by Aleksander Orłowski, 1810.
Napoleon conferring the Duchy of Warsaw Constitution in 1807.
1831 map of Warsaw with Lubomirski Ramparts marked in red.
Religion was an element of Russification in the Russian Empire. This Roman Catholic Church in Warsaw was seized and converted into a Russian Orthodox Church while Warsaw was a part of the Russian Empire.
German airship Schütte Lanz SL2 bombing Warsaw in 1914.
Theatre Square in Warsaw, c. 1925: on the right, the Great Theatre; on the left, Jabłonowski's Palace (1818–1939 seat of President of Warsaw).
Warsaw in 1935.
Burning Royal Castle after a German shellfire and bombing raid on 17 September 1939
Grave of insurgent from Warsaw Uprising.
During World War II 85% of buildings in Warsaw were destroyed.
Construction of the Palace of Culture and Science, symbol of Soviet domination in Poland.
John Paul II's Mass in Victory Square, 1979.
<center>Ossoliński Palace and Kazanowski Palace in 1656</center>
<center>View of Warsaw from Praga in 1770</center>
<center>View of Warsaw from the Royal Castle in 1773</center>
<center>Marszałkowska Street in 1912</center>
<center>Modern architecture in Warsaw 1929</center>
<center>Warsaw 1935</center>
<center>Warsaw 1937</center>
<center>The National Museum in Warsaw 1938</center>
<center>Piłsudski Square in Warsaw 1939</center>
<center>Warsaw 1939</center>
<center>Warsaw 1939</center>
<center>Warsaw 1939</center>
<center>Polish Army defending Warsaw 1939</center>
<center>Warsaw after German bombardment in September 1939</center>
<center>''American embassy in Warsaw during German air raid in 1939</center>
<center>Warsaw Ghetto 1940-1943</center>
<center>Warsaw Uprising in 1944</center>
<center>Warsaw in 1944</center>
<center>Warsaw in 1944</center>
{{center|''Warsaw in the Fifties (YMCA HQ in the neighbourhood Saska Kępa).}}

The history of Warsaw spans over 1400 years.

- History of Warsaw
1659 image of the Warsaw Siren

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Barracks and watchtowers of KL Warschau during capture of the concentration camp by Battalion Zośka, 5 August 1944

Warsaw concentration camp

German concentration camp in occupied Poland during World War II, formed on the base of the now-nonexistent Gęsiówka prison, in what is today the Warsaw neighbourhood of Muranów.

German concentration camp in occupied Poland during World War II, formed on the base of the now-nonexistent Gęsiówka prison, in what is today the Warsaw neighbourhood of Muranów.

Barracks and watchtowers of KL Warschau during capture of the concentration camp by Battalion Zośka, 5 August 1944
The building of the Wołyń Caserns was commonly known as Gęsiówka. Photo of the burnt edifice taken during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Letter from Oswald Pohl to Heinrich Himmler, dated 23 July 1943, on the creation of KL Warschau, noting arrival of the first 300 prisoners
Outline of the Warsaw concentration camp as overlaid on today's Warsaw map. The Lager I (old part) is to the east of Smocza Street, while Lager II (new part) is to its west
An aerial photograph of the Warsaw Ghetto (south to the top), probably taken in November 1944, showing the camp's structure (a long and narrow rectangle in the image's centre) surrounded by the ghetto's ruins. For the detailed scheme of the camp, see external links section
Warsaw concentration camp's crematorium
Close-up of one of the towers protecting the concentration camp. Photo taken during the camp's liberation. Soldiers from Zośka Battalion appear in the photo
Wilhelm Ruppert, the last commandant of KL Warschau. Mugshot taken in Allied custody
A multilingual sign saying that those who trespass the so-called "neutral zone" may be shot at without warning
Ruins of the tenement house at 27 Dzielna Street in former Warsaw Ghetto, near Pawiak prison. This site was used as an execution spot in 1943–1944.
A bunker of the concentration camp near Okopowa street, destroyed by Battalion Zośka. Photo taken in 1945
Exhumed bodies at the courtyard of Gęsiówka prison as part of the Polish government's inquiry into the crimes committed in the camp, September 1946
Tunnels near Warsaw West rail and bus station. The second tunnel from the left supposedly housed a German gas chamber used to exterminate ethnic Poles.
A purported scheme, in Polish, of the gas chamber in the tunnels near Warszawa Zachodnia station.
A 1995 German post stamp, mentioning the Warsaw concentration camp
alt=Official commemorative site of the Warsaw concentration camp. The plaque in English reads: "On 5 August 1944, 'Zośka', the scouts' battalion of the 'Radosław' unit Armia Krajowa captured the German concentration camp 'Gęsiówka' and liberated 348 Jewish prisoners - citizens of various European countries, many of whom later fought and fell in the Warsaw Uprising"|Official commemorative site of the Warsaw concentration camp, on the corner of Anielewicza and Okopowa street, near the camp's south-west corner.
alt=A commemorative plaque near Pawiak Prison (in Polish). It says: "In honour of the victims of the German concentration camp KL Warschau - inhabitants of Warsaw - the city that was never subdued. Warsaw 2013"|Commemorative plaque near Pawiak Prison
alt=Commemorative plaque placed in 2017, which follows Trzcińska's hypothesis of the camp's history. The plaque reads: "We consecrate the white blot of history that was being hidden [from us] to Our Lady, the Queen of Polish martyrs: In homage to the 200,000 Poles murdered in Warsaw in the German extermination camp KL WARSCHAU in 1942-1944. The camp existed 'in the framework of the annihilation of the Capital of Poland' - from the Sejm resolution dated 27 July 2001 on the victims of KL Warschau. Compatriots - 2017" To the right, a scheme of Warsaw appears with the caption "Pabst Plan - 1940 - Plan of Warsaw's destruction".|Commemorative plaque placed in Warsaw in 2017, contending that 200,000 Poles were murdered in KL Warschau, which it says was "a white blot of history that was being hidden". Its copy was placed in Częstochowa
alt=Another commemorative plaque put by Trzcińska's supporters, citing the same number|Another commemorative plaque citing the same number
alt=Commemoration site for the Warsaw concentration camp on Alojzy Pawelek square, an unofficial gathering place of Trzcińska's supporters. The site consists of a round place surrounded by stones. At one side of the site appears a large stone with an inscription repeating Trzcińska's number, behind which stands a metal cross. Information boards outlining Trzcińska's hypothesis appear on either side of the site|Commemoration site for the Warsaw concentration camp on Alojzy Pawelek square, an unofficial gathering place of Trzcińska's supporters. Photo taken in 2012

The facility, which became known under two names: Central Prison — Labour Centre in Warsaw (Centralne Więzienie – Ośrodek Pracy w Warszawie) or Central Prison Warsaw II Gęsiówka (Centralne Więzienie Warszawa II Gęsiówka), did not de facto change its purpose, as the inmates were still producing building materials for Warsaw's reconstruction, and it still used forced labour, but instead of prisoners of war, common criminals and people accused by the of economic wrongdoings were sent there.

Kutno

City located in central Poland with 43,332 inhabitants and an area of 33.6 km2.

City located in central Poland with 43,332 inhabitants and an area of 33.6 km2.

The 1766 royal decree granting city rights and privileges to Kutno based on Magdeburg Law
Piłsudski Square is one of the oldest areas of the town
Kutno train station in the 1860s
Honourable Guard of the 37th Infantry Regiment with banner – 1933
German postcard from Kutno showing the central city square, renamed Adolf Hitler Platz under German occupation, now Piłsudski Square
Memorial to Polish railwaymen who died in fight during World War II
Ghetto in Kutno
View of present-day Marshal Piłsudski Square on postcard 1950–1960
Królewska Street is the town's main promenade
Wschodnia St. industrial park in 2009
Old theatre building
Complex of Gierałty's palaces, currently K.Kurpiński's National Music School of 1st and 2nd degree in Kutno
Saint Lawrence Catholic Church
Park Wiosny Ludów (Spring of Nations Park)
Jan Henryk Dąbrowski High School No. 1
Higher School of National Economy in Kutno
Kutno Rose Festival in 2009
Aleje Papieża Jana Pawła II ("Pope John Paul II Avenues")
Kutno train station
Antoni Troczewski memorial in Kutno

Despite the ultimate defeat of Polish army, the Battle of the Bzura river made the Germans change their strategy and regroup and also delayed the capitulation of Warsaw.

Stanisław Masłowski in 1925

Stanisław Masłowski

Polish painter of realistic style, the author of watercolor landscapes.

Polish painter of realistic style, the author of watercolor landscapes.

Stanisław Masłowski in 1925
Wschód księżyca (Moonrise), oil/canvas, 1884 (National Museum, Kraków, Gallery of Sukiennice Museum)
Stanisław Masłowski certificate of birth and baptism, 1854 (in Polish)
Stanisław Masłowski grave at Stare Powązki Cemetery in Warsaw, Poland, sect. 11-1-7/8, view of November 2012
Duma Jaremy (Jarema's Duma), oil/canvas, 1879
Wiosna roku 1905 (Spring of 1905 – the Cossacks party at Ujazdowskie Avenue in Warsaw), oil/canvas, 1906 (National Museum in Warsaw)
Market square in Kazimierz Dolny, watercolor, 1899 (National Museum in Warsaw)
Koń na Kapitolu (The Horse statue in the entrance to Capitoline Hill – Campidoglio), Rome, watercolor, 1904 (National Museum in Warsaw)
Pejzaż jesienny z Rybiniszek (Autumn Landscape of Rybiniszki), watercolour, 1902 (National Museum in Warsaw)
Fountain at Palazzo Colonna Garden in Rome, watercolor on paper, 1904 (National Museum in Warsaw)
Łubin – Droga polna (Lupin – A Cart way), watercolor, 1909 (National Museum in Warsaw)
Gryka (Buckwheat Field Landscape), watercolour, Wola Rafałowska, 1922 (National Museum, Kraków, courtesy of Photo Laboratory, National Museum in Kraków)
Ule (Beehives), watercolor, 1924, painted in Wola Rafałowska, (Silesian Museum in Katowice)
Konie w stajni (Horses in a stable), drawing, ca 1875 (sic!<ref>Note: Date of production (1875) and the date of signature (1894) are different; see: Stanisław Masłowski - Materiały do życiorysu i twórczości, Wrocław, 1957, ed. Ossolineum (Polish)</ref>) (National Museum in Warsaw)
Mullein, pencil and watercolor on paper, ca. 1875 (National Museum in Warsaw).
Thistle, pencil and watercolor on cardboard, ca. 1876-1878 (National Museum in Warsaw)
Cyganka (A Gypsy Woman), watercolour, 1877 (?).
Dziewczynka ukraińska (A Ukrainian Girl), watercolour, ca. 1878
Studium rysunkowe drzwi koscioła w Jędrzejowie (The Gate of the Church in Jędrzejów), a study in pencil on paper, ca. 1878 (National Museum in Warsaw)
Konie przy żłobie (Horses at the Crib), study in pencil on paper, ca 1880 (National Museum in Warsaw)
Sołtys Witosek (Witosek - A Village Administrator), drawing on paper, 1880
Poręba (Clearing in the Forest), watercolor, gouache and India ink on paper, 1880, (National Museum in Warsaw)
Andruszowka, Ukrainian Landscape of Andruszowka, watercolor, 1880, (National Museum in Warsaw)
Marsh Landscape, ca 1880 or later (sign.1894), watercolour, gouache, pencil, collection of National Museum in Cracow<ref>Photo Laboratory of National Museum in Cracow</ref>
Lasek (Grove Landscape), watercolour, ca 1880-1890
Tragarz (A Porter), a study in pencil on paper, 1884 (Historical Museum of Warsaw, phot. J. Mierzecka)
Cossacks Dance – Kozachok, oil/canvas, 1883<ref>Its reproduction was first published in Album malarzy polskich, 1885, vol. 11, "M. Robiczek Publ. in Warsaw"</ref>
Targ za Żelazną Bramą ("Iron-Gate Square" Marketplace in Warsaw), watercolor, 1884(sic!<ref>Note: Date of production (1884) and the date of signature (1890) are different; see: Stanisław Masłowski - Materiały do życiorysu i twórczości, Wrocław, 1957, ed. Ossolineum (Polish).</ref>) (National Museum in Warsaw)
Goods Train, landscape with a goods train, watercolour, 1890, (National Museum in Warsaw)
Portret żony artysty (Portrait of Artist's Wife), watercolor on paper, 1897 (artist's family collection)
Chart (Greyhound), watercolor, 1898 (National Museum in Warsaw)
Portrait of a girl, watercolor/on parchment, 1898<ref>It was reproduced in "Tygodnik Illustrowany" Magazine, 1899, vol. I, p. 305.</ref>
Kozacy na koniach w galopie (Cossacks Gallop Riding), draw., ca 1900 (National Museum in Warsaw)
Wnętrze kościoła w Garbowie (Interior of the Church in Garbow), watercolour, 1901 (National Museum in Warsaw)
Troki - pejzaż ([Landscape of Trakai), watercolor, 1904 (National Museum in Warsaw)
Portrait of Artist's Wife, drypoint, ca. 1905 (National Museum in Warsaw)
Pasture, autumn pasture landscape in Radziejowice, watercolor, 1907, (National Museum in Warsaw)
Staw w Radziejowicach (Pond in Radziejowice, 1907)
Fontanna w Palazzo Massimo (Fountain at Palazzo Massimo in Rome), watercolor, ca 1910 (National Museum in Warsaw)
Maki, 1911 (The Field of Corn Poppies, watercolor, 1911, National Museum in Warsaw)
Skarbiec beja Tunisu w Dar el-Bei (Treasury - Bey of Tunis), watercolour on paper, 1912 (National Museum in Warsaw)
Kawiarnia w Tunisie (Coffee House in Tunisia), watercolor on paper, 1912 (Mazovian Museum in Płock)
Gryka (Buckwheat Field Landscape), watercolour, 1920, Collection of Muzeum Okręgowe w Rzeszowie (Regional Museum in Rzeszów, Poland), phot. Grzegorz Stec.
Tivoli, Villa d'Este, watercolour, 1922, (fragment), (National Museum in Warsaw)
Łubin (Lupin Field), watercolor, 1924, landscape of Wola Rafałowska, (National Museum in Warsaw)
Gryka (Buckwheat Field Landscape), watercolour, 1924, Collection of National Museum in Warsaw

Market on Grzybów district of Warsaw, 1892), "Ostatnie promienie" (en.

Jan Żabiński, c. undefined 1939

Jan Żabiński

Jan Żabiński (8 April 1897 – 26 July 1974) and his wife Antonina Żabińska (née Erdman) (1908–1971) were a Polish couple from Warsaw, recognized by Yad Vashem as Righteous Among the Nations for their heroic rescue of Jews during the Holocaust in Poland.

Jan Żabiński (8 April 1897 – 26 July 1974) and his wife Antonina Żabińska (née Erdman) (1908–1971) were a Polish couple from Warsaw, recognized by Yad Vashem as Righteous Among the Nations for their heroic rescue of Jews during the Holocaust in Poland.

Jan Żabiński, c. undefined 1939
Jan Żabiński with a lion, unknown date
Tomb of the Żabiński family at the historical Powązki Cemetery, Warsaw

Following the German takeover of Warsaw in September 1939, Żabiński, a Zoo director, was appointed by the new Nazi administration as the superintendent of the public parks as well.