History of agriculture

agricultureagricultural historydevelopment of agricultureplayed a key role in the history of world civilizationsagrarian historyagricultural landsagricultural way of lifeinvention of agriculturespread of agricultureagricultural change
The history of agriculture records the domestication of plants and animals and the development and dissemination of techniques for raising them productively.wikipedia
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Agriculture

farmingagriculturalagriculturist
Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa.
The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years; people gathered wild grains at least 105,000 years ago and began to plant them around 11,500 years ago before they became domesticated.

Domestication

domesticateddomesticdomesticate
The history of agriculture records the domestication of plants and animals and the development and dissemination of techniques for raising them productively.
Agriculture developed in at least 11 different centres around the world, domesticating different crops and animals.

Fertile Crescent

cradle of human civilizationfertileFertile Crescent region
An example is the semi-tough rachis and larger seeds of cereals from just after the Younger Dryas (about 9500 BC) in the early Holocene in the Levant region of the Fertile Crescent.
The Fertile Crescent is a crescent-shaped region in the Middle East where agriculture and early human civilizations such as Sumer flourished.

Mechanised agriculture

mechanical harvestingmechanisation of agriculturemechanization of agriculture
Since 1900, agriculture in the developed nations, and to a lesser extent in the developing world, has seen large rises in productivity as human labour has been replaced by mechanization, and assisted by synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and selective breeding.
The entire history of agriculture contains many examples of the use of tools, such as the hoe and the plough.

Rachis

rachidesaxisrachidian
An example is the semi-tough rachis and larger seeds of cereals from just after the Younger Dryas (about 9500 BC) in the early Holocene in the Levant region of the Fertile Crescent.
This is significant in the history of agriculture, and referred to by archaeologists as a "brittle rachis", one type of shattering in crop plants.

Musa acuminata

M. acuminataappledessert banana
Banana cultivation of Musa acuminata, including hybridization, dates back to 5000 BC, and possibly to 8000 BC, in Papua New Guinea.
History of agriculture

Domesticated plants and animals of Austronesia

canoe plantscanoe plantoriginal major crops
Rice cultivation was later spread to Island Southeast Asia by the Austronesian expansion, starting at around 3,500 to 2,000 BC. This migration event also saw the introduction of cultivated and domesticated food plants from Taiwan, Island Southeast Asia, and New Guinea into the Pacific Islands as canoe plants.
History of agriculture

Agriculture in China

agricultureagriculturalChina
Records from the Warring States, Qin Dynasty, and Han Dynasty provide a picture of early Chinese agriculture from the 5th century to 2nd century which included a nationwide granary system and widespread use of sericulture.
History of agriculture

Wang Zhen (inventor)

Wang ZhenNong Shu
The work and the style in which it was written proved influential on later Chinese agronomists, such as Wang Zhen and his groundbreaking Nong Shu of 1313.
History of Agriculture

Agriculture in ancient Greece

agricultureagriculturalagriculture as used by the ancient Greeks
Agriculture in ancient Greece was hindered by the topography of mainland Greece that only allowed for roughly 10% of the land to be cultivated properly, necessitating the specialized exportation of oil and wine and importation of grains from Thrace (centered in what is now Bulgaria) and the Greek colonies of southern Russia.
History of agriculture

Rural history

rural and agricultural history
Rural history
Rural history emerged as a distinct discipline from Agricultural history in the 1980s and was inspired by the French Annales school which favoured integrating economic, social and political history.

Agriculture in ancient Rome

agriculturefarmingagricultural
In the Greco-Roman world of Classical antiquity, Roman agriculture was built on techniques originally pioneered by the Sumerians, transmitted to them by subsequent cultures, with a specific emphasis on the cultivation of crops for trade and export.
History of agriculture

Plough

plowploughingplowing
Archeological evidence of an animal-drawn plough dates back to 2500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilization.
History of agriculture

History of cotton

cottoncotton cultivationcotton manufacture
History of cotton
History of agriculture

History of the potato

between 8000 and 5000 BCfirst cultivatedincorporation of the potato
History of the potato
History of agriculture

Taxon

taxagrouppolytypic
Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa.

Old World

Oldold-worldAfro-Eurasian
At least eleven separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin.

New World

NewThe New WorldAmericas
At least eleven separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin.

Center of origin

center of diversitycentre of diversitycentres of diversity
At least eleven separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin.

Cereal

graincerealsgrains
An example is the semi-tough rachis and larger seeds of cereals from just after the Younger Dryas (about 9500 BC) in the early Holocene in the Levant region of the Fertile Crescent. Wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 20,000 BC. From around 9500 BC, the eight Neolithic founder crops – emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, hulled barley, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas, and flax – were cultivated in the Levant.

Neolithic founder crops

founder crops9000-8000 BCancient grain legume crop
Wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 20,000 BC. From around 9500 BC, the eight Neolithic founder crops – emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, hulled barley, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas, and flax – were cultivated in the Levant.

Einkorn wheat

einkornT. monococcumprimitive wheat species
Wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 20,000 BC. From around 9500 BC, the eight Neolithic founder crops – emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, hulled barley, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas, and flax – were cultivated in the Levant.

Barley

malting barleysix-row barleyH. vulgare
Wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 20,000 BC. From around 9500 BC, the eight Neolithic founder crops – emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, hulled barley, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas, and flax – were cultivated in the Levant.