History of eugenics

eugenics
The history of eugenics is the study of development and advocacy of ideas related to eugenics around the world.wikipedia
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Eugenics

eugenicisteugeniceugenicists
The history of eugenics is the study of development and advocacy of ideas related to eugenics around the world.
While eugenic principles have been practiced as far back in world history as ancient Greece, the modern history of eugenics began in the early 20th century when a popular eugenics movement emerged in the United Kingdom and spread to many countries including the United States, Canada and most European countries.

Plato

dialoguesPlato's dialoguesPlatonic dialogue
The philosophy was most famously expounded by Plato, who believed human reproduction should be monitored and controlled by the state.

Gregor Mendel

MendelMendelianGregor Johann Mendel
Plato's ideas may have been one of the earliest attempts to mathematically analyze genetic inheritance, which was later improved by the development of Mendelian genetics and the mapping of the human genome.

Human genome

genomehuman DNAhuman geneticist
Plato's ideas may have been one of the earliest attempts to mathematically analyze genetic inheritance, which was later improved by the development of Mendelian genetics and the mapping of the human genome.

Rome

RomanRomaRome, Italy
Other ancient civilizations, such as Rome, Athens and Sparta, practiced infanticide through exposure and execution as a form of phenotypic selection.

Athens

AthenianAtheniansAthens, Greece
Other ancient civilizations, such as Rome, Athens and Sparta, practiced infanticide through exposure and execution as a form of phenotypic selection.

Sparta

SpartanSpartansLacedaemonians
Other ancient civilizations, such as Rome, Athens and Sparta, practiced infanticide through exposure and execution as a form of phenotypic selection.

Infanticide

exposedhave been killedkilled
Other ancient civilizations, such as Rome, Athens and Sparta, practiced infanticide through exposure and execution as a form of phenotypic selection.

Taygetus

TaygetosMount TaygetusMount Taygetos
If the child was deemed incapable of living, it was usually exposed in the Apothetae near the Taygetus mountain.

Völkisch movement

völkischVölkisch'' movementvolkisch
Adolf Hitler considered Sparta to be the first "Völkisch State", and much like Ernst Haeckel before him, praised Sparta for its selective infanticide policy, though the Nazis believed the children were killed outright and not exposed.

Ernst Haeckel

HaeckelHaeckel, Ernst Ernst Haeckel
Adolf Hitler considered Sparta to be the first "Völkisch State", and much like Ernst Haeckel before him, praised Sparta for its selective infanticide policy, though the Nazis believed the children were killed outright and not exposed.

Twelve Tables

ten tablesLaw of the Twelve TablesLaws of the Twelve Tables
The Twelve Tables of Roman Law, established early in the formation of the Roman Republic, stated in the fourth table that deformed children must be put to death.

Roman Republic

RomanRepublicRomans
The Twelve Tables of Roman Law, established early in the formation of the Roman Republic, stated in the fourth table that deformed children must be put to death.

Tiber

Tiber Riverriver TiberUpper Tiber Valley
This was often done by drowning undesired newborns in the Tiber River.

Seneca the Younger

SenecaLucius Annaeus SenecaSenecan
Commenting on the Roman practice of eugenics, the philosopher Seneca wrote that: "We put down mad dogs; we kill the wild, untamed ox; we use the knife on sick sheep to stop their infecting the flock; we destroy abnormal offspring at birth; children, too, if they are born weak or deformed, we drown. Yet this is not the work of anger, but of reason – to separate the sound from the worthless".

Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
The practice of open infanticide in the Roman Empire did not subside until its Christianization, which however also mandated negative eugenics, e.g. by the council of Adge in 506, which forbade marriage between cousins.

Christianity

ChristianChristiansChristian faith
The practice of open infanticide in the Roman Empire did not subside until its Christianization, which however also mandated negative eugenics, e.g. by the council of Adge in 506, which forbade marriage between cousins.

Council of Agde

council of AdgeCouncils of Agde
The practice of open infanticide in the Roman Empire did not subside until its Christianization, which however also mandated negative eugenics, e.g. by the council of Adge in 506, which forbade marriage between cousins.

Francis Galton

Sir Francis GaltonGaltonGalton, Francis
Sir Francis Galton (1822–1911) systematized these ideas and practices according to new knowledge about the evolution of man and animals provided by the theory of his half-cousin Charles Darwin during the 1860s and 1870s.

Charles Darwin

DarwinDarwinianCharles
Sir Francis Galton (1822–1911) systematized these ideas and practices according to new knowledge about the evolution of man and animals provided by the theory of his half-cousin Charles Darwin during the 1860s and 1870s.

On the Origin of Species

Origin of SpeciesThe Origin of SpeciesOn the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
After reading Darwin's Origin of Species, Galton built upon Darwin's ideas whereby the mechanisms of natural selection were potentially thwarted by human civilization.

Natural selection

selectionselectiveselected
After reading Darwin's Origin of Species, Galton built upon Darwin's ideas whereby the mechanisms of natural selection were potentially thwarted by human civilization.

Civilization

civilisationcivilizationshuman civilization
After reading Darwin's Origin of Species, Galton built upon Darwin's ideas whereby the mechanisms of natural selection were potentially thwarted by human civilization.

Regression toward the mean

regression to the meanmean regressionmean reversion
He reasoned that, since many human societies sought to protect the underprivileged and weak, those societies were at odds with the natural selection responsible for extinction of the weakest; and only by changing these social policies could society be saved from a "reversion towards mediocrity", a phrase he first coined in statistics and which later changed to the now common "regression towards the mean".

Heritability of IQ

inheritance of intelligenceheritability of intelligenceintelligence
Galton's basic argument was "genius" and "talent" were hereditary traits in humans (although neither he nor Darwin yet had a working model of this type of heredity).