A report on Malaria and History of malaria

Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell
Second World War poster "Keep out malaria mosquitoes repair your torn screens". U.S. Public Health Service, 1941–45
Main symptoms of malaria
The mosquito and the fly in this Baltic amber necklace are between 40 and 60 million years old.
The life cycle of malaria parasites. Sporozoites are introduced by a mosquito bite. They migrate to the liver, where they multiply into thousands of merozoites. The merozoites infect red blood cells and replicate, infecting more and more red blood cells. Some parasites form gametocytes, which are taken up by a mosquito, continuing the life cycle.
Cinchona tree by Theodor Zwinger, 1696
Micrograph of a placenta from a stillbirth due to maternal malaria. H&E stain. Red blood cells are anuclear; blue/black staining in bright red structures (red blood cells) indicate foreign nuclei from the parasites.
Map of the United States showing the distribution of deaths from malaria. Census of 1880.
Electron micrograph of a Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cell (center), illustrating adhesion protein "knobs"
In 1880, Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran observed pigmented parasites and the exflagellation of male gametocytes.
The blood film is the gold standard for malaria diagnosis.
The notebook in which Ronald Ross first described pigmented malaria parasites in stomach tissues of an Anopheles mosquito, 20 and 21 August 1897
Ring-forms and gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum in human blood
Protocol for the synthesis of Resochin, Hans Andersag 1934
An Anopheles stephensi mosquito shortly after obtaining blood from a human (the droplet of blood is expelled as a surplus). This mosquito is a vector of malaria, and mosquito control is an effective way of reducing its incidence.
Artemisia annua being grown as a field crop in West Virginia for the production of artemisinin, 2005
Man spraying kerosene oil in standing water, Panama Canal Zone, 1912
Pyrethrum field (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium) Lari Hills, Nairobi, Kenya, in 2010
Walls where indoor residual spraying of DDT has been applied. The mosquitoes remain on the wall until they fall down dead on the floor.
Original preparation of quinine acetate by Pelletier. circa 1820.
A mosquito net in use.
An advertisement for quinine as a malaria treatment from 1927.
Deaths due to malaria per million persons in 2012
Past and current malaria prevalence in 2009
Ancient malaria oocysts preserved in Dominican amber
British doctor Ronald Ross received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria.
Chinese medical researcher Tu Youyou received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2015 for her work on the antimalarial drug artemisinin.
Artemisia annua, source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin
U.S. Marines with malaria in a field hospital on Guadalcanal, October 1942
Members of the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations collecting larvae on the Danube delta, 1929
1962 Pakistani postage stamp promoting malaria eradication program
Malaria clinic in Tanzania
Child with malaria in Ethiopia
World War II poster
Disability-adjusted life year for malaria per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004
no data

A widespread and potentially lethal human infectious disease, at its peak malaria infested every continent except Antarctica.

- History of malaria

Malaria may have contributed to the decline of the Roman Empire, and was so pervasive in Rome that it was known as the "Roman fever".

- Malaria
Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell

3 related topics with Alpha


Plasmodium vivax

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Protozoal parasite and a human pathogen.

Protozoal parasite and a human pathogen.

This parasite is the most frequent and widely distributed cause of recurring malaria.

P. vivax was used between 1917 and the 1940s for malariotherapy, that is, to create very high fevers to combat certain diseases such as tertiary syphilis.

Julius Wagner-Jauregg with his signature

Julius Wagner-Jauregg

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Austrian physician, who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1927, and is the first psychiatrist to have done so.

Austrian physician, who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1927, and is the first psychiatrist to have done so.

Julius Wagner-Jauregg with his signature
Wagner-Jauregg family arms, granted in 1883.
Wagner-Jauregg (center right in black jacket) watching a transfusion from a malaria patient (rear of the group) to a neurosyphilis victim (center) in 1934

His Nobel award was "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica".

Since these methods of treatment did not work very well, he tried in 1917 the inoculation of malaria parasites, which proved to be very successful in the case of dementia paralytica (also called general paresis of the insane), caused by neurosyphilis, at that time a terminal disease.

Ronald Ross

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The page in Ross' notebook where he recorded the "pigmented bodies" in mosquitoes that he later identified as malaria parasites
Ross, Mrs Ross, Mahomed Bux, and two other assistants at Cunningham's laboratory of Presidency Hospital in Calcutta
Blue plaque, 18 Cavendish Square, London
Ronald Ross
Ross's grave at Putney Vale Cemetery, London in 2014
Ronald Ross Memorial, SSKM Hospital, Kolkata
Ronald Ross Plaque at PG Hospital
Sir Ronald Ross' name on LSHTM
Plaque at Liverpool University – on the Johnston Building, formerly the Johnston Laboratories, near Ashton Street, Liverpool
Ross's name remembered on the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

Sir Ronald Ross (13 May 1857 – 16 September 1932) was a British medical doctor who received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on the transmission of malaria, becoming the first British Nobel laureate, and the first born outside Europe.

His discovery of the malarial parasite in the gastrointestinal tract of a mosquito in 1897 proved that malaria was transmitted by mosquitoes, and laid the foundation for the method of combating the disease.