History of mathematics

historian of mathematicsmathematicshistorydevelopment of mathematicsmathematical historyhistorianhistorians of mathematicshistoricalhistorical study of mathematics19th century
The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past.wikipedia
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History of mathematical notation

algebraic symbolismhad not yet been inventedmathematical methods and notation of the past
The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past.
The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, the focus here, the investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past.

Mathematics

mathematicalmathmathematician
The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past.
Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist.

Euclid

Euclid of AlexandriaEuklidGreek Mathematician
It was there that Euclid (c.
His Elements is one of the most influential works in the history of mathematics, serving as the main textbook for teaching mathematics (especially geometry) from the time of its publication until the late 19th or early 20th century.

Fermat's Last Theorem

Fermat’s Last TheoremLast Theorema long-standing problem
The Arithmetica had a significant influence on later mathematicians, such as Pierre de Fermat, who arrived at his famous Last Theorem after trying to generalize a problem he had read in the Arithmetica (that of dividing a square into two squares).
It is among the most notable theorems in the history of mathematics and prior to its proof was in the Guinness Book of World Records as the "most difficult mathematical problem" in part because the theorem has the largest number of unsuccessful proofs.

Pi

ππ\pi
He also showed one could use the method of exhaustion to calculate the value of π with as much precision as desired, and obtained the most accurate value of π then known, 310⁄71 < π < 310⁄70.
Ancient civilizations required fairly accurate computed values to approximate for practical reasons, including the Egyptians and Babylonians.

Japanese mathematics

Japanese mathematicianJapanJapanese
Japanese mathematics, Korean mathematics, and Vietnamese mathematics are traditionally viewed as stemming from Chinese mathematics and belonging to the Confucian-based East Asian cultural sphere.
In the history of mathematics, the development of wasan falls outside the Western realms of people, propositions and alternate solutions.

Babylonian mathematics

BabyloniansBabylonian mathematiciansBabylonian
The most ancient mathematical texts available are from Mesopotamia and Egypt - Plimpton 322 (Babylonian c. 1900 BC), the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian c. 2000–1800 BC) and the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian c. 1890 BC).

Greek mathematics

Greek mathematicianancient Greek mathematiciansGreek
Greek mathematics greatly refined the methods (especially through the introduction of deductive reasoning and mathematical rigor in proofs) and expanded the subject matter of mathematics.

The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing

AlgebraAl-JabrAl-Kitāb al-mukhtaṣar fī hīsāb al-ğabr wa’l-muqābala
The word algorithm is derived from the Latinization of his name, Algoritmi, and the word algebra from the title of one of his works, Al-Kitāb al-mukhtaṣar fī hīsāb al-ğabr wa’l-muqābala (The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing).
Al-jabr was a landmark work in the history of mathematics, establishing algebra as an independent discipline, and with the term "algebra" itself derived from Al-jabr.

Chinese mathematics

Chinese mathematicianmathematicsChinese mathematical
Chinese mathematics made early contributions, including a place value system and the first use of negative numbers.

Mathematical notation

notationmathematical formulaealgebraic notation
Other achievements of Muslim mathematicians during this period include the addition of the decimal point notation to the Arabic numerals, the discovery of all the modern trigonometric functions besides the sine, al-Kindi's introduction of cryptanalysis and frequency analysis, the development of analytic geometry by Ibn al-Haytham, the beginning of algebraic geometry by Omar Khayyam and the development of an algebraic notation by al-Qalasādī.

Indian mathematics

Indian mathematicianmathematicianmathematics
The Hindu–Arabic numeral system and the rules for the use of its operations, in use throughout the world today evolved over the course of the first millennium AD in India and were transmitted to the Western world via Islamic mathematics through the work of Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī.

Hindu–Arabic numeral system

Hindu-Arabic numeral systemHindu-Arabic numeralsHindu numerals
The Hindu–Arabic numeral system and the rules for the use of its operations, in use throughout the world today evolved over the course of the first millennium AD in India and were transmitted to the Western world via Islamic mathematics through the work of Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī.

Ishango bone

The Ishango bone, found near the headwaters of the Nile river (northeastern Congo), may be more than 20,000 years old and consists of a series of marks carved in three columns running the length of the bone.

0

zerozero function0 (number)
Contemporaneous with but independent of these traditions were the mathematics developed by the Maya civilization of Mexico and Central America, where the concept of zero was given a standard symbol in Maya numerals.
In most cultures, 0 was identified before the idea of negative things, or quantities less than zero, was accepted.

Rhind Mathematical Papyrus

Rhind PapyrusRMPAhmes Papyrus
The most ancient mathematical texts available are from Mesopotamia and Egypt - Plimpton 322 (Babylonian c. 1900 BC), the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian c. 2000–1800 BC) and the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian c. 1890 BC).

Alfred North Whitehead

WhiteheadA. N. WhiteheadA.N. Whitehead
Cantor's set theory, and the rise of mathematical logic in the hands of Peano, L.E.J. Brouwer, David Hilbert, Bertrand Russell, and A.N. Whitehead, initiated a long running debate on the foundations of mathematics.
The former two books were aimed exclusively at professional mathematicians, while the latter book was intended for a larger audience, covering the history of mathematics and its philosophical foundations.

Foundations of mathematics

foundation of mathematicsfoundationsfoundational
Cantor's set theory, and the rise of mathematical logic in the hands of Peano, L.E.J. Brouwer, David Hilbert, Bertrand Russell, and A.N. Whitehead, initiated a long running debate on the foundations of mathematics.
In the 19th century, mathematics became increasingly abstract.

Timeline of mathematics

timelineTimeline of mathematics from the 20th century onwards
This is a timeline of pure and applied mathematics history.

Cube (algebra)

cubecubesperfect cube
Something close to a proof by mathematical induction appears in a book written by Al-Karaji around 1000 AD, who used it to prove the binomial theorem, Pascal's triangle, and the sum of integral cubes.
Determination of the cubes of large numbers was very common in many ancient civilizations.

The Story of Maths

The Story of Maths is a four-part British television series outlining aspects of the history of mathematics.

Kenneth O. May Prize

Kenneth O. May MedalKenneth O. May Medal and PrizeMay Prize
Kenneth O. May Prize and Medal in history of mathematics is an award of the International Commission on the History of Mathematics (ICHM) "for the encouragement and promotion of the history of mathematics internationally".

Morris Kline

Kline, MorrisKline, Morris.
Morris Kline (May 1, 1908 – June 10, 1992) was a Professor of Mathematics, a writer on the history, philosophy, and teaching of mathematics, and also a popularizer of mathematical subjects.

Yang Hui

Hui, Yang
The Chinese also made use of the complex combinatorial diagram known as the magic square and magic circles, described in ancient times and perfected by Yang Hui (AD 1238–1298).

Bartel Leendert van der Waerden

van der WaerdenB. L. van der WaerdenB.L. van der Waerden
* van der Waerden, B.L., Geometry and Algebra in Ancient Civilizations, Springer, 1983, ISBN: 0-387-12159-5.
Bartel Leendert van der Waerden (February 2, 1903 – January 12, 1996) was a Dutch mathematician and historian of mathematics.