History of science and technology in China

ancient ChineseChinaChineseancient ChinaHan ChineseChinese naturalistancient Chinese philosophyChinese mechanical technologiesChinese scienceChinese science and technology
Ancient Chinese scientists and engineers made significant scientific innovations, findings and technological advances across various scientific disciplines including the natural sciences, engineering, medicine, military technology, mathematics, geology and astronomy.wikipedia
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List of Chinese inventions

Chinese inventionsinventionsdevelopment of printed sheets
Among the earliest inventions were the abacus, the "shadow clock," and the first items such as Kongming lanterns.
China has been the source of many innovations, scientific discoveries and inventions.

Mohism

MohistMohistsMohist School
The development of a school of logic was cut short by the defeat of Mohism's political sponsors by the Qin dynasty, and the subsumption of fa as law rather than method by the Legalists (法家 Fa jia).
Mohism or Moism was an ancient Chinese philosophy of logic, rational thought and science developed by the academic scholars who studied under the ancient Chinese philosopher Mozi (c.

Compass

magnetic compassDigital compassmariner's compass
The Four Great Inventions,the compass, gunpowder, papermaking, and printing – were among the most important technological advances, only known to Europe by the end of the Middle Ages 1000 years later. Shen Kuo's written work of 1088 also contains the first written description of the magnetic needle compass, the first description in China of experiments with camera obscura, the invention of movable type printing by the artisan Bi Sheng (990–1051), a method of repeated forging of cast iron under a cold blast similar to the modern Bessemer process, and the mathematical basis for spherical trigonometry that would later be mastered by the astronomer and engineer Guo Shoujing (1231–1316). However, Ma Jun's most impressive invention was the south-pointing chariot, a complex mechanical device that acted as a mechanical compass vehicle.
Among the Four Great Inventions, the magnetic compass was first invented as a device for divination as early as the Chinese Han Dynasty (since c. 206 BC), and later adopted for navigation by the Song Dynasty Chinese during the 11th century.

Crossbow

crossbowscross-bowcranequin
The Warring States period began 2500 years ago at the time of the invention of the crossbow.
The earliest crossbows in the world were invented in ancient China and caused a major shift in the role of projectile weaponry.

Firearm

small armsfirearmssmall-arms
For gunpowder weapons, it outlined the use of fire arrows and rockets, fire lances and firearms, land mines and naval mines, bombards and cannons, two stage rockets, along with different compositions of gunpowder, including 'magic gunpowder', 'poisonous gunpowder', and 'blinding and burning gunpowder' (refer to his article).
The first primitive firearms originated in 10th-century China when bamboo tubes containing gunpowder and pellet projectiles were mounted on spears into the one-person-portable fire lance, which was later used as a shock weapon to good effect in the Siege of De'an in 1132.

Naval mine

minesmineminesweeping
For gunpowder weapons, it outlined the use of fire arrows and rockets, fire lances and firearms, land mines and naval mines, bombards and cannons, two stage rockets, along with different compositions of gunpowder, including 'magic gunpowder', 'poisonous gunpowder', and 'blinding and burning gunpowder' (refer to his article).
Chinese records tell of naval explosives in the 16th century, used to fight against Japanese pirates (wokou).

Wang Zhen (inventor)

Wang ZhenWang Zhen (official)Nong Shu
For the 11th century invention of ceramic movable type printing by Bi Sheng (990–1051), it was enhanced by the wooden movable type of Wang Zhen in 1298 and the bronze metal movable type of Hua Sui in 1490.
He was one of the early innovators of the wooden movable type printing technology.

Shen Kuo

Shen KuaKuo, ShenShen Gua
The statesman Shen Kuo is best known for his book known as the Dream Pool Essays (1088 AD).
Shen Kuo (1031–1095) or Shen Gua, courtesy name Cunzhong and pseudonym Mengqi (now usually given as Mengxi) Weng, was a Chinese polymathic scientist and statesman of the Song dynasty (960–1279).

Qing dynasty

QingQing EmpireChina
A good deal of exchange occurred between Western and Chinese discoveries up to the Qing dynasty.
Contrary to stereotypes in some Western writing, 16th and 17th century Qing dynasty officials and literati eagerly explored the technology and science introduced by Jesuit missionaries.

Emperor Taizu of Song

Zhao KuangyinEmperor TaizuTaizu
The first Song Emperor created political institutions that allowed a great deal of freedom of discourse and thought, which facilitated the growth of scientific advance, economic reforms, and achievements in arts and literature.
He also created academies that allowed a great deal of freedom of discussion and thought, which facilitated the growth of scientific advance, economic reforms as well as achievements in arts and literature.

Four Great Inventions

printing pressfour great Chinese inventionsgreatest discoveries of ancient China
The Four Great Inventions,the compass, gunpowder, papermaking, and printing – were among the most important technological advances, only known to Europe by the end of the Middle Ages 1000 years later.

List of Chinese discoveries

Chinese discoveriesdiscoveriesnatural discoveries
A good deal of exchange occurred between Western and Chinese discoveries up to the Qing dynasty.

Ma Jun

mechanical puppet theaterPuppet theater, waterwheel-powered
The mechanical engineer Ma Jun (c.

Chinese alchemy

Chinese alchemistsTaoist alchemyalchemist
Fairbank and Goldman write that the futile experiments of Chinese alchemists did lead to the discovery of new metal alloys, porcelain types, and dyes.
Chinese alchemy is an ancient Chinese scientific and technological approach to alchemy, a part of the larger tradition of Taoist body-spirit cultivation developed from the traditional Chinese understanding of medicine and the body.

Camera obscura

cameracamera obscurascameras obscura
Shen Kuo's written work of 1088 also contains the first written description of the magnetic needle compass, the first description in China of experiments with camera obscura, the invention of movable type printing by the artisan Bi Sheng (990–1051), a method of repeated forging of cast iron under a cold blast similar to the modern Bessemer process, and the mathematical basis for spherical trigonometry that would later be mastered by the astronomer and engineer Guo Shoujing (1231–1316).
The earliest known written record of the camera obscura is to be found in Chinese writings called Mozi and dated to the 4th century BC, traditionally ascribed to and named for Mozi (circa 470 BC-circa 391 BC), a Han Chinese philosopher and the founder of Mohist School of Logic.

South-pointing chariot

South Pointing Chariotsouth-pointing carriage
However, Ma Jun's most impressive invention was the south-pointing chariot, a complex mechanical device that acted as a mechanical compass vehicle.

Elephant clock

the Elephant
Al-Jazari (1136–1206), a Muslim engineer and inventor of various clocks, including the Elephant clock, wrote: "[T]he elephant represents the Indian and African cultures, the two dragons represents Chinese culture, the phoenix represents Persian culture, the water work represents ancient Greek culture, and the turban represents Islamic culture".
In China clock escapement mechanism was invented by the polymath and Buddhist monk Yi Xing as well as the hydraulic powered waterwheel and water clock in the mechanically-driven and rotated equatorial armillary sphere of the polymaths Zhang Heng and Ma Jun.

Nathan Sivin

Sivin, NathanN. SivinSivin
However, Nathan Sivin discounts such a close connection between Taoism and alchemy, which some sinologists have asserted, stating that alchemy was more prevalent in the secular sphere and practiced by laymen.
The major areas of study and focus in Nathan Sivin's career and written publications have been in the history of science and technology in China, Traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese philosophy, and Chinese religious beliefs.

Supercomputer

high-performance computinghigh performance computingsupercomputing
In the 2000s and 2010s, China became a top scientific and industrial power in more advanced fields such as super computing, artificial intelligence, bullet trains, aeronautics, nuclear physics researches and other fields.
Additional research is being conducted in China, the United States, the European Union, Taiwan and Japan to build even faster, more powerful and technologically superior exascale supercomputers.

Dream Pool Essays

Mengxi BitanDream Pool EssayThe Dream Pool Essays
The statesman Shen Kuo is best known for his book known as the Dream Pool Essays (1088 AD).

Science and Civilisation in China

Science and Civilization in China
They deal with the history of science and technology in China.

Society of Jesus

JesuitJesuitsS.J.
The Society of Jesus introduced, according to Thomas Woods, "a substantial body of scientific knowledge and a vast array of mental tools for understanding the physical universe, including the Euclidean geometry that made planetary motion comprehensible."
For over a century, Jesuits like Michele Ruggieri, Matteo Ricci, Philippe Couplet, Michal Boym, and François Noël refined translations and disseminated Chinese knowledge, culture, history, and philosophy to Europe.

Zhang Sixun

The early Song Dynasty horologist Zhang Sixun (fl.

Scientific Revolution

scientificscientific revolutionsscience
One question that has been the subject of debate among historians has been why China did not develop a scientific revolution and why Chinese technology fell behind that of Europe.
He sees specific influences in Alhazen's physical optical theory, Chinese mechanical technologies leading to the perception of the world as a machine, the Hindu-Arabic numeral system, which carried implicitly a new mode of mathematical atomic thinking, and the heliocentrism rooted in ancient Egyptian religious ideas associated with Hermeticism.

Han Chinese

HanChineseHan people
Ancient Chinese scientists and engineers made significant scientific innovations, findings and technological advances across various scientific disciplines including the natural sciences, engineering, medicine, military technology, mathematics, geology and astronomy.