History of smallpox

smallpoxsmallpox epidemicsmallpox epidemics1862 smallpox epidemicafter a boutDiseases introduced by European contactdiseases they introducedepidemics of infectious diseases, especially smallpoxresulting epidemic deathssickness epidemic
The history of smallpox extends into pre-history, the disease likely emerged in human populations about 10,000 BC.wikipedia
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Inca Empire

IncaIncanIncas
The effects of smallpox on Tahuantinsuyu (or the Inca empire) were even more devastating.
History of smallpox

Charleston, South Carolina

CharlestonCharleston, SCCharles Town
An American physician, John Kirkpatrick, upon his visit to London in 1743, told of an instance where variolation stopped an epidemic in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1738, where 800 people were inoculated and only eight deaths occurred.
A smallpox outbreak hit in 1698, followed by an earthquake in February 1699 whose ensuing fire destroyed about a third of the town.

H. A. Willis

Willis, HA
H. A. Willis (2010), in a survey of the literature discussed above, endorsed Campbell's argument.
In 2010, he joined the debate over the introduction and history of smallpox in Australia, arguing that the 1789 outbreak near Sydney originated from a Macassan introduction through Northern Australia.

World population

human populationworld's populationglobal population
The history of smallpox extends into pre-history, the disease likely emerged in human populations about 10,000 BC. The earliest credible evidence of smallpox is found in the Egyptian mummies of people who died some 3000 years ago.

Monarch

kingSovereignkings
During the 18th century the disease killed an estimated 400,000 Europeans each year, including five reigning monarchs, and was responsible for a third of all blindness.

World Health Organization

WHOWorld Health OrganisationWorld Health Organization (WHO)
As recently as 1967, the World Health Organization estimated that 15 million people contracted the disease and that two million died in that year.

Vaccination

vaccinationsvaccinatedvaccinating
After successful vaccination campaigns throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the WHO certified the global eradication of smallpox in December 1979.

Eradication of infectious diseases

eradicationeradicatedisease eradication programme
After successful vaccination campaigns throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the WHO certified the global eradication of smallpox in December 1979.

Infection

infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfectious
Smallpox is one of two infectious diseases to have been eradicated, the other being rinderpest, which was declared eradicated in 2011.

Rinderpest

cattle plaguerinderpest virusRinderpest morbillivirus
Smallpox is one of two infectious diseases to have been eradicated, the other being rinderpest, which was declared eradicated in 2011.

Plague of Athens

plagueAn outbreakan outbreak of a plague
It has been suggested that smallpox was a major component of the Plague of Athens that occurred in 430 BCE, during the Peloponnesian Wars, and was described by Thucydides.

Peloponnesian War

Second Peloponnesian WarArchidamian WarPeloponnesian
It has been suggested that smallpox was a major component of the Plague of Athens that occurred in 430 BCE, during the Peloponnesian Wars, and was described by Thucydides.

Thucydides

Thuc.Thucydideanthe historian of the same name
It has been suggested that smallpox was a major component of the Plague of Athens that occurred in 430 BCE, during the Peloponnesian Wars, and was described by Thucydides.

Galen

Galenic medicineClaudius GalenusGalen of Pergamon
Galen's description of the Antonine Plague, which swept through the Roman Empire in 165–180, indicates that it was probably caused by smallpox.

Antonine Plague

plagueAntonine pandemicdeadly disease
Galen's description of the Antonine Plague, which swept through the Roman Empire in 165–180, indicates that it was probably caused by smallpox.

Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
Galen's description of the Antonine Plague, which swept through the Roman Empire in 165–180, indicates that it was probably caused by smallpox.

Plague of Cyprian

plagueCyprian Plaguepandemics
A second major outbreak of disease in the Roman Empire, known as the Plague of Cyprian (251–266), was also either smallpox or measles.

Measles

rubeolameasles virusAcute Measles encephalitis
A second major outbreak of disease in the Roman Empire, known as the Plague of Cyprian (251–266), was also either smallpox or measles.

List of epidemics

epidemicsplagueepidemic
Although some historians believe that many historical epidemics and pandemics were early outbreaks of smallpox, contemporary records are not detailed enough to make a definite diagnosis.

Pandemic

plaguepandemicsplagues
Although some historians believe that many historical epidemics and pandemics were early outbreaks of smallpox, contemporary records are not detailed enough to make a definite diagnosis.

Early Middle Ages

early medievalEarlyDark Ages
Most of the details about the epidemics are lost, probably due to the scarcity of surviving written records from the Early Middle Ages.

Western Europe

WesternWestWestern European
The first incontrovertible description of smallpox in Western Europe occurred in 581, when Bishop Gregory of Tours provided an eyewitness account describing the characteristic symptoms of smallpox.

Gregory of Tours

GregorySt. Gregory of ToursHistory of the Franks
The first incontrovertible description of smallpox in Western Europe occurred in 581, when Bishop Gregory of Tours provided an eyewitness account describing the characteristic symptoms of smallpox.

Skin condition

skin lesionskin diseasepustule
Around 400 AD, an Indian medical book recorded a disease marked by pustules and boils, saying "the pustules are red, yellow, and white and they are accompanied by burning pain … the skin seems studded with grains of rice."

Shitala

SitalaMata SheetlaSitala Mata
The Indian epidemic was thought to be punishment from a god, and the survivors created a goddess, Sitala, as the anthropomorphic personification of the disease.