History of the Scheme programming language

Lambda Papers
The history of the programming language Scheme begins with the development of earlier members of the Lisp family of languages during the second half of the twentieth century.wikipedia
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Scheme (programming language)

SchemeScheme programming languageR6RS
The history of the programming language Scheme begins with the development of earlier members of the Lisp family of languages during the second half of the twentieth century.
Scheme was created during the 1970s at the MIT AI Lab and released by its developers, Guy L. Steele and Gerald Jay Sussman, via a series of memos now known as the Lambda Papers.

Guy L. Steele Jr.

Guy L. Steele, Jr.Guy SteeleGuy L. Steele
During the design and development period of Scheme, language designers Guy L. Steele and Gerald Jay Sussman released an influential series of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) AI Memos known as the Lambda Papers (1975–1980).
While at MIT, Steele published more than two dozen papers with Gerald Jay Sussman on the subject of the language Lisp and its implementation (the Lambda Papers).

AI Memo

During the design and development period of Scheme, language designers Guy L. Steele and Gerald Jay Sussman released an influential series of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) AI Memos known as the Lambda Papers (1975–1980).

Lisp (programming language)

LispLisp programming languageLisp 1.5
The history of the programming language Scheme begins with the development of earlier members of the Lisp family of languages during the second half of the twentieth century. The development of Scheme was heavily influenced by two predecessors that were quite different from one another: Lisp provided its general semantics and syntax, and ALGOL provided its lexical scope and block structure.

Gerald Jay Sussman

Gerald SussmanGerry SussmanGerald J. Sussman
During the design and development period of Scheme, language designers Guy L. Steele and Gerald Jay Sussman released an influential series of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) AI Memos known as the Lambda Papers (1975–1980).

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MITM.I.T.Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
During the design and development period of Scheme, language designers Guy L. Steele and Gerald Jay Sussman released an influential series of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) AI Memos known as the Lambda Papers (1975–1980). Lisp was invented by John McCarthy in 1958 while he was at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

ALGOL

ALGOL 60ALGOL programming languageALGOrithmic Language
The development of Scheme was heavily influenced by two predecessors that were quite different from one another: Lisp provided its general semantics and syntax, and ALGOL provided its lexical scope and block structure.

Scope (computer science)

scopelexical scopeLexical
The development of Scheme was heavily influenced by two predecessors that were quite different from one another: Lisp provided its general semantics and syntax, and ALGOL provided its lexical scope and block structure.

John McCarthy (computer scientist)

John McCarthyMcCarthyMcCarthy, John
Lisp was invented by John McCarthy in 1958 while he was at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Communications of the ACM

CACMCommunications of the Association for Computing MachineryACM Communications
McCarthy published its design in a paper in Communications of the ACM in 1960, entitled "Recursive Functions of Symbolic Expressions and Their Computation by Machine, Part I" (Part II was never published).

Turing completeness

Turing-completeTuring completeuniversal
He showed that with a few simple operators and a notation for functions, one can build a Turing-complete language for algorithms.

S-expression

S-expressionsfully parenthesized prefix notationparentheses
The use of s-expressions which characterize the syntax of Lisp was initially intended to be an interim measure pending the development of a language employing what McCarthy called "m-expressions".

M-expression

M-Expressions
The use of s-expressions which characterize the syntax of Lisp was initially intended to be an interim measure pending the development of a language employing what McCarthy called "m-expressions".

IBM 704

704address registerIBM704
The first implementation of Lisp was on an IBM 704 by Steve Russell, who read McCarthy's paper and coded the eval function he described in machine code. The familiar (but puzzling to newcomers) names CAR and CDR used in Lisp to describe the head element of a list and its tail, evolved from two IBM 704 assembly language commands: Contents of Address Register and Contents of Decrement Register, each of which returned the contents of a 15-bit register corresponding to segments of a 36-bit IBM 704 instruction word.

Steve Russell (computer scientist)

Steve RussellSlug' RussellStephen B. Russell
The first implementation of Lisp was on an IBM 704 by Steve Russell, who read McCarthy's paper and coded the eval function he described in machine code.

CAR and CDR

carcdr and
The familiar (but puzzling to newcomers) names CAR and CDR used in Lisp to describe the head element of a list and its tail, evolved from two IBM 704 assembly language commands: Contents of Address Register and Contents of Decrement Register, each of which returned the contents of a 15-bit register corresponding to segments of a 36-bit IBM 704 instruction word.

36-bit

36-bit word36 bit words36 bits
The familiar (but puzzling to newcomers) names CAR and CDR used in Lisp to describe the head element of a list and its tail, evolved from two IBM 704 assembly language commands: Contents of Address Register and Contents of Decrement Register, each of which returned the contents of a 15-bit register corresponding to segments of a 36-bit IBM 704 instruction word.

Word (computer architecture)

wordwordsword size
The familiar (but puzzling to newcomers) names CAR and CDR used in Lisp to describe the head element of a list and its tail, evolved from two IBM 704 assembly language commands: Contents of Address Register and Contents of Decrement Register, each of which returned the contents of a 15-bit register corresponding to segments of a 36-bit IBM 704 instruction word.

Maclisp

The two variants of Lisp most significant in the development of Scheme were both developed at MIT: LISP 1.5 developed by McCarthy and others, and Maclisp – developed for MIT's Project MAC, a direct descendant of LISP 1.5.

MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory

Project MACMIT Artificial Intelligence LaboratoryComputer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
The two variants of Lisp most significant in the development of Scheme were both developed at MIT: LISP 1.5 developed by McCarthy and others, and Maclisp – developed for MIT's Project MAC, a direct descendant of LISP 1.5.

Multics

Multics operating systemMultics project
which ran on the PDP-10 and Multics systems.

Artificial intelligence

AIA.I.artificially intelligent
Since its inception, Lisp was closely connected with the artificial intelligence (AI) research community, especially on PDP-10.

PDP-10

DECsystem-10DEC PDP-10DEC-10
Since its inception, Lisp was closely connected with the artificial intelligence (AI) research community, especially on PDP-10. The 36-bit word size of the PDP-6 and PDP-10 was influenced by the usefulness of having two Lisp 18-bit pointers in one word.

PDP-6

The 36-bit word size of the PDP-6 and PDP-10 was influenced by the usefulness of having two Lisp 18-bit pointers in one word.

18-bit

18 bits18-
The 36-bit word size of the PDP-6 and PDP-10 was influenced by the usefulness of having two Lisp 18-bit pointers in one word.