History of the United States

Territorial growth of the United States, 1810–1920
This map shows the approximate location of the ice-free corridor and specific Paleoindian sites (Clovis theory).
The Cultural areas of pre-Columbian North America, according to Alfred Kroeber.
Grave Creek Mound, located in Moundsville, West Virginia, is one of the largest conical mounds in the United States. It was built by the Adena culture.
Monks Mound of Cahokia (UNESCO World Heritage Site) in summer. The concrete staircase follows the approximate course of the ancient wooden stairs.
Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The K'alyaan Totem Pole of the Tlingit Kiks.ádi Clan, erected at Sitka National Historical Park to commemorate the lives lost in the 1804 Battle of Sitka.
Leif Erikson discovers America by Christian Krohg, 1893
The Mayflower, which transported Pilgrims to the New World. During the first winter at Plymouth, about half of the Pilgrims died.
Squanto known for having been an early liaison between the native populations in Southern New England and the Mayflower settlers, who made their settlement at the site of Squanto's former summer village.
The First Thanksgiving at Plymouth, 1914, Pilgrim Hall Museum, Plymouth, Massachusetts
Indians trade 90-lb packs of furs at a Hudson's Bay Company trading post in the 19th century.
The Indian massacre of Jamestown settlers in 1622. Soon the colonists in the South feared all natives as enemies.
John Gadsby Chapman, Baptism of Pocahontas (1840), on display in the Rotunda of the U.S. Capitol.
Map of the British and French settlements in North America in 1750, before the French and Indian War
Join, or Die: This 1756 political cartoon by Benjamin Franklin urged the colonies to join during the French and Indian War.
An 1846 painting of the 1773 Boston Tea Party
The population density in the American Colonies in 1775.
Washington's surprise crossing of the Delaware River in December 1776 was a major comeback after the loss of New York City; his army defeated the British in two battles and recaptured New Jersey.
John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence (1819)
The United States after the Treaty of Paris (1783), with individual state claims and cessions through 1802
Economic growth in America per capita income. Index with 1700 set as 100.
George Washington's legacy remains among the greatest in American history, as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, hero of the Revolution, and the first President of the United States. (by Gilbert Charles Stuart)
Depiction of election-day activities in Philadelphia (by John Lewis Krimmel, 1815)
Slaves Waiting for Sale: Richmond, Virginia (by Eyre Crowe)
Thomas Jefferson saw himself as a man of the frontier and a scientist; he was keenly interested in expanding and exploring the West.
Territorial expansion; Louisiana Purchase in white.
Oliver Hazard Perry's message to William Henry Harrison after the Battle of Lake Erie began with: "We have met the enemy and they are ours" (by William H. Powell, 1865)
A drawing of a Protestant camp meeting (by H. Bridport, c. 1829)
"Independence Day Celebration in Centre Square, Philadelphia" (by John Lewis Krimmel, 1819)
Settlers crossing the Plains of Nebraska (by C.C.A. Christensen, 19th century)
The Indian Removal Act resulted in the transplantation of several Native American tribes and the Trail of Tears.
Henry Clay
Horace Greeley's New York Tribune—the leading Whig paper—endorsed Clay for President and Fillmore for Governor, 1844.
Officers and men of the Irish-Catholic 69th New York Volunteer Regiment attend Catholic services in 1861.
The California Gold Rush news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad.
The American occupation of Mexico City in 1848
The United States, immediately before the Civil War. All of the lands east of, or bordering, the Mississippi River were organized as states in the Union, but the West was still largely inhabited by Native Americans.
The Battle of Franklin, November 30, 1864.
Lincoln with Allan Pinkerton and Major General John Alexander McClernand at the Battle of Antietam.
Freedmen voting in New Orleans, 1867.
Atlanta's railyard and roundhouse in ruins shortly after the end of the Civil War
The completion of the Transcontinental Railroad (1869) at First Transcontinental Railroad, by Andrew J. Russell
Scottish immigrant Andrew Carnegie led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry.
Mulberry Street, along which Manhattan's Little Italy is centered. Lower East Side, circa 1900. Almost 97% of residents of the 10 largest American cities of 1900 were non-Hispanic whites.
This cartoon reflects the view of Judge magazine regarding America's imperial ambitions following a quick victory in the Spanish–American War of 1898. The American flag flies from the Philippines and Hawaii in the Pacific to Cuba and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean.
American children of many ethnic backgrounds celebrate noisily in a 1902 Puck cartoon.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman (pictured) wrote these articles about feminism for the Atlanta Constitution, published on December 10, 1916.
The American Cemetery at Romagne-sous-Montfaucon
Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol in Chicago, 1921.
Money supply decreased a lot between Black Tuesday and the Bank Holiday in March 1933 when there were massive bank runs across the United States.
Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California, centering on Florence Owens Thompson, a mother of seven, age 32, in Nipomo, California, March 1936.
Brazilian President Getúlio Vargas (left) and US President Franklin D. Roosevelt (right) in 1936
The Japanese crippled American naval power with the attack on Pearl Harbor, destroying many battleships.
Into the Jaws of Death: The Normandy landings began the Allied march toward Germany from the west.
American corpses sprawled on the beach of Tarawa, November 1943.
The Trinity test of the Manhattan Project was the first detonation of a nuclear weapon.
Cuban Missile Crisis a U-2 reconnaissance photograph of Cuba, showing Soviet nuclear missiles, their transports and tents for fueling and maintenance.
Eisenhower button from the 1952 campaign
President Kennedy's Civil Rights Address, June 11, 1963.
U.S. soldiers searching a village for potential Viet Cong during the Vietnam War
Buzz Aldrin (shown) and Neil Armstrong became the first people to walk on the Moon during NASA's 1969 Apollo 11 mission
Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. (right) with President Lyndon B. Johnson in the background (left)
Duncan West speaking with Cesar Chavez. The Delano UFW rally. Duncan represented the Teamsters who were supporting the UFW and condemning their IBT leadership for working as thugs against a fellow union. Duncan and his wife Mary were the branch organizers of the LA IS.
Anti-Vietnam War demonstration, 1967
Two hippies at Woodstock
United States Navy F-4 Phantom II shadows a Soviet Tu-95 Bear D aircraft in the early 1970s
U.S. Senator Edmund Muskie speaking at Fairmount Park, Philadelphia on Earth Day, 1970
Richard Nixon departs
Ronald Reagan at the Brandenburg Gate challenges Soviet general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall in 1987, shortly before the end of the Cold War.
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty
Clinton, Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993.
The NASDAQ Composite index swelled with the dot-com bubble in the optimistic "New Economy". The bubble burst in 2000.
The former World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan during September 11 attacks in 2001
George W. Bush addressed the General Assembly of the United Nations on September 12, 2002, to outline the complaints of the United States government against the Iraqi government.
Headquarters of the Lehman Brothers, who filed for bankruptcy in September 2008 at the height of the U.S. financial crisis.
Tea Party protesters walk towards the United States Capitol during the Taxpayer March on Washington, September 12, 2009.
Barack Obama was the first African-American president of the United States
The White House lit with rainbow colors in celebration of the legalization of gay marriage
A man stands on a burned out car following protests over the murder of George Floyd
President Donald Trump delivering his inaugural address, 2017
A naval officer checks on a patient connected to a ventilator in Baton Rouge during the COVID-19 pandemic

The history of the lands that became the United States began with the arrival of the first people in the Americas around 15,000 BC. Numerous indigenous cultures formed, and many saw transformations in the 16th century away from more densely populated lifestyles and towards reorganized polities elsewhere.

- History of the United States

500 related topics

Relevance

Constitutional Convention (United States)

The Constitutional Convention took place in Philadelphia from May 25 to September 17, 1787.

Independence Hall's Assembly Room
James Madison, the author of the Virginia Plan
Virginia Plan
Charles Pinckney Plan
Edmund Randolph, the Governor of Virginia, introduced the Virginia Plan
James Wilson's ideas shaped the American presidency more than any other delegate
New Jersey Plan
Hamilton's Plan
Roger Sherman of Connecticut
Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania
Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy (1940)
U.S. Postage, Issue of 1937, depicting Delegates at the signing of the Constitution, engraving after a painting by Junius Brutus Stearns
Quaker John Dickinson argued forcefully against slavery during the convention. Once Delaware's largest slaveholder, he had freed all of his slaves by 1787.

The result of the convention was the creation of the Constitution of the United States, placing the Convention among the most significant events in American history.

Reconstruction era

The ruins of Richmond, Virginia, the former Confederate capital, after the American Civil War; newly-freed African Americans voting for the first time in 1867; office of the Freedmen's Bureau in Memphis, Tennessee; Memphis riots of 1866
The Southern economy had been ruined by the war. Charleston, South Carolina: Broad Street, 1865
The distribution of wealth per capita in 1872, illustrating the disparity between North and South in that period
A political cartoon of Andrew Johnson and Abraham Lincoln, 1865, entitled "The Rail Splitter At Work Repairing the Union". The caption reads (Johnson): "Take it quietly Uncle Abe and I will draw it closer than ever." (Lincoln): "A few more stitches Andy and the good old Union will be mended."
Monument in honor of the Grand Army of the Republic, organized after the war
Freedmen voting in New Orleans, 1867
Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States (1861–1865)
Celebration of the Emancipation Proclamation in Massachusetts, 1862
Northern teachers traveled into the South to provide education and training for the newly freed population.
Andrew Johnson, 17th President of the United States (1865–1869)
An October 24th, 1874 Harper's Magazine editorial cartoon by Thomas Nast denouncing KKK and White League murders of innocent Blacks
The debate over Reconstruction and the Freedmen's Bureau was nationwide. This 1866 Pennsylvania election poster alleged that the bureau kept the Negro in idleness at the expense of the hardworking white taxpayer. A racist caricature of an African American is depicted.
1868 Republican cartoon identifies Democratic candidates Seymour and Blair (right) with KKK violence and with Confederate soldiers (left).
"This is a white man's government", Thomas Nast's caricature of the forces arraigned against Grant and Reconstruction in the 1868 election. Atop a black Union veteran reaching for a ballot box: the New York City Irish; Confederate and Klansman Nathan Bedford Forrest; and big-money Democratic Party chairman August Belmont, a burning freedmen's school in the background. Harper's Weekly, September 5, 1868.
Ulysses S. Grant, 18th President of the United States (1869–1877)
Grant's Attorney General Amos T. Akerman prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan, believing that the strong arm of the federal Justice Department could pacify the South.
Eastman Johnson's 1863 painting The Lord is My Shepherd, of a man reading the Bible
Atlanta's rail yard and roundhouse in ruins shortly after the end of the Civil War
$20 banknote with portrait of Secretary of the Treasury Hugh McCulloch
Winslow Homer's 1876 painting A Visit from the Old Mistress
A Republican Form of Government and No Domestic Violence, by Thomas Nast, a political cartoon about the Wheeler Compromise in Louisiana, published in Harper's Weekly, March 6, 1875
White Leaguers attacking the New Orleans integrated police force and state militia, Battle of Liberty Place, 1874
Rutherford B. Hayes, 19th President of the United States (1877–1881)
A poster for the 1939 epic film Gone with the Wind, which is set during the Civil War and Reconstruction eras

The Reconstruction era was a period in American history following the American Civil War (1861–1865); it lasted from 1865 to 1877 and marked a significant chapter in the history of civil rights in the United States.

Wall Street Crash of 1929

Major American stock market crash that occurred in the autumn of 1929.

The Dow Jones Industrial Average, 1928–1930
Overall Price Index on Wall Street from just before the crash in 1929 to 1932 when the price bottomed out
The trading floor of the New York Stock Exchange Building in 1930, six months after the crash of 1929
British economist Sir George Paish predicted the May slump.
Crowd at New York's American Union Bank during a bank run early in the Great Depression
Unemployed men march in Toronto.

It was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its aftereffects.

American Civil War

Civil war in the United States between the Union (states that remained loyal to the federal union, or "the North") and the Confederacy (states that voted to secede, or "the South").

Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, aroused public opinion about the evils of slavery. According to legend, when Lincoln was introduced to her at the White House, his first words were, "So this is the little lady who started this Great War."
Frederick Douglass, a former slave, was a leading abolitionist
Marais des Cygnes massacre of anti-slavery Kansans, May 19, 1858
Mathew Brady, Portrait of Abraham Lincoln, 1860
The first published imprint of secession, a broadside issued by the Charleston Mercury, December 20, 1860
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America (1861–1865)
Bombardment of the Fort by the Confederates
Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863
Clashes on the rivers were melees of ironclads, cottonclads, gunboats and rams, complicated by naval mines and fire rafts.
Battle between the USS Monitor and USS Merrimack (1855)
General Scott's "Anaconda Plan" 1861. Tightening naval blockade, forcing rebels out of Missouri along the Mississippi River, Kentucky Unionists sit on the fence, idled cotton industry illustrated in Georgia.
Gunline of nine Union ironclads. South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off Charleston. Continuous blockade of all major ports was sustained by North's overwhelming war production.
A December 1861 cartoon in Punch magazine in London ridicules American aggressiveness in the Trent Affair. John Bull, at right, warns Uncle Sam, "You do what's right, my son, or I'll blow you out of the water."
County map of Civil War battles by theater and year
Robert E. Lee
"Stonewall" Jackson got his nickname at Bull Run.
George B. McClellan
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Confederate dead overrun at Marye's Heights, reoccupied next day May 4, 1863
Pickett's Charge
Ulysses S. Grant
Albert Sidney Johnston died at Shiloh
By 1863, the Union controlled large portions of the Western Theater, especially areas surrounding the Mississippi River
The Battle of Chickamauga, the highest two-day losses
Nathaniel Lyon secured St. Louis docks and arsenal, led Union forces to expel Missouri Confederate forces and government.
New Orleans captured
William Tecumseh Sherman
These dead soldiers—from Ewell's May 1864 attack at Spotsylvania—delayed Grant's advance on Richmond in the Overland Campaign.
Philip Sheridan
Map of Confederate territory losses year by year
Burying Union dead on the Antietam battlefield, 1862
Through the supervision of the Freedmen's Bureau, northern teachers traveled into the South to provide education and training for the newly freed population.
Beginning in 1961 the U.S. Post Office released commemorative stamps for five famous battles, each issued on the 100th anniversary of the respective battle.
The Battle of Fort Sumter, as depicted by Currier and Ives.

The Civil War is one of the most studied and written about episodes in the history of the United States.

Five Civilized Tribes

Gallery of the Five Civilized Tribes: Sequoyah (Cherokee), Pushmataha (Choctaw), Selecta (Muscogee/Creek), a "Characteristic Chickasaw Head", and Osceola (Seminole). The portraits were drawn or painted between 1775 and 1850.
The Mississippian culture was a mound building Native American urban culture that flourished in the South and Eastern United States before the arrival of Europeans.
Routes of southern removals to the first Indian Territory of the Five Civilized Tribes
Cherokee Nation Historic Courthouse in Tahlequah, built in 1849, is the oldest public building standing in Oklahoma.

The term Five Civilized Tribes was applied by European Americans in the colonial and early federal period in the history of the United States to the five major Native American nations in the Southeast—the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek (Muscogee), and Seminole.

Carpetbagger

1872 cartoon depiction of Carl Schurz as a carpetbagger
Map of the United States in 1872, showing the disparity of wealth between the North and South during the Reconstruction Era
A cartoon threatening that the KKK will lynch scalawags (left) and carpetbaggers (right) on March 4, 1869, the day Horatio Seymour, a Democrat, will supposedly become President. Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Independent Monitor, September 1, 1868. The cartoonist had actual local politicians in mind. A full-scale scholarly history analyzes the cartoonː Guy W. Hubbs, Searching for Freedom after the Civil War: Klansman, Carpetbagger, Scalawag, and Freedman (2015) excerpt.

In the history of the United States, carpetbagger is a largely historical term used by Southerners to describe opportunistic Northerners who came to the Southern states after the American Civil War, who were perceived to be exploiting the local populace for their own financial, political, and/or social gain.

Gilded Age

The Breakers, a Gilded Age mansion in Newport, Rhode Island, built by the wealthy Vanderbilt family of railroad industry tycoons
The celebration of the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad, May 10, 1869
Toluca Street Oil Field in Los Angeles oil district, c. 1895–1901
Grand Central Depot in New York City, opened in 1871
Sacramento Railroad Station in 1874
Cornelius Vanderbilt versus James Fisk Jr. in a famous rivalry with the Erie Railroad
Oswego starch factory in Oswego, New York, 1876
Scottish immigrant Andrew Carnegie led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry
Octopus representing Standard Oil with tentacles wrapped around the U.S. Congress and state capitals, as well as the steel, copper, and shipping industries, and reaching for the White House
Cartoon showing Cyrus Field, Jay Gould, Cornelius Vanderbilt, and Russell Sage, seated on bags of "millions", on large heavy raft made of low wages and high prices being carried by workers
New York police violently attacking unemployed workers in Tompkins Square Park, 1874
A Group of Vultures Waiting for the Storm to "Blow Over" – "Let Us Prey," a cartoon denouncing the corruption of New York's Boss Tweed and other Tammany Hall figures, drawn in 1871 by Thomas Nast and published in Harper's Weekly.
"The Bosses of the Senate" (1889). Reformers like the cartoonist Joseph Keppler depicted the Senate as controlled by the giant moneybags, who represented the nation's financial trusts and monopolies.
Celebrating ethnic pluralism on 4th of July. 1902 Puck editorial cartoon
Businessman and politician P. J. Kennedy of Boston in 1900; his grandson John F. Kennedy became president in 1960
Temporary quarters for Volga Germans in central Kansas, 1875
Norwegian settlers in front of their sod house in North Dakota in 1898
The Home Insurance Building in Chicago became the world's first skyscraper when it was built in 1885
The South in red
Map of the United States, 1870–80. Orange indicates statehood, light blue territories, and green unorganized territories
A group of students, together with a non-white man, 1893
The Chess Players, Thomas Eakins (1876)
The Cup of Tea, Mary Cassatt (ca. 1879)
This 1902 cartoon from the Hawaiian Gazette shows a WCTU activist using the water cure to torture a brewmaster as the Anti-Saloon League mans the pump

In United States history, the Gilded Age was an era extending roughly from 1870 to 1900.

Ulysses S. Grant

American military officer and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, 1870–1880
Grant's birthplace, Point Pleasant, Ohio
Grant c. undefined 1845–1847
Battle of Monterrey Published 1847
Chinook Indian Plank House Published 1845
Grant believed Pacific Northwest Indians were a peaceful people and not a threat to settlers.
"Hardscrabble" Published 1891
The farm home Grant built in Missouri for his family. His wife Julia called the home an "unattractive cabin".
Brigadier General Grant photographed at Cairo, Illinois, September 1861 (Published 1911)
21st Illinois regiment monument in the Viniard Field, Chickamauga
Grant's successful gamble: Porter's gunboats night ran the Confederate gauntlet at Vicksburg on the Mississippi River.
Published 1863
The Battle of Jackson, fought on May 14, 1863, was part of the Vicksburg Campaign.
Published 1863
Union troops swarm Missionary Ridge and defeat Bragg's army. Published 1886
Commanding General Grant at the Battle of Cold Harbor, June 1864
Grant (center left) next to Lincoln with General Sherman (far left) and Admiral Porter (right) – The Peacemakers by Healy, 1868
Defeated by Grant, Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House
Ulysses S. Grant by Balling (1865)
Grant–Colfax Republican Ticket
Published 1868
220px
Inauguration of President U.S. Grant, Capitol building steps.
March 4, 1869
Anthony Comstock Grant's vigorous prosecutor of abortionists and pornographers.
Amos T. Akerman, appointed Attorney General by Grant, who vigorously prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan
Image of mobs rioting entitled "The Louisiana Outrage". White Leaguers at Liberty Place attacked the integrated police force and state militia, New Orleans, September 1874.
Published October 1874
Secretary of Treasury George S. Boutwell aided Grant to defeat the Gold Ring.
Secretary of State Hamilton Fish and Grant successfully settled the Alabama Claims by treaty and arbitration.
Wharf of Santo Domingo City
Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
American Captain Frye and his crew were executed by Spanish authority.
King Kalākaua of Hawaii meets President Grant at the White House on his state visit, 1874.
Published January 2, 1875
Ely Samuel Parker
Grant appointed Parker the first Native American (Seneca) Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
Battle of the Little Big Horn
Great Sioux War
Published 1889
Cartoon by Thomas Nast on Grant's opponents in the reelection campaign
Grant is congratulated for vetoing the "inflation bill" in 1874.
Cartoonist Thomas Nast praises Grant for rejecting demands by Pennsylvania politicians to suspend civil service rules.
Harper's Weekly
cartoon on Bristow's Whiskey Ring investigation
Grant and Bismarck in 1878
Cartoonist Joseph Keppler lampooned Grant and his associates. Grant's prosecutions of the Whiskey Ring and the Klan were ignored.
Puck, 1880
Official White House portrait of President Grant by Henry Ulke, 1875
Commanding General Grant
Constant Mayer's portrait of 1866
Grant National Memorial, known as "Grant's Tomb", largest mausoleum in North America

Historical assessments had traditionally ranked Grant as one of the worst presidents in American history.

Franklin D. Roosevelt

American politician and attorney who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

Official campaign portrait, 1944
Eleanor and Franklin with their first two children, 1908
Roosevelt in 1944
Roosevelt supported Governor Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 presidential election.
Theodore Roosevelt was Franklin Roosevelt's distant cousin and an important influence on his career.
Roosevelt as Assistant Secretary of the Navy, 1913
Cox and Roosevelt in Ohio, 1920
Rare photograph of Roosevelt in a wheelchair, with Fala and Ruthie Bie, the daughter of caretakers at his Hyde Park estate. Photo taken by his cousin Margaret Suckley (February 1941).
Gov. Roosevelt with his predecessor Al Smith, 1930
Results of the 1930 gubernatorial election in New York
Roosevelt in the early 1930s
1932 electoral vote results
Roosevelt signs the Social Security Act into law, August 14, 1935
1936 re-election handbill for Roosevelt promoting his economic policy
1936 electoral vote results
Roosevelt with Brazilian President Getúlio Vargas and other dignitaries in Brazil, 1936
The Roosevelts with King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, sailing from Washington, D.C., to Mount Vernon, Virginia, on the USS Potomac during the first U.S. visit of a reigning British monarch (June 9, 1939)
Foreign trips of Roosevelt during his presidency
1940 electoral vote results
Roosevelt and Winston Churchill aboard HMS Prince of Wales for 1941 Atlantic Charter meeting
Territory controlled by the Allies (blue and red) and the Axis Powers (black) in June 1942
The Allies (blue and red) and the Axis Powers (black) in December 1944
1944 electoral vote results
Official portrait of President Roosevelt by Frank O. Salisbury, c. 1947
200x200px

Roosevelt is widely considered to be one of the most important figures in the history of the United States, as well as one of the most influential figures of the 20th century.

Fourteen Points

Statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I.

U.S. President Woodrow Wilson
President Wilson tells George Washington that he destroys autocracy with his 14 points.
Wilson's Fourteen Points as the only way to peace for German government, American political cartoon, 1918.
Map of Wilsonian Armenia and Kurdistan. The borders decision was made by Wilson.
Wilson with his 14 points choosing between competing claims. Babies represent claims of the British, French, Italians, Polish, Russians, and enemy. American political cartoon, 1919.

Many of them believed that the United States, given its history (particularly the American Revolution) would be sympathetic towards the goals and aspirations they held.