A per-state population map of the Japanese American population, with California leading with 93,717, from Final Report, Japanese Evacuation From the West Coast 1942
Territorial growth of the United States, 1810–1920
The San Francisco Examiner, February 1942
This map shows the approximate location of the ice-free corridor and specific Paleoindian sites (Clovis theory).
A Japanese American unfurled this banner in Oakland, California the day after the Pearl Harbor attack. This Dorothea Lange photograph was taken in March 1942, just prior to the man's internment.
The Cultural areas of pre-Columbian North America, according to Alfred Kroeber.
A child is "Tagged for evacuation", Salinas, California, May 1942. Photo by Russell Lee.
Grave Creek Mound, located in Moundsville, West Virginia, is one of the largest conical mounds in the United States. It was built by the Adena culture.
A Japanese American shop, Asahi Dye Works, closing. The notice on the front is a reference to Owens Valley being the first and one of the largest Japanese American detention centers.
Monks Mound of Cahokia (UNESCO World Heritage Site) in summer. The concrete staircase follows the approximate course of the ancient wooden stairs.
The baggage of Japanese Americans from the West Coast, at a makeshift reception center located at a racetrack
Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Dressed in uniform marking his service in World War I, a U.S. Navy veteran from San Pedro enters Santa Anita Assembly Center (April 1942)
The K'alyaan Totem Pole of the Tlingit Kiks.ádi Clan, erected at Sitka National Historical Park to commemorate the lives lost in the 1804 Battle of Sitka.
Children wave from the window of a special train as it leaves Seattle with Bainbridge Island internees, March 30, 1942
Leif Erikson discovers America by Christian Krohg, 1893
1942 editorial propaganda cartoon in the New York newspaper PM by Dr. Seuss depicting Japanese Americans in California, Oregon, and Washington–states with the largest population of Japanese Americans–as prepared to conduct sabotage against the U.S.
The Mayflower, which transported Pilgrims to the New World. During the first winter at Plymouth, about half of the Pilgrims died.
Official notice of exclusion and removal
Squanto known for having been an early liaison between the native populations in Southern New England and the Mayflower settlers, who made their settlement at the site of Squanto's former summer village.
Fred Korematsu (left), Minoru Yasui (middle) and Gordon Hirabayashi (right) in 1986
The First Thanksgiving at Plymouth, 1914, Pilgrim Hall Museum, Plymouth, Massachusetts
Hayward, California. "Members of the Mochida family awaiting evacuation bus. Identification tags are used to aid in keeping the family unit intact during all phases of evacuation. Mochida operated a nursery and five greenhouses on a two-acre site in Eden Township. He raised snapdragons and sweet peas."
Indians trade 90-lb packs of furs at a Hudson's Bay Company trading post in the 19th century.
This Dorothea Lange photo (May 8, 1942) was captioned: "Hayward, California. Friends say good-bye as a family of Japanese ancestry await evacuation bus."
The Indian massacre of Jamestown settlers in 1622. Soon the colonists in the South feared all natives as enemies.
Dillon S. Myer with First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt visiting the Gila River Relocation Center on April 23, 1943
John Gadsby Chapman, Baptism of Pocahontas (1840), on display in the Rotunda of the U.S. Capitol.
Music class at the Rohwer Relocation Center
Map of the British and French settlements in North America in 1750, before the French and Indian War
Former California artist Allen Hagio preparing a sign at the Rohwer Relocation Center
Join, or Die: This 1756 political cartoon by Benjamin Franklin urged the colonies to join during the French and Indian War.
Heart Mountain Relocation Center, January 10, 1943
An 1846 painting of the 1773 Boston Tea Party
Ruins of the buildings in the Gila River War Relocation Center of Camp Butte
The population density in the American Colonies in 1775.
Harvesting spinach, Tule Lake Relocation Center, September 8, 1942
Washington's surprise crossing of the Delaware River in December 1776 was a major comeback after the loss of New York City; his army defeated the British in two battles and recaptured New Jersey.
Nurse tending four orphaned babies at the Manzanar Children's Village
John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence (1819)
Manzanar Children's Village superintendent Harry Matsumoto with several orphan children
The United States after the Treaty of Paris (1783), with individual state claims and cessions through 1802
Japanese Americans in front of posters with internment orders
Economic growth in America per capita income. Index with 1700 set as 100.
Trudging through the mud during rainy weather at the Jerome Relocation Center
George Washington's legacy remains among the greatest in American history, as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, hero of the Revolution, and the first President of the United States. (by Gilbert Charles Stuart)
Dust storm at the Manzanar War Relocation Center
Depiction of election-day activities in Philadelphia (by John Lewis Krimmel, 1815)
Lt. Eugene Bogard, commanding officer of the Army Registration team, explains the purpose of registration to a group of Japanese Americans at Manzanar (February 11, 1943). All internees between the ages of 18 and 38 were compelled to register.
Slaves Waiting for Sale: Richmond, Virginia (by Eyre Crowe)
The 100th/442nd Regimental Combat Team, which was composed primarily of Japanese Americans, served with uncommon distinction in the European Theatre of World War II. Many of the soldiers from the continental U.S. serving in the units had families who were held in concentration camps in the United States while they fought abroad.
Thomas Jefferson saw himself as a man of the frontier and a scientist; he was keenly interested in expanding and exploring the West.
Graveyard at the Granada Relocation Center in Amache, Colorado
Territorial expansion; Louisiana Purchase in white.
A monument at Manzanar, "to console the souls of the dead"
Oliver Hazard Perry's message to William Henry Harrison after the Battle of Lake Erie began with: "We have met the enemy and they are ours" (by William H. Powell, 1865)
Boy Scouts at the Granada War Relocation Center raise the flag to half-mast during a memorial service for the first six Nisei soldiers from this Center who were killed in action in Italy. The service was attended by 1,500 Amache internees. August 5, 1944.
A drawing of a Protestant camp meeting (by H. Bridport, c. 1829)
U.S. President Ronald Reagan signs the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 in August 1988, which granted reparations for the internment of Japanese Americans
"Independence Day Celebration in Centre Square, Philadelphia" (by John Lewis Krimmel, 1819)
Japanese American Memorial (Eugene, Oregon)
Settlers crossing the Plains of Nebraska (by C.C.A. Christensen, 19th century)
The cedar "story wall" at the Bainbridge Island Japanese American Exclusion Memorial
The Indian Removal Act resulted in the transplantation of several Native American tribes and the Trail of Tears.
Rohwer Memorial Cemetery, declared a National Historic Landmark in 1992
Henry Clay
Monument to the men of the 100th Infantry Battalion/442nd Regimental Combat Team, Rohwer Memorial Cemetery
Horace Greeley's New York Tribune—the leading Whig paper—endorsed Clay for President and Fillmore for Governor, 1844.
Painting by Don Troiani depicting soldiers of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team fighting in the Vosges
Officers and men of the Irish-Catholic 69th New York Volunteer Regiment attend Catholic services in 1861.
Two color guards and color bearers of the Japanese-American 442nd Combat Team stand at attention while their citations are read. They are standing on the ground of Bruyeres, France, where many of their comrades fell.
The California Gold Rush news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad.
Remains of Dalton Wells, a National Register of Historic Places listing in Utah
The American occupation of Mexico City in 1848
Grandfather and grandson at Manzanar, July 2, 1942
The United States, immediately before the Civil War. All of the lands east of, or bordering, the Mississippi River were organized as states in the Union, but the West was still largely inhabited by Native Americans.
Gordon Hirabayashi's Medal of Freedom and certificate
The Battle of Franklin, November 30, 1864.
Flag of allegiance pledge at Raphael Weill Public School, Geary and Buchanan Streets, San Francisco, April 20, 1942
Lincoln with Allan Pinkerton and Major General John Alexander McClernand at the Battle of Antietam.
Teacher Lily Namimoto and her second grade class
Freedmen voting in New Orleans, 1867.
Fourth grade class in barracks 3-4-B at Rohwer
Atlanta's railyard and roundhouse in ruins shortly after the end of the Civil War
General office in the high school at Rohwer
The completion of the Transcontinental Railroad (1869) at First Transcontinental Railroad, by Andrew J. Russell
Senior physics class in barracks 11-F at the temporary high school quarters
Scottish immigrant Andrew Carnegie led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry.
A part of the brass section of the high school band
Mulberry Street, along which Manhattan's Little Italy is centered. Lower East Side, circa 1900. Almost 97% of residents of the 10 largest American cities of 1900 were non-Hispanic whites.
A baseball game at Manzanar. Picture by Ansel Adams, c. 1943.
This cartoon reflects the view of Judge magazine regarding America's imperial ambitions following a quick victory in the Spanish–American War of 1898. The American flag flies from the Philippines and Hawaii in the Pacific to Cuba and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean.
Smithsonian photo of softball from the Heart Mountain Relocation Center
American children of many ethnic backgrounds celebrate noisily in a 1902 Puck cartoon.
A basketball game at the Rohwer Relocation Center
Charlotte Perkins Gilman (pictured) wrote these articles about feminism for the Atlanta Constitution, published on December 10, 1916.
A group of girls around a puppy at a football game
The American Cemetery at Romagne-sous-Montfaucon
A tense moment in a football game between the Stockton and Santa Anita teams
Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol in Chicago, 1921.
A judo class at Rohwer. Classes were held every afternoon and evening.
Money supply decreased a lot between Black Tuesday and the Bank Holiday in March 1933 when there were massive bank runs across the United States.
Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California, centering on Florence Owens Thompson, a mother of seven, age 32, in Nipomo, California, March 1936.
Brazilian President Getúlio Vargas (left) and US President Franklin D. Roosevelt (right) in 1936
The Japanese crippled American naval power with the attack on Pearl Harbor, destroying many battleships.
Into the Jaws of Death: The Normandy landings began the Allied march toward Germany from the west.
American corpses sprawled on the beach of Tarawa, November 1943.
The Trinity test of the Manhattan Project was the first detonation of a nuclear weapon.
Cuban Missile Crisis a U-2 reconnaissance photograph of Cuba, showing Soviet nuclear missiles, their transports and tents for fueling and maintenance.
Eisenhower button from the 1952 campaign
President Kennedy's Civil Rights Address, June 11, 1963.
U.S. soldiers searching a village for potential Viet Cong during the Vietnam War
Buzz Aldrin (shown) and Neil Armstrong became the first people to walk on the Moon during NASA's 1969 Apollo 11 mission
Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. (right) with President Lyndon B. Johnson in the background (left)
Duncan West speaking with Cesar Chavez. The Delano UFW rally. Duncan represented the Teamsters who were supporting the UFW and condemning their IBT leadership for working as thugs against a fellow union. Duncan and his wife Mary were the branch organizers of the LA IS.
Anti-Vietnam War demonstration, 1967
Two hippies at Woodstock
United States Navy F-4 Phantom II shadows a Soviet Tu-95 Bear D aircraft in the early 1970s
U.S. Senator Edmund Muskie speaking at Fairmount Park, Philadelphia on Earth Day, 1970
Richard Nixon departs
Ronald Reagan at the Brandenburg Gate challenges Soviet general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall in 1987, shortly before the end of the Cold War.
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty
Clinton, Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993.
The NASDAQ Composite index swelled with the dot-com bubble in the optimistic "New Economy". The bubble burst in 2000.
The former World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan during September 11 attacks in 2001
George W. Bush addressed the General Assembly of the United Nations on September 12, 2002, to outline the complaints of the United States government against the Iraqi government.
Headquarters of the Lehman Brothers, who filed for bankruptcy in September 2008 at the height of the U.S. financial crisis.
Tea Party protesters walk towards the United States Capitol during the Taxpayer March on Washington, September 12, 2009.
Barack Obama was the first African-American president of the United States
The White House lit with rainbow colors in celebration of the legalization of gay marriage
A man stands on a burned out car following protests over the murder of George Floyd
President Donald Trump delivering his inaugural address, 2017
A naval officer checks on a patient connected to a ventilator in Baton Rouge during the COVID-19 pandemic
European territorial claims in North America, c. 1750
France
Great Britain
Spain
Supporters of then-President Donald Trump attempted to stop the counting of electoral votes on January 6, 2021.
Protestors outside of the Supreme Court shortly after the announcement of the Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization decision in 2022.

Almost 120,000 Japanese Americans and resident Japanese aliens were eventually removed from their homes on the West Coast and Southern Arizona as part of the single largest forced relocation in U.S. history.

- Internment of Japanese Americans

War fervor also inspired anti-Japanese sentiment, leading to internment of Japanese Americans.

- History of the United States
A per-state population map of the Japanese American population, with California leading with 93,717, from Final Report, Japanese Evacuation From the West Coast 1942

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Official campaign portrait, 1944

Franklin D. Roosevelt

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American politician and attorney who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

American politician and attorney who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

Official campaign portrait, 1944
Eleanor and Franklin with their first two children, 1908
Roosevelt in 1944
Roosevelt supported Governor Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 presidential election.
Theodore Roosevelt was Franklin Roosevelt's distant cousin and an important influence on his career.
Roosevelt as Assistant Secretary of the Navy, 1913
Cox and Roosevelt in Ohio, 1920
Rare photograph of Roosevelt in a wheelchair, with Fala and Ruthie Bie, the daughter of caretakers at his Hyde Park estate. Photo taken by his cousin Margaret Suckley (February 1941).
Gov. Roosevelt with his predecessor Al Smith, 1930
Results of the 1930 gubernatorial election in New York
Roosevelt in the early 1930s
1932 electoral vote results
Roosevelt signs the Social Security Act into law, August 14, 1935
1936 re-election handbill for Roosevelt promoting his economic policy
1936 electoral vote results
Roosevelt with Brazilian President Getúlio Vargas and other dignitaries in Brazil, 1936
The Roosevelts with King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, sailing from Washington, D.C., to Mount Vernon, Virginia, on the USS Potomac during the first U.S. visit of a reigning British monarch (June 9, 1939)
Foreign trips of Roosevelt during his presidency
1940 electoral vote results
Roosevelt and Winston Churchill aboard HMS Prince of Wales for 1941 Atlantic Charter meeting
Territory controlled by the Allies (blue and red) and the Axis Powers (black) in June 1942
The Allies (blue and red) and the Axis Powers (black) in December 1944
1944 electoral vote results
Official portrait of President Roosevelt by Frank O. Salisbury, c. 1947
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Since his death, several of Roosevelt's actions have come under substantial criticism, such as the relocation and internment of Japanese Americans in concentration camps.

Roosevelt is widely considered to be one of the most important figures in the history of the United States, as well as one of the most influential figures of the 20th century.

Racial disparities in the share of prisoners, police officers, people shot by police, and judges in the United States in the late 2010s

Racism in the United States

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Racial disparities in the share of prisoners, police officers, people shot by police, and judges in the United States in the late 2010s
Scars of an enslaved man, Peter, April 2, 1863, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
A group of white men pose for a 1919 photograph as they stand over the body of the black lynching victim Will Brown before they decide to mutilate and burn it during the Omaha race riot of 1919 in Omaha, Nebraska. Photographs and postcards of lynchings were popular souvenirs in the U.S.
White tenants seeking to prevent blacks from moving into the housing project erected this sign. Detroit, 1942.
Due to threats and violence against her, U.S. Marshals escorted 6-year-old Ruby Bridges to and from the previously whites only William Frantz Elementary School in New Orleans, 1960. As soon as Bridges entered the school, white parents pulled their children out.
Rosa Parks being fingerprinted after being arrested for not giving up her seat on the bus to a white person
Bayard Rustin (left) and Cleveland Robinson (right), organizers of the March, on August 7, 1963
The Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church where nine black church-goers, including the pastor, were killed by a white man in the 2015 Charleston church shooting. The church, founded in 1817, is the oldest AME church in the South.
Reverend Al Sharpton speaking at the Commitment March: Get Your Knee Off Our Necks in August 2020
Members of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation in Oklahoma around 1877.
The Rescue sculpture stood outside the U.S. Capitol building between 1853 and 1958. A work commissioned by the U.S. government, its sculptor Horatio Greenough wrote that it was "to convey the idea of the triumph of the whites over the savage tribes".
Mass grave for the dead Lakota following the Wounded Knee massacre. Eyewitness American Horse, chief of the Oglala Lakota, stated, "A people's dream died there. It was a beautiful dream ... the nation's hope is broken and scattered. There is no center any longer, and the sacred tree is dead."
Richard Henry Pratt founded the first Native American boarding school in 1879. The goal of these schools was to teach Native American students White ways of being through education which emphasized European cultural values and the superiority of White American ways of life.
A political cartoon from 1882 ridiculing the Chinese Exclusion Act, showing a Chinese man, surrounded by benefits of Chinese immigration, being barred entry to the "Golden Gate of Liberty", while other groups, including Communists and "hoodlums", are allowed to enter. The caption reads sarcastically, "We must draw the line somewhere, you know."
Chinese massacre of 1871
Denver's anti-Chinese riot in 1880
Bhagat Singh Thind was twice denied citizenship as he was not deemed white.
Philadelphia nativist riots.
New York Times, 1854 ad, reading "No Irish need apply."
Ku Klux Klan members march down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. in 1928. The second era Klan was a large nationwide movement with between four and six million members.
Italian immigrants Sacco and Vanzetti were wrongfully executed in 1927; anti-Italianism and anti-immigrant bias were suspected as having heavily influenced the verdict.
A rally is held for victims of Hurricane Maria in protest against the U.S. government's response to it and the Political status of Puerto Rico.
Hispanic protest against California immigration policy. Todos somos ilegales – We are all Illegals.
An Assyrian church after it was vandalized in Detroit (2007). Although they are not Arabs and are mostly Christians, Assyrians often face a racist backlash in the US because of their Middle Eastern background.
A man holding a sign that reads "deport all Iranians" and "get the hell out of my country" during a protest of the Iran hostage crisis in Washington, D.C. in 1979.
Protesters at the Unite the Right rally carrying Confederate flags, Gadsden flags, and a Nazi flag
This racist postcard from the 1900s shows the casual denigration of black women. It states "I know you're not particular to a fault / Though I'm not sure you'll never be sued for assault / You're so fond of women that even a wench / Attracts your gross fancy despite her strong stench"
In 1899 Uncle Sam balances his new possessions which are depicted as "savage" children. The figures are Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Cuba, Philippines and "Ladrone Is." (the Mariana Islands).

Racism in the United States comprises negative attitudes and views on race or ethnicity which are related to each other, are held by various people and groups in the United States, and have been reflected in discriminatory laws, practices and actions (including violence) at various times in the history of the United States against racial or ethnic groups.

On February 19, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 which cleared the way for internment of 120,000 Japanese Americans, citing possible security threats.