History of the United States

Territorial growth of the United States, 1810–1920
This map shows the approximate location of the ice-free corridor and specific Paleoindian sites (Clovis theory).
The Cultural areas of pre-Columbian North America, according to Alfred Kroeber.
Grave Creek Mound, located in Moundsville, West Virginia, is one of the largest conical mounds in the United States. It was built by the Adena culture.
Monks Mound of Cahokia (UNESCO World Heritage Site) in summer. The concrete staircase follows the approximate course of the ancient wooden stairs.
Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The K'alyaan Totem Pole of the Tlingit Kiks.ádi Clan, erected at Sitka National Historical Park to commemorate the lives lost in the 1804 Battle of Sitka.
Leif Erikson discovers America by Christian Krohg, 1893
The Mayflower, which transported Pilgrims to the New World. During the first winter at Plymouth, about half of the Pilgrims died.
Squanto known for having been an early liaison between the native populations in Southern New England and the Mayflower settlers, who made their settlement at the site of Squanto's former summer village.
The First Thanksgiving at Plymouth, 1914, Pilgrim Hall Museum, Plymouth, Massachusetts
Indians trade 90-lb packs of furs at a Hudson's Bay Company trading post in the 19th century.
The Indian massacre of Jamestown settlers in 1622. Soon the colonists in the South feared all natives as enemies.
John Gadsby Chapman, Baptism of Pocahontas (1840), on display in the Rotunda of the U.S. Capitol.
Map of the British and French settlements in North America in 1750, before the French and Indian War
Join, or Die: This 1756 political cartoon by Benjamin Franklin urged the colonies to join during the French and Indian War.
An 1846 painting of the 1773 Boston Tea Party
The population density in the American Colonies in 1775.
Washington's surprise crossing of the Delaware River in December 1776 was a major comeback after the loss of New York City; his army defeated the British in two battles and recaptured New Jersey.
John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence (1819)
The United States after the Treaty of Paris (1783), with individual state claims and cessions through 1802
Economic growth in America per capita income. Index with 1700 set as 100.
George Washington's legacy remains among the greatest in American history, as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, hero of the Revolution, and the first President of the United States. (by Gilbert Charles Stuart)
Depiction of election-day activities in Philadelphia (by John Lewis Krimmel, 1815)
Slaves Waiting for Sale: Richmond, Virginia (by Eyre Crowe)
Thomas Jefferson saw himself as a man of the frontier and a scientist; he was keenly interested in expanding and exploring the West.
Territorial expansion; Louisiana Purchase in white.
Oliver Hazard Perry's message to William Henry Harrison after the Battle of Lake Erie began with: "We have met the enemy and they are ours" (by William H. Powell, 1865)
A drawing of a Protestant camp meeting (by H. Bridport, c. 1829)
"Independence Day Celebration in Centre Square, Philadelphia" (by John Lewis Krimmel, 1819)
Settlers crossing the Plains of Nebraska (by C.C.A. Christensen, 19th century)
The Indian Removal Act resulted in the transplantation of several Native American tribes and the Trail of Tears.
Henry Clay
Horace Greeley's New York Tribune—the leading Whig paper—endorsed Clay for President and Fillmore for Governor, 1844.
Officers and men of the Irish-Catholic 69th New York Volunteer Regiment attend Catholic services in 1861.
The California Gold Rush news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad.
The American occupation of Mexico City in 1848
The United States, immediately before the Civil War. All of the lands east of, or bordering, the Mississippi River were organized as states in the Union, but the West was still largely inhabited by Native Americans.
The Battle of Franklin, November 30, 1864.
Lincoln with Allan Pinkerton and Major General John Alexander McClernand at the Battle of Antietam.
Freedmen voting in New Orleans, 1867.
Atlanta's railyard and roundhouse in ruins shortly after the end of the Civil War
The completion of the Transcontinental Railroad (1869) at First Transcontinental Railroad, by Andrew J. Russell
Scottish immigrant Andrew Carnegie led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry.
Mulberry Street, along which Manhattan's Little Italy is centered. Lower East Side, circa 1900. Almost 97% of residents of the 10 largest American cities of 1900 were non-Hispanic whites.
This cartoon reflects the view of Judge magazine regarding America's imperial ambitions following a quick victory in the Spanish–American War of 1898. The American flag flies from the Philippines and Hawaii in the Pacific to Cuba and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean.
American children of many ethnic backgrounds celebrate noisily in a 1902 Puck cartoon.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman (pictured) wrote these articles about feminism for the Atlanta Constitution, published on December 10, 1916.
The American Cemetery at Romagne-sous-Montfaucon
Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol in Chicago, 1921.
Money supply decreased a lot between Black Tuesday and the Bank Holiday in March 1933 when there were massive bank runs across the United States.
Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California, centering on Florence Owens Thompson, a mother of seven, age 32, in Nipomo, California, March 1936.
Brazilian President Getúlio Vargas (left) and US President Franklin D. Roosevelt (right) in 1936
The Japanese crippled American naval power with the attack on Pearl Harbor, destroying many battleships.
Into the Jaws of Death: The Normandy landings began the Allied march toward Germany from the west.
American corpses sprawled on the beach of Tarawa, November 1943.
The Trinity test of the Manhattan Project was the first detonation of a nuclear weapon.
Cuban Missile Crisis a U-2 reconnaissance photograph of Cuba, showing Soviet nuclear missiles, their transports and tents for fueling and maintenance.
Eisenhower button from the 1952 campaign
President Kennedy's Civil Rights Address, June 11, 1963.
U.S. soldiers searching a village for potential Viet Cong during the Vietnam War
Buzz Aldrin (shown) and Neil Armstrong became the first people to walk on the Moon during NASA's 1969 Apollo 11 mission
Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. (right) with President Lyndon B. Johnson in the background (left)
Duncan West speaking with Cesar Chavez. The Delano UFW rally. Duncan represented the Teamsters who were supporting the UFW and condemning their IBT leadership for working as thugs against a fellow union. Duncan and his wife Mary were the branch organizers of the LA IS.
Anti-Vietnam War demonstration, 1967
Two hippies at Woodstock
United States Navy F-4 Phantom II shadows a Soviet Tu-95 Bear D aircraft in the early 1970s
U.S. Senator Edmund Muskie speaking at Fairmount Park, Philadelphia on Earth Day, 1970
Richard Nixon departs
Ronald Reagan at the Brandenburg Gate challenges Soviet general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall in 1987, shortly before the end of the Cold War.
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty
Clinton, Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993.
The NASDAQ Composite index swelled with the dot-com bubble in the optimistic "New Economy". The bubble burst in 2000.
The former World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan during September 11 attacks in 2001
George W. Bush addressed the General Assembly of the United Nations on September 12, 2002, to outline the complaints of the United States government against the Iraqi government.
Headquarters of the Lehman Brothers, who filed for bankruptcy in September 2008 at the height of the U.S. financial crisis.
Tea Party protesters walk towards the United States Capitol during the Taxpayer March on Washington, September 12, 2009.
Barack Obama was the first African-American president of the United States
The White House lit with rainbow colors in celebration of the legalization of gay marriage
A man stands on a burned out car following protests over the murder of George Floyd
President Donald Trump delivering his inaugural address, 2017
A naval officer checks on a patient connected to a ventilator in Baton Rouge during the COVID-19 pandemic

The history of the lands that became the United States began with the arrival of the first people in the Americas around 15,000 BC. Numerous indigenous cultures formed, and many saw transformations in the 16th century away from more densely populated lifestyles and towards reorganized polities elsewhere.

- History of the United States
Territorial growth of the United States, 1810–1920

21 related topics

Alpha

The Breakers, a Gilded Age mansion in Newport, Rhode Island, built by the wealthy Vanderbilt family of railroad industry tycoons

Gilded Age

The Breakers, a Gilded Age mansion in Newport, Rhode Island, built by the wealthy Vanderbilt family of railroad industry tycoons
The celebration of the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad, May 10, 1869
Toluca Street Oil Field in Los Angeles oil district, c. 1895–1901
Grand Central Depot in New York City, opened in 1871
Sacramento Railroad Station in 1874
Cornelius Vanderbilt versus James Fisk Jr. in a famous rivalry with the Erie Railroad
Oswego starch factory in Oswego, New York, 1876
Scottish immigrant Andrew Carnegie led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry
Octopus representing Standard Oil with tentacles wrapped around the U.S. Congress and state capitals, as well as the steel, copper, and shipping industries, and reaching for the White House
Cartoon showing Cyrus Field, Jay Gould, Cornelius Vanderbilt, and Russell Sage, seated on bags of "millions", on large heavy raft made of low wages and high prices being carried by workers
New York police violently attacking unemployed workers in Tompkins Square Park, 1874
A Group of Vultures Waiting for the Storm to "Blow Over" – "Let Us Prey," a cartoon denouncing the corruption of New York's Boss Tweed and other Tammany Hall figures, drawn in 1871 by Thomas Nast and published in Harper's Weekly.
"The Bosses of the Senate" (1889). Reformers like the cartoonist Joseph Keppler depicted the Senate as controlled by the giant moneybags, who represented the nation's financial trusts and monopolies.
Celebrating ethnic pluralism on 4th of July. 1902 Puck editorial cartoon
Businessman and politician P. J. Kennedy of Boston in 1900; his grandson John F. Kennedy became president in 1960
Temporary quarters for Volga Germans in central Kansas, 1875
Norwegian settlers in front of their sod house in North Dakota in 1898
The Home Insurance Building in Chicago became the world's first skyscraper when it was built in 1885
The South in red
Map of the United States, 1870–80. Orange indicates statehood, light blue territories, and green unorganized territories
A group of students, together with a non-white man, 1893
The Chess Players, Thomas Eakins (1876)
The Cup of Tea, Mary Cassatt (ca. 1879)
This 1902 cartoon from the Hawaiian Gazette shows a WCTU activist using the water cure to torture a brewmaster as the Anti-Saloon League mans the pump

In United States history, the Gilded Age was an era extending roughly from 1870 to 1900.

Wall Street Crash of 1929

Major American stock market crash that occurred in the autumn of 1929.

Major American stock market crash that occurred in the autumn of 1929.

The Dow Jones Industrial Average, 1928–1930
Overall Price Index on Wall Street from just before the crash in 1929 to 1932 when the price bottomed out
The trading floor of the New York Stock Exchange Building in 1930, six months after the crash of 1929
British economist Sir George Paish predicted the May slump.
Crowd at New York's American Union Bank during a bank run early in the Great Depression
Unemployed men march in Toronto.

It was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its aftereffects.

Constitutional Convention (United States)

The Constitutional Convention took place in Philadelphia from May 25 to September 17, 1787.

The Constitutional Convention took place in Philadelphia from May 25 to September 17, 1787.

Independence Hall's Assembly Room
James Madison, the author of the Virginia Plan
Virginia Plan
Charles Pinckney Plan
Edmund Randolph, the Governor of Virginia, introduced the Virginia Plan
James Wilson's ideas shaped the American presidency more than any other delegate
New Jersey Plan
Hamilton's Plan
Roger Sherman of Connecticut
Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania
Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy (1940)
U.S. Postage, Issue of 1937, depicting Delegates at the signing of the Constitution, engraving after a painting by Junius Brutus Stearns
Quaker John Dickinson argued forcefully against slavery during the convention. Once Delaware's largest slaveholder, he had freed all of his slaves by 1787.

The result of the convention was the creation of the Constitution of the United States, placing the Convention among the most significant events in American history.

U.S. President Woodrow Wilson

Fourteen Points

Statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I.

Statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I.

U.S. President Woodrow Wilson
President Wilson tells George Washington that he destroys autocracy with his 14 points.
Wilson's Fourteen Points as the only way to peace for German government, American political cartoon, 1918.
Map of Wilsonian Armenia and Kurdistan. The borders decision was made by Wilson.
Wilson with his 14 points choosing between competing claims. Babies represent claims of the British, French, Italians, Polish, Russians, and enemy. American political cartoon, 1919.

Many of them believed that the United States, given its history (particularly the American Revolution) would be sympathetic towards the goals and aspirations they held.

Frederick Jackson Turner

American historian during the early 20th century, based at the University of Wisconsin until 1910, and then Harvard University.

American historian during the early 20th century, based at the University of Wisconsin until 1910, and then Harvard University.

The Frederick Jackson Turner Award is given annually by the Organization of American Historians for an author's first scholarly book on American history.

Territorial growth of the United States, 1810–1920

Salutary neglect

Territorial growth of the United States, 1810–1920

In American history, salutary neglect was the British Crown policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws, especially trade laws, as long as British colonies remained loyal to the government of, and contributed to the economic growth of their parent country, England, in the 18th century.

Independence Day Celebration in Centre Square by John Lewis Krimmel, 1819

Era of Good Feelings

Independence Day Celebration in Centre Square by John Lewis Krimmel, 1819
President James Monroe, portrait by John Vanderlyn, 1816
Benjamin Russell is credited with coining the term "Era of Good Feelings" in 1817

The Era of Good Feelings marked a period in the political history of the United States that reflected a sense of national purpose and a desire for unity among Americans in the aftermath of the War of 1812.

Oval Office portrait, 1963

John F. Kennedy

American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States from 1961 until his assassination near the end of his third year in office.

American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States from 1961 until his assassination near the end of his third year in office.

Oval Office portrait, 1963
Kennedy's birthplace in Brookline, Massachusetts
Kennedy in a football uniform at Dexter School (Massachusetts), 1926
The Kennedy family in Hyannis Port, Massachusetts, with JFK at top left in the white shirt, 1931
Lieutenant (junior grade) Kennedy (standing at right) with his PT-109 crew, 1943
Kennedy on his navy patrol boat, the PT-109, 1943
Kennedy endorsing Adlai Stevenson II for the presidential nomination at the 1956 Democratic National Convention in Chicago
Results of the 1958 U.S. Senate election in Massachusetts. Kennedy's margin of victory of 874,608 votes was the largest in Massachusetts political history.
1960 campaign poster
Kennedy and Richard Nixon participate in the nation's second televised presidential debate, Washington, D.C., 1960
Chief Justice Earl Warren administers the presidential oath of office to John F. Kennedy at the Capitol, January 20, 1961.
Kennedy with retired president Dwight D. Eisenhower at Camp David
Foreign trips of John F. Kennedy during his presidency
Kennedy and Vice President Johnson walking on the White House grounds
Kennedy confers with Attorney General Robert Kennedy, October 1962
Kennedy signs the Proclamation for Interdiction of the Delivery of Offensive Weapons to Cuba in the Oval Office, October 23, 1962
News conference, March 23, 1961
Kennedy and Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, 1962
Kennedy delivers the commencement speech at American University, June 10, 1963
Kennedy delivering his speech in West Berlin
Kennedy with Israeli Foreign Minister Golda Meir, December 27, 1962
Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran, Kennedy, and U.S. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara in the White House Cabinet Room on April 13, 1962
Kennedy's motorcade through Cork, Ireland on June 28, 1963
Kennedy signs the Partial Test Ban Treaty, a major milestone in early nuclear disarmament
Kennedy signing the Manpower Development and Training Act, March 1962
Thurgood Marshall, appointed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit by Kennedy in May 1961
Kennedy with Boston Mayor John F. Collins (1960–1968) and his wife. On November 20, 1962, Kennedy issued Executive Order 11063 requiring all federal agencies to prevent racial discrimination in federally-funded subsidized housing in the United States.
Kennedy's Report to the American People on Civil Rights, June 11, 1963
Kennedy meetings with leaders of the March on Washington in the Oval Office, August 28, 1963
Accompanied by astronaut John Glenn, Kennedy inspects the Project Mercury capsule Friendship 7, February 23, 1962
Wernher von Braun and Kennedy
Kennedy proposing a program to Congress that will land men on the Moon, May 1961. Johnson and Sam Rayburn are seated behind him.
John F. Kennedy, and members of his Cabinet
The Kennedys and the Connallys in the presidential limousine moments before the assassination in Dallas
President Kennedy's family leaving his funeral at the U.S. Capitol Building
The Kennedy brothers: Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, Senator Ted Kennedy, and President John F. Kennedy in 1963
The First Family in Hyannis Port, Massachusetts, 1962
Kennedy and Jackie leaving the hospital following his spinal surgery, December 1954
Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, Marilyn Monroe, and John Kennedy talk during the president's May 19, 1962, early birthday party, where Monroe publicly serenaded Kennedy with "Happy Birthday, Mr. President"
The Kennedy half dollar was first issued in 1964
John F. Kennedy statue outside the Massachusetts State House in Boston
The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, in Boston
Official White House portrait of John F. Kennedy, by Aaron Shikler
President's and his wife's graves at John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame memorial, Arlington National Cemetery

The assassination proved to be a pivotal moment in U.S. history because of its impact on the nation, and the ensuing political repercussions.

Olaudah Equiano

Multiracial Americans

Multiracial Americans are Americans who have mixed ancestry of two or more races.

Multiracial Americans are Americans who have mixed ancestry of two or more races.

Olaudah Equiano
Charley Taylor holding an American flag. Charley was the son of Alexander Withers and one of Withers's slaves. Withers sold Charley to a slave dealer and he was sold again in New Orleans.
US Census reporting of Two or Mixed Races 2010 - 2017
Auliʻi Cravalho is of Hawaiian, Irish, Puerto Rican, Portuguese and Chinese descent.<ref>{{cite magazine|last1=Wallace|first1=Don|title="Moana" Star Auli'i Cravalho is Not Your Average Disney Princess|url=http://www.honolulumagazine.com/Honolulu-Magazine/November-2016/Moanas-Aulii-Cravalho-is-Not-Your-Average-Disney-Princess/|magazine=Honolulu Magazine|access-date=December 17, 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite tweet|user=auliicravalho|number=822964481407881216|date=January 21, 2017|title=Yes indeed! I've got the luck of the Irish}}</ref><ref name="Wang">{{cite news|last1=Wang|first1=Frances Kai-Hwa|title=The Next Disney Princess is Native Hawaiian AuliCravalho|url=https://www.nbcnews.com/news/asian-america/next-disney-princess-native-hawaiian-aulii-cravalho-n440131|access-date=February 27, 2017|work=NBC News|publisher=NBCUniversal|date=October 7, 2015|location=New York}}</ref>
Keanu Reeves has an English mother and a father of English, Hawaiian, Irish, Portuguese and Chinese descent.<ref>{{cite web|access-date=May 10, 2008|url=http://www.filmreference.com/film/25/Keanu-Reeves.html|title=Keanu Reeves Film Reference biography|publisher=Film Reference}}</ref><ref name=reulu>{{cite news|last=Hoover|first=Will|title=Rooted in Kuli'ou'ou Valley|newspaper=Honolulu Advertiser|date=August 18, 2002|url=http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2002/Aug/18/ln/ln07a.html|access-date=December 8, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.newenglandancestors.org/research/services/articles_gbr77.asp|title=NEHGS – Articles|publisher=Newenglandancestors.org|access-date=May 5, 2010|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100421022826/http://www.newenglandancestors.org/research/services/articles_gbr77.asp|archive-date=April 21, 2010}}</ref>
Charles Mingus was born to a mother of English and Chinese descent and a father of African-American and Swedish descent.<ref>Myself When I am Real: The Life and Music of Charles Mingus, Gene Santoro (Oxford University Press, 1994) {{ISBN|0-19-509733-5}}</ref><ref name="autogenerated1991">Mingus, Charles: Beneath the Underdog: His Life as Composed by Mingus. New York, NY: Vintage, 1991.</ref>
Barack Obama's mother was of mostly English ancestry and his father was from Kenya.
Jennifer Beals was born to an Irish-American mother and an African-American father.<ref name="afterellen1">{{cite web|url=http://www.afterellen.com/archive/ellen/People/jenniferbeals.html|title=Jennifer Beals Tackles Issues of Race, Sexuality on The L Word|publisher=AfterEllen|access-date=February 27, 2011|author=Sarah Warn|date=December 2003|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110826082854/http://www.afterellen.com/archive/ellen/People/jenniferbeals.html|archive-date=August 26, 2011}}</ref>
Kamala Harris was born in Oakland, California to a Tamil Indian mother<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.desiclub.com/community/culture/culture_article.cfm?id=467|title=The New Face of Politics…An Interview with Kamala Harris|publisher=DesiClub|access-date=February 2, 2011|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101211152014/http://www.desiclub.com/community/culture/culture_article.cfm?id=467|archive-date=December 11, 2010}}</ref> and an Afro-Jamaican father.<ref>{{cite news|title=PM Golding congratulates Kamala Harris-daughter of Jamaican – on appointment as California's First Woman Attorney General|publisher=Jamaican Information Service|date=December 2, 2010|url=http://www.jis.gov.jm/news/opm-news/26176-officePM-pm-golding-congratulates-kamala-harris-daughter-of-jamaican-on-appoint|access-date=February 2, 2011|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120115023007/http://www.jis.gov.jm/news/opm-news/26176-officePM-pm-golding-congratulates-kamala-harris-daughter-of-jamaican-on-appoint|archive-date=January 15, 2012}}</ref>
Tiger Woods was born to an Asian-American mother and African-American father.
Bill John Baker, who is 3.13% Cherokee,<ref>{{Cite web|title = How much Cherokee is he?: Editor's Note. Cherokee Phoenix|url = http://www.cherokeephoenix.org/Article/Index/4922|date=June 1, 2011|access-date=August 1, 2011}}</ref> was the Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation from 2011 to 2019.
Seminole elder Billy Bowlegs III was also of Muscogee, African-American and Scottish descent through his maternal grandfather Osceola.<ref name=SmithsonianNMAI>{{cite web|last=Bell|display-authors=etal|first=Steve|title=IndiVisible: African-Native American Lives in the Americans – Shared Spirits|url=http://nmai.si.edu/exhibitions/indivisible/shared_spirits.html|work=Billy Bowlegs III (1862–1965) This Seminole Indian elder and historian, said to be a descendant of African American intermarriage with the Seminole, adopted the name of the legendary resistance fighter Billy Bowlegs II (1810–64). The "patchwork" pattern covering his turban expresses the influence of African ovpispisi (bits and pieces)—sewing typical of the Suriname Maroons and Ashanti who married into the tribe.|publisher=Smithsonian Institution: National Museum of the American Indian|access-date=May 7, 2012|archive-date=January 23, 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120123115106/http://www.nmai.si.edu/exhibitions/indivisible/shared_spirits.html|url-status=dead}}</ref>
Radmilla Cody is an enrolled member of the Navajo Nation and of African-American descent.<ref name="codynet">Biography ramillacody.net. Accessed July 15, 2010.</ref>
Charles Curtis was a Native American, born to a Kaw, Osage, a Potawatomi and French mother and an English, Scots and Welsh father.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.kshs.org/kansapedia/charles-curtis/12029|title=Kansapedia: Charles Curtis|publisher=Kansas Historical Society|access-date=January 13, 2012}}</ref>
Deb Haaland is from the Laguna Pueblo people and is the first Native American Cabinet Secretary as Secretary of Interior. Her father is Norwegian-American.<ref name=alb>{{cite web|url=http://obits.abqjournal.com/obits/show/151921|title=Obituaries: Haaland|date=March 4, 2005|access-date=June 22, 2018|work=Albuquerque Journal}}</ref>
Maria Tallchief was a member of the Osage Nation and of Ulster-Scots descent.<ref name=NYT_obit>{{cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/13/arts/dance/maria-tallchief-brilliant-ballerina-dies-at-88.html|title=Maria Tallchief, a Dazzling Ballerina and Muse for Balanchine, Dies at 88|last=Anderson|first=Jack|date=April 12, 2013|newspaper=New York Times|access-date=April 13, 2013}}</ref>
Redd Foxx's mother was half Seminole and his father was African-American.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=a7vcX2uNPK4C&pg=PA18|title=Black and Blue|access-date=March 17, 2015|isbn=9781557838520|last1=Starr|first1=Michael Seth|date=September 1, 2011}}</ref>
Jimi Hendrix was born to a Cherokee mother and was part English, African-American, Irish and German.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.blackpast.org/?q=perspectives/blood-entertainers-life-and-times-jimi-hendrixs-paternal-grandparents|title=The Blood of Entertainers: The Life and Times of Jimi Hendrix's Paternal Grandparents - The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed|access-date=March 17, 2015|date=March 11, 2008}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nmai.si.edu/exhibitions/indivisible/being.html|title=Being and Belonging – Indivisble – African-Native American Lives in the Americas|publisher=National Museum of the American Indian|access-date=January 16, 2012|archive-date=January 13, 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120113091738/http://www.nmai.si.edu/exhibitions/indivisible/being.html|url-status=dead}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|url=https://archive.org/details/jimihendrixelect00shap|url-access=registration|title = Jimi Hendrix: Electric Gypsy|last1 = Shapiro|first1 = Harry|last2 = Glebbeek|first2 = Caesar|publisher=St. Martin's Press|year = 1995|pages = 5–6, 13|isbn=978-0-312-13062-6|access-date=September 30, 2011}}</ref>
Edmonia Lewis was of Mississauga Ojibwe, African-American and Haitian descent.<ref name=w12>Wolfe, 12</ref>
Claudia McNeil was born to an Apache mother and an African-American father.<ref>{{cite web|url= http://articles.baltimoresun.com/1993-12-01/news/1993335082_1_claudia-mcneil-poitier-adoptive-parents|title= Claudia McNeil, stage, screen actress|author= Oliver, Myrna|date= December 1, 1993|work= The Baltimore Sun|access-date= 19 December 2012|archive-date= May 16, 2012|archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20120516134302/http://articles.baltimoresun.com/1993-12-01/news/1993335082_1_claudia-mcneil-poitier-adoptive-parents|url-status= dead}}</ref>
Rosa Parks was of Cherokee-Creek,<ref>Douglas Brinkley, Rosa Parks, Chapter 1, excerpted from the book published by Lipper/Viking (2000), {{ISBN|0-670-89160-6}}. Chapter excerpted {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171019200239/http://partners.nytimes.com/books/first/b/brinkley-parks.html|date=October 19, 2017 }} on the site of the New York Times. Retrieved July 1, 2008</ref> African-American and Scots-Irish descent.<ref name=Webb>James Webb, "Why You Need to Know the Scots-Irish" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090704152512/http://www.parade.com/articles/editions/2004/edition_10-03-2004/featured_0|date=July 4, 2009 }}, Parade, October 3, 2004. Retrieved July 1, 2008.</ref>
Della Reese was born to a mother of Cherokee descent and an African-American father.<ref>{{cite web|title=Della Reese Biography|url=http://www.filmreference.com/film/64/Della-Reese.html|work=filmreference|year=2009|access-date=2009-12-27}}</ref><ref name="nyc">{{cite news|author=Hilary de Vries|title=Della Reese: Earning Her Wings|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1998/06/14/tv/cover-story-della-reese-earning-her-wings.html|work=The New York Times|date=June 14, 1998|access-date=2009-12-27}}</ref><ref name="msn">{{cite web|author=Andrea LeVasseur|title=Della Reese: Biography|url=http://movies.msn.com/celebrities/celebrity-biography/della-reese|work=All Movie Guide|publisher=MSN|year=2009|access-date=2009-12-27|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131203114412/http://movies.msn.com/celebrities/celebrity-biography/della-reese/|archive-date=December 3, 2013|url-status=dead}}</ref>
James Earl Jones has said in interviews that his parents were both of mixed African-American, Irish and Native American ancestry.
Ben Campbell was born to an Azorian mother and father of Northern Cheyenne, Apache and Pueblo Indian descent.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.thedenverchannel.com/news/1690263/detail.html|title=INS Delays Deporting Honor Student|date=September 27, 2002|access-date=August 1, 2016|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110606124216/http://www.thedenverchannel.com/news/1690263/detail.html|archive-date=June 6, 2011|url-status=dead}}</ref>
Faunceway Baptiste was a multi-racial Native American of Choctaw and Euro-American heritage. He was a lieutenant colonel in the Civil War.
Will Rogers was born in the Cherokee Nation to mixed race parents of Cherokee and English descent.
Ruth Gordon's ancestor Parthena was an African mistress of Joseph Pendarvis a member of the notable, Native American descended, Landgrave family of South Carolina.
Rebecca Hall was born to a mother of Sioux, African-American, Scottish and Dutch extraction and an English father.<ref name=cbl>{{Cite news|last=Hattenstone|first=Simon|title=Who, me? Why everyone is talking about Rebecca Hall|work=The Guardian|date=June 12, 2010|url=https://www.theguardian.com/film/2010/jun/12/rebecca-hall-interview|access-date=September 27, 2010|location=London}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Isenberg|first=Barbara|title=MUSIC No-Risk Opera? Not Even Close Maria Ewing, one of the most celebrated sopranos in opera, leaps again into the role of Tosca, keeping alive her streak of acclaimed performances while remaining true to herself|work=Los Angeles Times|date=November 8, 1992|url=https://articles.latimes.com/1992-11-08/entertainment/ca-1_1_maria-ewing|access-date=May 8, 2011}}</ref><ref name="ref2">{{cite news|last=McLellan|first=Joseph|title=Article: Extra-Sensuous Perception;Soprano Maria Ewing, a Steamy 'Salome'|newspaper=The Washington Post|date=November 15, 1990|url=http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-1158782.html|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121022180005/http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-1158782.html|url-status=dead|archive-date=October 22, 2012|access-date=February 6, 2010}}</ref><ref name="ref3">{{cite news|last=Marsh|first=Robert C.|title=Growth of Maria Ewing continues with 'Salome' // Role of princess proves crowning achievement|newspaper=Chicago Sun-Times|date=December 18, 1988|url=http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-3919649.html|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121022180018/http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-3919649.html|url-status=dead|archive-date=October 22, 2012|access-date=February 6, 2010}}</ref>
Heather Locklear is of Lumbee descent.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/secret/famous/locklear.html|title=Frontline: Locklear|publisher=Pbs.org|access-date=April 8, 2010}}</ref>
Tia Mowry Her mother is of Afro-Bahamian descent and her father is of English and Irish ancestry.<ref>During an appearance on The Wendy Williams Show in 2010, it was stated that for years, the Mowrys believed that they had Italian ancestry on their father's side; however, after researching their family tree on Ancestry.com, they discovered that their father has English ancestry.</ref>
James Brown was of Apache, African-American and Asian descent.<ref name="roll">{{cite magazine|url=https://www.rollingstone.com/music/news/being-james-brown-rolling-stones-2006-cover-story-20101224|title=Being James Brown: Rolling Stone's 2006 Story|author=Jonathan Lethem|access-date=January 27, 2011|date=December 24, 2010|magazine=Rolling Stone Magazine}}</ref><ref name="newh">{{cite web|url=http://www.contactmusic.com/new/xmlfeed.nsf/mndwebpages/james%20brown.s%20indian%20heritage|title=James Brown — James Brown's Indian Heritage|author=Contact Music|access-date=April 9, 2009|year=2004|publisher=Contact Music}}</ref>
Muhammad Ali was of English, African-American and Irish descent.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/boxing/1810535.stm|title=Ali has Irish ancestry|work=BBC News|date=February 9, 2002|access-date=August 5, 2009}}</ref>
Whitney Houston was part Native American, African-American and Dutch.<ref name=ancestry>{{Cite news|first= Cissy|last= Houston|title= Visionary Project Video Interview (bottom of page) – Cissy Houston: My Family, go to the 1:00 mark|date=September 2, 2009|url= http://www.visionaryproject.org/houstoncissy/|access-date=February 11, 2012}}</ref>
Martin Luther King Jr. was of Irish and African descent.<ref name="thegrio.com">{{cite web|url=http://thegrio.com/2011/01/13/dna-used-to-reveal-mlk-and-garveys-african-lineage/|title=DNA used to reveal MLK and Garvey's European lineage|work=theGrio|date=January 13, 2011|access-date=March 17, 2015}}</ref><ref name="africanancestry.com">{{cite web|url=http://www.africanancestry.com/blog/category/partners/|title=Archived copy|access-date=July 14, 2013|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130630095007/http://www.africanancestry.com/blog/category/partners/|archive-date=June 30, 2013 }}</ref>
John Mercer Langston was of English, Native American and African descent.<ref>Black Americans in Congress: John Mercer Langston Office of the Historian of the United States House of Representatives</ref>
Oprah Winfrey is 89% Sub-Saharan African, 8% Native American and 3% East Asian.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://archive.org/details/findingoprahsroo00gate/page/154|title=Finding Oprah's Roots: Finding Your Own|first=Henry Louis|last=Gates|year=2007|page=154|publisher=Crown|isbn=9780307382382|via=Internet Archive}}</ref>
George Herriman, who was born into a Creole family, wore a hat to conceal his hair texture. His death certificate identified him as Caucasian.<ref name=telegraph>{{cite news|first=Sarah|last=Boxer|title=Herriman: Cartoonist who equalled Cervantes|url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/3666365/Herriman-Cartoonist-who-equalled-Cervantes.html |archive-url=https://ghostarchive.org/archive/20220112/https://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/3666365/Herriman-Cartoonist-who-equalled-Cervantes.html |archive-date=January 12, 2022 |url-access=subscription |url-status=live|quote=In 1971, however, the Krazy world changed. While researching an article on Herriman for the Dictionary of American Biography, the sociologist Arthur Asa Berger got a copy of Herriman's birth certificate. Although Herriman died listed as Caucasian in 1944 in Los Angeles, he was classified as "colored" when born to two mixed race or Creole parents in New Orleans in 1880, which had legal segregation. In 1880 Herriman would have been considered a mulatto. By the turn of the century, when he was a fledgling cartoonist, the newspaper bullpens "were open to immigrants but not to blacks".|newspaper=The Daily Telegraph|date=July 7, 2007|access-date=February 3, 2009|location=London}}{{cbignore}}</ref>
Patrick Francis Healy was born to an Irish-American plantation owner and his biracial slave. He and his siblings identified as white in their formative years and most made careers in the Catholic Church in the North.<ref>A summary of the ethnic self-identity of the Healys, taken from various sources, is available in A.D. Powell, Passing for Who You Really Are (Palm Coast FL, 2005) {{ISBN|0-939479-22-2}}.</ref>
Carol Channing was born to a white mother and a half African-American and German father. She passed for white during the height of her career and later publicly acknowledged her mixed race origins.<ref>{{cite magazine|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=88IDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA38|access-date=April 21, 2008|title=Carol Channing reveals her father was Black|date=November 4, 2002|magazine=Jet|publisher=Johnson Publishing Company}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0211/27/lkl.00.html|work=CNN|title=CNN.com}}</ref>
Mary Ellen Pleasant, born to a slave and the youngest son of James Pleasants, contributed to advancing the abolitionist movement.
G. K. Butterfield was born to two mixed race black identified parents of Portuguese and African descent from the Azores.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nbcnews.com/id/28216005/ns/us_news-life/t/obamas-true-colors-black-white-or-neither/#.VHPUY8J0zIU|title=Obama's true colors: Black, white ... or neither?|author=G. Wayne Miller|date=December 24, 2008|publisher=Associated Press}}</ref>
Robert Purvis was born to a part Moorish, German Jewish and Sephardic Jewish free woman of color and an English father. He identified as black and worked to serve his community.<ref>{{cite book|first=Margaret Hope|last=Bacon|title=But One Race: The Life of Robert Purvis|location=Albany|publisher=State University of New York|year=2007|pages=7–8|isbn=978-0-7914-7007-7 }}</ref><ref>Bob Bankard, "The Passage to Freedom: The Underground Railroad", March 3, 2008 {{cite web|url=http://www.phillyburbs.com/undergroundrailroad/purvis.shtml|title=Archived copy|access-date=May 3, 2008|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080705184847/http://www.phillyburbs.com/undergroundrailroad/purvis.shtml|archive-date=July 5, 2008 }}, accessed May 3, 2008</ref><ref name="query.nytimes.com">{{cite news|url=https://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9B02EEDF1139E433A25755C1A9629C94699ED7CF|title=Robert Purvis Dead; Anti-Slavery Leader Expires in Philadelphia, Aged 87 —His Work for the Black Race|work=New York Times|date=April 16, 1898|access-date=May 3, 2008 }}</ref>
Imitation of Life star Fredi Washington portrayed a woman who passed in the famous film, but was against passing in her own life.<ref>Fay M. Jackson, "I don't want to pass because I can't stand insincerities and shams. I am just as much Negro as any of the others identified with the race.", (1911–1950), Pittsburgh, Pa.: April 14, 1934</ref>
Walter Francis White belonged to a middle-class hyperdescent African-American chattel slave descended family who remained negro or black-identified.
Daniel Hale Williams was of African-American and Scots-Irish ancestry. Although members of his family passed as white, he exclusively served and identified with African-Americans.
Harry Shum Jr. was born in Limón, Costa Rica, the son of Chinese immigrants. His mother is a native of Hong Kong and his father is from Guangzhou, China.
Stacey Dash is the daughter of a Mexican-American mother Linda Dash (née Lopez;<ref name=tvg>{{cite magazine|url=http://www.tvguide.com/celebrities/stacey-dash/bio/175079/|title= Stacey Dash|magazine=TV Guide|access-date= February 7, 2016|archive-date=October 1, 2015|archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20151001034719/http://www.tvguide.com/celebrities/stacey-dash/bio/175079/|url-status=dead}}</ref> d. 2017)<ref>{{cite twitter|user=realstaceydash|number=934427721068883968|first= Stacey|last= Dash|title=My mother died overnight|date= November 25, 2017}}</ref> and Dennis Dash, an African-American.<ref name=DAS>{{cite web|url= https://dashtodc.com/about/|title= About Stacey Lauretta Dash|publisher= Stacey Dash [for] Congress|access-date= March 14, 2018|archive-date= March 14, 2018|archive-url= https://archive.today/20180314214254/https://dashtodc.com/about/|url-status= live}}</ref>
Geraldo Rivera is half Puerto Rican and Ashkenazi Russian Jew.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://abcnews.go.com/GMA/WaterCooler/story?id=4339477&page=1|title=Excerpt: "His Panic"|publisher=ABC News|date=February 26, 2008|access-date=March 28, 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.imdb.com/name/nm0729273/bio/|title=Geraldo Rivera|website=IMDb|access-date=October 22, 2017}}</ref><ref>Do the Jews Need Geraldo {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070927004757/http://www.interfaithfamily.com/site/apps/nl/content2.asp?c=ekLSK5MLIrG&b=297403&ct=415783|date=September 27, 2007 }}. Interfaithfamily.com. Retrieved on July 14, 2013.</ref>
Adrian Grenier mother was Mexican (Spanish, Indigenous) and some French. His father was of English, Scottish, Irish and German ancestry.<ref name=hgatesbookref1>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=IDVcBAAAQBAJ&pg=PT382|page=382|title=Finding Your Roots: The Official Companion to the PBS Series|last=Gates|first=Henry Louis, Jr.|year=2014|publisher=UNC Press Books|isbn=9781469618012}}</ref>
Chita Rivera's mother was of Scottish and Italian descent and her father was Puerto Rican.<ref name="N">{{cite news|last=Ratner-Arias|first=Sigal|url=http://www.etaiwannews.com/etn/news_content.php?id=1048958&lang=eng_news|title=Q&A: Chita Rivera reflects on life in the theater|work=Taiwan News|agency=Associated Press|date=September 4, 2009|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304113810/http://www.etaiwannews.com/etn/news_content.php?id=1048958&lang=eng_news|archive-date=2016-03-04}}</ref>
Rosa Salazar is of French and Peruvian descent.<ref>{{cite magazine|url=https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/rosa-salazar-abbreviated-bird-box-role-james-camerons-alita-1174582|title=Rosa Salazar: From "Abbreviated" 'Bird Box' Role to James Cameron's 'Alita'|magazine=The Hollywood Reporter|date=January 11, 2019|access-date=January 15, 2019|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190114030948/https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/rosa-salazar-abbreviated-bird-box-role-james-camerons-alita-1174582|archive-date=January 14, 2019|url-status=live}}</ref>
John H. Sununu was born to a Salvadoran mother of Lebanese descent and an American father of Palestinian and Lebanese descent.
According to DNA testing, Eva Longoria's Mexican-American ancestry consists of 70% European, 27% Asian and Indigenous and 3% African origin.<ref name="LM">{{cite web|url=http://www.latina.com/entertainment/celebrity/faces-america-reveals-eva-longoria-parkers-surprising-roots|title="Faces of America" Reveals Eva Longoria Parker's Surprising Roots|last=Miller|first=Gerri|date=February 2, 2010|work=Latina magazine|publisher=Latina Media Ventures LLC|access-date=March 13, 2011|archive-date=April 1, 2010|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100401075119/http://www.latina.com/entertainment/celebrity/faces-america-reveals-eva-longoria-parkers-surprising-roots|url-status=dead}}</ref>
Princess Kaʻiulani was of Indigenous Hawaiian and Scots-American descent.<ref name="Hawaiian Kingdom 1874-1893">{{cite book|title=Hawaiian Kingdom 1874–1893, the Kalakaua Dynastism|author=Ralph S. Kuykendall|year=1967|isbn=978-0-87022-433-1|publisher=University of Hawaii Press|page=477}}</ref>
Queen Emma of Hawaii was of Hawaiian Nobility and Scottish ancestry.<ref>Kamehameha III</ref>
Actor Dwayne Johnson's mother is Samoan and his father is Black Nova Scotian.<ref name=mh>{{cite news|title=Grandmother of 'The Rock,' promoter|first=Elinor J.|last=Brecher|newspaper=The Miami Herald|date=October 25, 2008}}</ref><ref name="yahoo">{{cite web|url=https://movies.yahoo.com/feature/through-the-years-the-rock.html|title=Through The Years – Dwayne 'Not Just The Rock' Johnson|date=March 12, 2008|last=Crow|first=Jonathan|access-date=March 13, 2009|publisher=Yahoo Movies|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090316064529/http://movies.yahoo.com/feature/through-the-years-the-rock.html|archive-date=March 16, 2009}}</ref><ref name=tsom>{{cite news|last=Young|first=Graham|title=The Rock's on a roll in Hollywood|newspaper=The Birmingham Post|date=April 10, 2010|url=http://www.birminghampost.net/life-leisure-birmingham-guide/postfeatures/2009/04/10/the-rock-s-on-a-roll-in-hollywood-65233-23360885/|access-date=November 10, 2010|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101223202537/http://www.birminghampost.net/life-leisure-birmingham-guide/postfeatures/2009/04/10/the-rock-s-on-a-roll-in-hollywood-65233-23360885/|archive-date=December 23, 2010}}</ref><ref name="islandconnections">{{cite web|url=http://www.islandconnections.com/edit/dwayne_johnson.htm|title=Dwayne Johnson – How The Rock Transformed from Pro Wrestler to Bankable Movie Star|access-date=December 29, 2006|publisher=Island Connections|author=Morgan, Kaya|archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/65b4AE7gh?url=http://www.islandconnections.com/edit/dwayne_johnson.htm|archive-date=February 20, 2012|url-status=dead}}</ref>
Jason Momoa was born to a mother of Native American, Irish and German ancestry and a father of Indigenous Hawaiian ancestry.<ref>Staff (July 19, 2004). "Momoa Makes Hawaii Hot", Extra, Retrieved August 18, 2011.</ref>
Lou Diamond Phillips is of Cherokee, Hawaiian, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino and Scotch-Irish American ancestry.<ref name="newsref2">{{cite news|title=The Return of the Native|publisher=Starweek Magazine|year=1999}}</ref><ref name="newsref3">{{cite web|url=http://www.2g.org/home/news/meettheartist/currentnews-loudiamondphilips.shtml|title=Second Generation|access-date=March 17, 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Honeycutt|first=Kirk|title=Lou Diamond Phillips: From Young Gun to Young Writer|newspaper=Los Angeles Times|date=August 19, 1990|url=https://articles.latimes.com/1990-08-19/entertainment/ca-3055_1_young-guns|access-date=November 28, 2009}}</ref>
Chloe Bennet; mother is Caucasian and her father is Chinese.<ref name=wong2014>{{cite web|last=Wong|first=Tony|title=Actress Chloe Bennet says changing her name changed her luck|url=https://www.thestar.com/entertainment/television/2014/05/11/actress_chloe_bennet_says_changing_her_name_changed_her_luck.html#|access-date=May 12, 2014|newspaper=Toronto Star|date=May 11, 2014|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141022031153/http://www.thestar.com/entertainment/television/2014/05/11/actress_chloe_bennet_says_changing_her_name_changed_her_luck.html%23|archive-date=October 22, 2014|url-status=live}}</ref>
Moon Bloodgood is part Irish, Dutch, and Korean.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.complex.com/index.php?task=Articles&id=392&section=2&issue=1&PHPSESSID=fd94e00c8e01|title=Complex - Making Culture Pop|website=Complex Networks|access-date=March 17, 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://iamkoream.com/rising-moon/|title=Rising Moon|access-date=March 17, 2015}}</ref>
Tia Carrere is part Spanish, Chinese, and Filipino.<ref>{{cite web|title=BrainyQuote|url=http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/t/tia_carrere.html}}</ref>
Kip Fulbeck is part English, Welsh, Irish, and Cantonese.<ref name="nichibeitimes.com">{{cite web|url=http://www.nichibeitimes.com/?p=1692|title=Nichi Bei Times|newspaper=Nichi Bei Times|date=September 10, 2009|access-date=October 18, 2011|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110930012519/http://www.nichibeitimes.com/?p=1692|archive-date=September 30, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mxroots.org/Home/loving-prize|archive-url=https://archive.today/20120904041727/http://www.mxroots.org/Home/loving-prize|url-status=dead|archive-date=September 4, 2012|title=Loving Prize|publisher=Mxroots.org|date=June 11, 2011|access-date=October 18, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://geogweb.berkeley.edu/ProjectsResources/CaliforniaThinkers/profiles/fulbeck.html|title=Archived copy|access-date=March 31, 2012|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120419014110/http://geogweb.berkeley.edu/ProjectsResources/CaliforniaThinkers/profiles/fulbeck.html|archive-date=April 19, 2012}}</ref>
Norah Jones was born in Brooklyn, New York to an English-American mother and Indian sitar player Ravi Shankar of Bengali descent.
Sean Lennon is the son of Japanese multimedia artist Yoko Ono, and English and Irish descended John Lennon.<ref>{{cite web|author=Dekel, Jonathan|url=http://www.spinner.com/2010/10/08/sean-lennon-interview-john-yoko-plastic-ono-band/|publisher=Spinner|title=Sean Lennon on Singing John's Songs, Making Music and Yoko Ono's Legacy|date=October 8, 2010|access-date=March 31, 2012|archive-date=August 4, 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200804070646/http://www.spinner.com/2010/10/08/sean-lennon-interview-john-yoko-plastic-ono-band/|url-status=dead}}</ref>
Olivia Munn; father is of English, Irish, and German ancestry,<ref>{{cite web|url=https://eng.alostouramagazine.com/2015/05/02/style-battle-olivia-wilde-vs-olivia-munn/|title=Style Battle – Olivia Wilde Vs Olivia Munn|date=May 2, 2015|access-date=March 19, 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170319200425/https://eng.alostouramagazine.com/2015/05/02/style-battle-olivia-wilde-vs-olivia-munn/|archive-date=March 19, 2017|url-status=live}}</ref> while her mother is from Vietnam.<ref name="Moviefone">{{cite web|title= Olivia Munn Facts: 29 Things You (Probably) Don't Know About the Actress|publisher= Moviefone|url=http://www.moviefone.com/2014/07/04/olivia-munn-facts/|date= July 4, 2014|access-date= September 19, 2016|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160920150251/http://www.moviefone.com/2014/07/04/olivia-munn-facts/|archive-date= September 20, 2016|url-status=dead|df= mdy-all}}</ref>
Jennifer Tilly is part Native American, Irish, Finnish, and Chinese.<ref>"Meg Tilly is Asian Irish" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111229232603/http://www.asiancemagazine.com/2011/03/17/meg-tilly-is-asian-irish|date=December 29, 2011}}, Asiance Magazine March 2011,</ref><ref>{{cite web|author=BankrollBoost.com|url=http://www.bankrollboost.com/jennifer-tilly.php|title=Jennifer Tilly – Poker Pro Bio, Pictures and Poker Videos|publisher=Bankrollboost.com|access-date=February 15, 2011|archive-date=December 28, 2010|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101228042449/http://www.bankrollboost.com/jennifer-tilly.php|url-status=dead}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/films/features/jennifer-tilly-little-voice-big-talent-533709.html|location=London|work=The Independent|title=Jennifer Tilly: Little voice, big talent|date=November 19, 2004}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.officialmegtilly.com/blog/P15|title=Official Meg Tilly Website|publisher=Officialmegtilly.com|access-date=February 15, 2011}}</ref>
Nicki Minaj is part Afro-Trinidadian and East Indian.<ref name="McGarry">McGarry, Kevin (2009) "The New Queen Bee|Meet Nicki Minaj", New York Times, June 4, 2009</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Girls|access-date=July 24, 2012|publisher=Complex Magazine|year=2009|url=http://www.complex.com/girls/2009/08/worlwide-wednesday-the-10-hottest-multiracial-women/page/3}}</ref>
Ne-Yo is part African-American and Chinese.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.stcloudstate.edu/news/pressreleases/default.asp?storyID=26749|title=Ne-Yo: Grammy-winning singer to perform at Halenbeck Hall|date=September 25, 2008|publisher=St. Cloud State University|access-date=October 14, 2008|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081216123639/http://www.stcloudstate.edu/news/pressreleases/default.asp?storyID=26749|archive-date=December 16, 2008|url-status=dead}}</ref>
Bobby Scott is of African-American and Filipino (maternal grandfather) descent.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.philstar.com/index.php?Headlines&p=49&type=2&sec=24&aid=20081107124|title=Fil-Am elected to US Congress|first=Edmund|last=Silvestre|date=November 8, 2008|newspaper=The Philippine Star|access-date=November 8, 2008|quote=Another US congressman who has Filipino roots is Rep. Robert Scott, an African-American representing Virginia's third District. The Harvard-educated Democrat's maternal grandfather, Valentin Cortez Hamlin, is from the Philippine." (sic., final word should read "Philippines")|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081110035515/http://www.philstar.com/index.php?Headlines&p=49&type=2&sec=24&aid=20081107124|archive-date=November 10, 2008 }}</ref>
Sonja Sohn is part African-American and Korean.<ref name="sonjasohn01">{{cite web|url=http://www.racialicious.com/2006/12/05/interview-with-the-wires-sonja-sohn-not-%E2%80%98your-typical-black-girl%E2%80%99/|title=Interview with 'The Wire's' Sonja Sohn: Not 'Your Typical Black Girl'|access-date=March 31, 2012|last=Chang|first=Wah-Ming Chang|publisher=Racialicious|quote=A husky-voiced woman of African American and Korean parentage, Sohn (who's straight, in case you're wondering) got her start in the New York slam-poetry circuit (including the Def Poetry Jam) before moving on to the TV and movie game (check her out in Shaft).|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071013184415/http://www.racialicious.com/2006/12/05/interview-with-the-wires-sonja-sohn-not-%E2%80%98your-typical-black-girl%E2%80%99/|archive-date=October 13, 2007|url-status=dead}}</ref>
Jero is part African-American and Japanese.<ref name="jero-ap">{{cite web|url=https://www.highbeam.com/doc/1A1-D9778SJG0.html|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170202054347/https://www.highbeam.com/doc/1A1-D9778SJG0.html|url-status=dead|archive-date=February 2, 2017|title=Japanese enka star to perform at DC festival|publisher=Associated Press|date=March 28, 2009}}</ref>
Tommy Pham is an American baseball player whose mother is black and his father was born in Vietnam to a Vietnamese mother and an African-American father.

Interracial relations between Native Americans and African-Americans is a part of American history that has been neglected.

2016 United States presidential election

The 58th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016.

The 58th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016.

The incumbent in 2016, Barack Obama. His second term expired at noon on January 20, 2017.
Campaign signs of third-party candidates Jill Stein and Gary Johnson, October 2016 in St. Johnsbury, Vermont
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A general election ballot, listing the presidential and vice presidential candidates
Trump campaigns in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2016
Clinton campaigns in Raleigh, North Carolina, October 22, 2016
President Barack Obama casting his vote early in Chicago on October 7, 2016
Vote margin swing by state 2012 to 2016. Only twelve states (as well as the District of Columbia and Nebraka's 2nd congressional district) shifted more Democratic. The large swing in Utah is mostly due to the votes for third candidate Evan McMullin and the 2012 candidacy of Utah's Mitt Romney.
Final polling averages for the 2016 election by state. Polls from lightly shaded states are older than September 1, 2016.
Results by state, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Results by vote distribution among states. The size of each state's pie chart is proportional to its number of electoral votes.
Results by county. Red denotes counties that went to Trump; blue denotes counties that went to Clinton.
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
A discontinuous cartogram of the 2016 United States presidential election
A continuous cartogram of the 2016 United States presidential election
A discretized cartogram of the 2016 United States presidential election using squares
A discretized cartogram of the 2016 United States presidential election using hexagons
Results of election by congressional district, shaded by winning candidate's percentage of the vote
County swing from 2012 to 2016
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Johnson
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Jill Stein
Results by state, shaded according to margin of victory

The Republican ticket of businessman Donald Trump and Indiana governor Mike Pence defeated the Democratic ticket of former secretary of state Hillary Clinton and U.S. senator from Virginia Tim Kaine, in what was considered one of the greatest upsets in American history.