History of the United States Republican Party

Republican PartyRepublicanRepublicansHistory of the Republican Partythe Republican Partynew Republican PartyUnited States Republican Party Republican1864 candidatebirthplace of the national Republican Party
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (‘Grand old party’), is one of the world's oldest extant political parties.wikipedia
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History of the United States Democratic Party

Democratic PartyDemocraticDemocrat
At its inception, Republican Party had almost no presence in the Southern United States; by 1858, however it had enlisted former Whigs and former Free Soil Democrats to form majorities in nearly every Northern state.
From 1860 to 1932 in the era of the American Civil War to the Great Depression, the opposing Republican Party, organized in the mid-1850s from the ruins of the Whig Party and some other smaller splinter groups, was dominant in presidential politics.

Democratic Party (United States)

DemocraticDemocratDemocratic Party
It is the second-oldest existing political party in the United States; its chief rival, the Democratic Party, is the oldest.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Democrats left the party and joined Northern Whigs to form the Republican Party.

John C. Frémont

John C. FremontJohn Charles FrémontJohn Fremont
John C. Frémont ran as the first Republican nominee for President in 1856 behind the slogan "Free soil, free silver, free men, Frémont and victory!"
John Charles Frémont or Fremont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890) was an American explorer, politician, who in 1856, became the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States.

Radical Republicans

Radical RepublicanRadicalRadicals
However, he usually fought the Radical Republicans who demanded harsher measures. Following the 1864 elections, Radical Republicans Led by Charles Sumner in the Senate and Thaddeus Stevens in the House set the agenda by demanding more aggressive action against slavery and more vengeance toward the Confederates.
The Radical Republicans were a faction of American politicians within the Republican Party of the United States from around 1854 (before the American Civil War) until the end of Reconstruction in 1877.

Jackson, Michigan

JacksonJackson, MIMichigan
The first statewide convention that formed a platform and nominated candidates under the Republican name was held near Jackson, Michigan, on July 6, 1854.
Jackson is one of the birthplaces of the Republican Party.

Political party

political partiespartyparties
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (‘Grand old party’), is one of the world's oldest extant political parties.
When the Whig Party fell apart in the mid-1850s, its position as a major U.S. political party was filled by the Republican Party.

Third Party System

Thirdof that era1930s
The Third Party System was dominated by the Republican Party (it lost the presidency only in 1884 and 1892).
It was dominated by the new Republican Party, which claimed success in saving the Union, abolishing slavery and enfranchising the freedmen, while adopting many Whig-Party-style modernization programs such as national banks, railroads, high tariffs, homesteads, social spending (such as on greater Civil War veteran pension funding), and aid to land grant colleges.

Union (American Civil War)

UnionUnionistNorth
With the election of Abraham Lincoln (the first Republican President) in 1860, the Party's success in guiding the Union to victory in the American Civil War, and the Party's role in the abolition of slavery, the Republican Party largely dominated the national political scene until 1932.
Some historians have argued that it represented a traditionalistic element alarmed at the rapid modernization of society sponsored by the Republican Party.

National Union Party (United States)

National Union PartyNational UnionUnion Party
In 1864, they formed a coalition with many War Democrats as the National Union Party.
The National Union Party was the temporary name used by the Republican Party for the national ticket in the 1864 presidential election that was held during the Civil War.

Morrill Tariff

Morrill Tariff of 1861tariffs
During the American Civil War, the party passed major legislation in Congress to promote rapid modernization, including a national banking system, high tariffs, the first temporary income tax (subsequently ruled unconstitutional in Springer v. United States), many excise taxes, paper money issued without backing ("greenbacks"), a huge national debt, homestead laws, railroads and aid to education and agriculture.
It was the twelfth of seventeen planks in the platform of the incoming Republican Party, which had not yet been inaugurated, and it appealed to industrialists and factory workers as a way to foster rapid industrial growth.

Thaddeus Stevens

Thad StevensU.S. Representative Stevens
Following the 1864 elections, Radical Republicans Led by Charles Sumner in the Senate and Thaddeus Stevens in the House set the agenda by demanding more aggressive action against slavery and more vengeance toward the Confederates.
Thaddeus Stevens (April 4, 1792 – August 11, 1868) was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Pennsylvania and one of the leaders of the Radical Republican faction of the Republican Party during the 1860s.

War Democrat

War DemocratsUnion Dem.anti-secession Democrats
Many conservative Democrats became War Democrats who had a deep belief in American nationalism and supported the war.
The War Democrats demanded a more aggressive policy toward the Confederacy and supported the policies of Republican President Abraham Lincoln when the American Civil War broke out a few months after his victory in the 1860 presidential election.

Charles Sumner

SumnerSenator Charles SumnerCharles E. Sumner
Following the 1864 elections, Radical Republicans Led by Charles Sumner in the Senate and Thaddeus Stevens in the House set the agenda by demanding more aggressive action against slavery and more vengeance toward the Confederates.
Sumner changed his political party several times as anti-slavery coalitions rose and fell in the 1830s and 1840s before coalescing in the 1850s as the Republican Party, the affiliation with which he became best known.

Carpetbagger

carpetbaggerscarpetbaggingcarpetbag
With the election of Ulysses S. Grant in 1868, the Radicals had control of Congress, the party and the army and attempted to build a solid Republican base in the South using the votes of Freedmen, Scalawags and Carpetbaggers, supported directly by U.S. Army detachments.
The term broadly included both individuals who sought to promote Republican politics (which included the right of African Americans to vote and hold office), and those individuals who saw business and political opportunities because of the chaotic state of the local economies following the war.

Copperhead (politics)

CopperheadsCopperheadPeace Democrats
The Republicans denounced the peace-oriented Democrats as disloyal Copperheads and won enough War Democrats to maintain their majority in 1862. "Rebellion" stood for the Democrats of the Confederacy, who tried to break the Union in 1861; and the Democrats in the North, called "Copperheads", who sympathized with them.
Republicans started calling anti-war Democrats "Copperheads", likening them to the venomous snake.

Ku Klux Klan

KKKKlansmanKlansmen
Republicans all across the South formed local clubs called Union Leagues that effectively mobilized the voters, discussed issues and when necessary fought off Ku Klux Klan (KKK) attacks.
It sought to overthrow the Republican state governments in the South, especially by using violence against African-American leaders.

Homestead Acts

Homestead ActhomesteadersHomestead Act of 1862
During the American Civil War, the party passed major legislation in Congress to promote rapid modernization, including a national banking system, high tariffs, the first temporary income tax (subsequently ruled unconstitutional in Springer v. United States), many excise taxes, paper money issued without backing ("greenbacks"), a huge national debt, homestead laws, railroads and aid to education and agriculture.
Land-grant laws similar to the Homestead Acts had been proposed by northern Republicans before the Civil War, but had been repeatedly blocked in Congress by southern Democrats who wanted western lands open for purchase by slave-owners.

Rutherford B. Hayes

HayesRutherford HayesPresident Hayes
Reconstruction came to an end when the contested election of 1876 was awarded by a special electoral commission to Republican Rutherford B. Hayes, who promised through the unofficial Compromise of 1877 to withdraw federal troops from control of the last three southern states.
After the war he served in the Congress from 1865 to 1867 as a Republican.

Mugwumps

Mugwump
Independents who opposed the spoils system altogether were called "Mugwumps".
The Mugwumps were Republican political activists who switched parties from the Republican Party by supporting Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in the presidential election of 1884.

Horace Greeley

Horace GreelyGreeleyGreeley, Horace
They nominated Horace Greeley for President, who also gained the Democratic nomination, but the ticket was defeated in a landslide.
In 1854, he helped found and may have named the Republican Party.

Republicanism in the United States

republicanismRepublicanAmerican republicanism
It vigorously argued that free market labor was superior to slavery and was the very foundation of civic virtue and true republicanism; this was the "Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men" ideology.
Two major parties have used the term in their name – the Republican Party of Thomas Jefferson (founded in 1793, and often called the 'Jeffersonian Republican Party'), and the current Republican Party, founded in 1854 and named after the Jeffersonian party.

Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Fourteenth Amendment14th AmendmentFourteenth
Grant supported radical reconstruction programs in the South, the Fourteenth Amendment and equal civil and voting rights for the freedmen.
Following the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment by Congress, however, Republicans grew concerned over the increase it would create in the congressional representation of the Democratic-dominated Southern States.

Reconstruction era

ReconstructionpostbellumCongressional Reconstruction
During the post-Civil War Reconstruction era, there were major disagreements on the treatment of ex-Confederates and of former slaves, or freedmen.
In ten states, not including Virginia, coalitions of freedmen, recent black and white arrivals from the North ("carpetbaggers"), and white Southerners who supported Reconstruction ("scalawags") cooperated to form Republican biracial state governments.

Fourth Party System

System of 1896an eraFourth
The Progressive Era (or "Fourth Party System") was dominated by Republican Presidents, with the sole exception of Democrat Woodrow Wilson (1913–1921).
The Fourth Party System is the term used in political science and history for the period in American political history from about 1896 to 1932 that was dominated by the Republican Party, excepting the 1912 split in which Democrats held the White House for eight years.

Confederate States of America

ConfederateConfederacyConfederate States
"Rebellion" stood for the Democrats of the Confederacy, who tried to break the Union in 1861; and the Democrats in the North, called "Copperheads", who sympathized with them.
Convinced that the institution of slavery was threatened by the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U.S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories, the Confederacy declared its secession in rebellion to the United States, with the loyal states becoming known as the Union during the ensuing American Civil War.