History of the world

modern historymodern erahuman historymodernModern Agemodern periodmodern timesmodern worldpre-modernworld history
The history of the world, in common parlance, is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.wikipedia
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Neolithic Revolution

agricultural revolutioninvention of agricultureNeolithic Agricultural Revolution
The Neolithic saw the Agricultural Revolution begin, between 8000 and 5000 BCE, in the Near East's Fertile Crescent.
During the next millennia it would transform the small and mobile groups of hunter-gatherers that had hitherto dominated human pre-history into sedentary (non-nomadic) societies based in built-up villages and towns.

Ancient history

antiquityancientancient world
With civilizations flourishing, ancient history ("Antiquity," including the Classical Age, up to about 500 CE) saw the rise and fall of empires.
Ancient history as a term refers to the aggregate of past events from the beginning of writing and recorded human history and extending as far as the post-classical history.

Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval Europe
Post-classical history (the "Middle Ages," c. 500–1500 CE ) witnessed the rise of Christianity, the Islamic Golden Age (c.
The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period.

Post-classical history

post-classicalPostclassicPostclassical Era
Post-classical history (the "Middle Ages," c. 500–1500 CE ) witnessed the rise of Christianity, the Islamic Golden Age (c.
The post-classical period is one of the five or six major periods world historians use: (1) early civilization; (2) classical societies; (3) post-classical; (4) early modern; (5) long nineteenth century; and (6) contemporary or modern era.

Industrial Revolution

industrialindustrialismindustrial era
By the 18th century, the accumulation of knowledge and technology had reached a critical mass that brought about the Industrial Revolution and began the Late Modern Period, which started around 1800 and has continued through the present.
Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals and plants.


EuropeanEUEuropean continent
In the West, the Greek philosophical tradition, represented by Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and other philosophers, along with accumulated science, technology, and culture, diffused throughout Europe, Egypt, the Middle East, and Northwest India, starting in the 4th century BCE after the conquests of Alexander III of Macedon (Alexander the Great).
Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the modern era.

Germanic peoples

GermanicGermanic tribesGermanic tribe
The Western Roman Empire fell under the domination of Germanic tribes in the 5th century, and these polities gradually developed into a number of warring states, all associated in one way or another with the Catholic Church.
The decisive victory of Arminius at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 CE is believed to have prevented the eventual Romanization of the Germanic peoples, and has therefore been considered a turning point in world history.

Military history

military historianhistory of warfaremilitary
Islam greatly affected the political, economic, and military history of the Old World, especially the Middle East.
Military history is a humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity, and its impact on the societies, cultures and economies thereof, as well as the resulting changes to local and international relationships.

Black Death

plagueBlack PlagueGreat Plague
The Black Death alone killed approximately 75 to 200 million people between 1347 and 1350.
The Black Death, also known as the Pestilence (Pest for short), the Great Plague or the Plague, or less commonly the Black Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.


citiesUrbanCivil (City)
Labour divisions led to the rise of a leisured upper class and the development of cities, which provided the foundation for civilization.
By virtue of their status as centers of culture and literacy, cities can be described as the locus of civilization, world history, and social change.

South Asia

SouthSouth AsianSouthern Asia
In Asia, the Maurya Empire (322–185 BCE) existed in present-day India; in the 3rd century BCE, most of South Asia was united to the Maurya Empire by Chandragupta Maurya and flourished under Ashoka the Great.
The modern history period of South Asia, that is 16th-century onwards, witnessed the start of the Central Asian dynasty named the Mughals, with Turkish-Mongol roots and Sunni Islam theology.


civilisationcivilizationsancient civilization
Labour divisions led to the rise of a leisured upper class and the development of cities, which provided the foundation for civilization. As agriculture advanced, most humans transitioned from a nomadic to a settled lifestyle as farmers in permanent settlements.
This area has been identified as having "inspired some of the most important developments in human history including the invention of the wheel, the development of cuneiform script, mathematics, astronomy and agriculture."

Late Middle Ages

late medievallate medieval periodlate mediaeval
The Late Middle Ages were marked by difficulties and calamities.
The changes brought about by these developments have led many scholars to view this period as the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of modern history and of early modern Europe.

Western culture

WesternWestern civilizationWest
In southern Europe, the Greeks (and later the Romans), in an era known as "classical antiquity," established cultures whose practices, laws, and customs are considered the foundation of contemporary Western culture.
Coming into the modern era, the historical understanding of the East–West contrast—as the opposition of Christendom to its geographical neighbors—began to weaken.

Homo erectus

H. erectusDmanisi ManPithecanthropus erectus'' (later redesignated ''Homo erectus'')
Other hominids such as Homo erectus had been using simple wood and stone tools for millennia, but as time progressed, tools became far more refined and complex.
The Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Age) of prehistoric human history and industry is dated from 2.6 million years ago to about 10,000 years ago; thus it closely coincides with the Pleistocene epoch of geologic time, which is 2.58 million to 11,700 years ago.

Contemporary history

contemporarymoderncontemporary era
Contemporary history, in English-language historiography, is a subset of modern history which describes the historical period from approximately 1945 to the present, sometimes included as part of the late modern period.


hunter-gatherershunting and gatheringhunter gatherer
During this period, all humans lived as hunter-gatherers, and were generally nomadic.


modernmodern societymodern life
In the humanities and social sciences, the norms, attitudes, and practices arising during the modern period are known as modernity.
Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of the Renaissance—in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".

State (polity)

statestatesthe state
Farming permitted far denser populations, which in time organized into states.
The first known states were created in the Fertile Crescent, India, China, Mesoamerica, the Andes, and others, but it is only in relatively modern times that states have almost completely displaced alternative "stateless" forms of political organization of societies all over the planet.

Late modern period

late modern
In many periodizations of human history, the late modern period followed the early modern period.

French Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary FranceRevolutionary
The Age of Enlightenment also led to the beginnings of modern democracy in the late-18th century American and French Revolutions.
Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies.

Arab slave trade

slavesslave tradetrans-Saharan slave trade
The Post-classical period also encompasses the Early Muslim conquests, the subsequent Islamic Golden Age, and the commencement and expansion of the Arab slave trade, followed by the Mongol invasions in the Middle East and Central Asia, and the founding around 1280 of the Ottoman Empire.
Slaves initially came from various regions, including Central Asia (such as mamluks) and Europe (such as saqaliba), but by the modern period, slaves came mostly from Africa.

Information Age

digital ageInternet agedigital era
The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age) is a historic period beginning in the 20th century and characterized by the rapid shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization to an economy primarily based upon information technology.

Early modern period

early moderncolonial eraearly modern era
The Early Modern Period, sometimes referred to as the "European Age and Era of the Islamic Gunpowders", from about 1500 to 1800, included the Age of Enlightenment and the Age of Exploration.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

History of technology

historian of technologytechnologytechnological growth
The Early Modern period was characterized by the rise of science, and by increasingly rapid technological progress, secularized civic politics, and the nation state.
The history of technology is the history of the invention of tools and techniques and is one of the categories of the history of humanity.