A report on Laos and Hmong people

Flower Hmong women in traditional dress at the market in Bắc Hà, Vietnam
Likely routes of early rice transfer, and possible language family homelands (archaeological sites in China and SE Asia shown)
Pha That Luang in Vientiane is the national symbol of Laos.
Red Dao in Vietnam
Fa Ngum, founder of the Lan Xang Kingdom
Hmong girls meet possible suitors while playing a ball-throwing game in Laos.
Local Lao soldiers in the French Colonial guard, c. 1900
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French General Salan and Prince Sisavang Vatthana in Luang Prabang, 4 May 1953
Hmong folk costume in Sa Pa, Vietnam
Ruins of Muang Khoun, former capital of Xiangkhouang province, destroyed by the American bombing of Laos in the late 1960s
A Flower Hmong woman in Vietnam
Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, 1972
A typical rammed earth house building technique of Flower Hmong in Vietnam
Mekong River flowing through Luang Prabang
Hmong people at the Can Cau market, Si Ma Cai, Vietnam
Paddy fields in Laos
Hmong girl (aged 15) preparing wedding dress, Phố Cáo commune, Hà Giang province, Vietnam
Laos map of Köppen climate classification.
Hmong girls in Thoeng District, Thailand
Flag of the ruling Lao People's Revolutionary Party
The historical migration of the Hmong according to Hmong tradition
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and ASEAN heads of state in New Delhi on 25 January 2018
A scene depicting the Qing dynasty's campaign against the Hmong people at Lancaoping in 1795
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2016
Hmong girls in Laos, 1973
A proportional representation of Laos exports, 2019
GDP per capita development in Laos
Near the sanctuary on the main upper level of Vat Phou, looking back towards the Mekong River
Rivers are an important means of transport in Laos.
Pha That Luang in Vientiane. The Buddhist stupa that is a national symbol of Laos.
Mahosot Hospital in Vientiane.
National University of Laos in Vientiane.
An example of Lao cuisine
Lao women wearing sinhs
Lao dancers during the New Year celebration
New Laos National Stadium in Vientiane.
Wat Nong Sikhounmuang - buddhist pagoda in Luang Prabang.

The Hmong people (RPA: Hmoob, Nyiakeng Puachue:, Pahawh Hmong: , ) are indigenous people that mainly live in Southwest China (Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan, Chongqing, and Guangxi), Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar.

- Hmong people

Mon-Khmer groups, the Hmong, and other indigenous hill tribes live in the foothills and mountains.

- Laos

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Overall

Vang in 2004

Vang Pao

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Major general in the Royal Lao Army.

Major general in the Royal Lao Army.

Vang in 2004

Vang, an ethnic Hmong, was born on 8 December 1929, in a Hmong village named Nonghet, located in Central Xiangkhuang Province, in the northeastern region of Laos, where his father, Neng Chu Vang, was a county leader.

He was the only ethnic Hmong to attain the rank of General officer in the Royal Lao Army, and he was loyal to the King of Laos while remaining a champion of the Hmong people.

Areas of Laos controlled by the Pathet Lao and bombed by the United States Air Force in support of the Kingdom of Laos.

Laotian Civil War

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Areas of Laos controlled by the Pathet Lao and bombed by the United States Air Force in support of the Kingdom of Laos.
French General Salan and Prince Sisavang in the Lao capital, Luang Prabang, 4 May 1953
Pathet Lao soldiers in Xam Neua, 1953
The Geneva Conference of 1954.
The Ho Chi Minh trail was used by Vietnamese and Laotian people from the very beginning. Captured Viet Cong, circa 1959
The Laotian Armed Forces training Center at Khang Khai, Laos, March 1960
Anti-communist Hmong guerrilla troops in 1961.
Barrel Roll operational area, 1964
Barrel Roll and Steel Tiger operational area, 1965.
Damage caused by a communist ground attack on Luang Prabang airfield, 1967
North Vietnamese troops march through Laos, 1967
Barrel Roll, Steel Tiger and Tiger Hound operational areas.
A map of the Ho Chi Minh Trail, 1967.
A U.S. Air Force Bell UH-1P from the 20th Special Operations Squadron "Green Hornets" at a base in Laos, 1970.
A Royal Lao Air Force (RLAF) North American T-28D-5 Trojan armed trainer loaded with bombs at Long Tieng airfield in Laos, September 1972
Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, Laos, 1973
Hmong woman and child at Long Tieng, Laos military base in 1973.
Laotians hired to assist U.S. troops assigned with the Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command sift then move tons of dirt on a mountain near Xépôn, Laos (July 2004)
Unexploded cluster sub-munition, probably a BLU-26 type. Plain of Jars, Laos. 2012
UXO on display at a museum in Vientiane
Anti-aircraft troops of the Laotian Peoples Liberation Army.

The Laotian Civil War (1959–1975) was a civil war in Laos which was waged between the Communist Pathet Lao and the Royal Lao Government from 23 May 1959 to 2 December 1975.

It is called the Secret War among the American CIA Special Activities Center, and Hmong and Mien veterans of the conflict.

Clockwise from top left: U.S. combat operations in Ia Đrăng

ARVN Rangers defending Saigon during the 1968 Tết Offensive

Two A-4C Skyhawks after the Gulf of Tonkin incident

ARVN recapture Quảng Trị during the 1972 Easter Offensive

Civilians fleeing the 1972 Battle of Quảng Trị

Burial of 300 victims of the 1968 Huế Massacre

Vietnam War

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Clockwise from top left: U.S. combat operations in Ia Đrăng

ARVN Rangers defending Saigon during the 1968 Tết Offensive

Two A-4C Skyhawks after the Gulf of Tonkin incident

ARVN recapture Quảng Trị during the 1972 Easter Offensive

Civilians fleeing the 1972 Battle of Quảng Trị

Burial of 300 victims of the 1968 Huế Massacre
The Geneva Conference, 1954
Ba Cut in Can Tho Military Court 1956, commander of religious movement the Hòa Hảo, which had fought against the Việt Minh, Vietnamese National Army and Cao Dai movement throughout the first war
Map of insurgency and "disturbances", 1957 to 1960
U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles greet President Ngô Đình Diệm of South Vietnam in Washington, 8 May 1957
The Ho Chi Minh trail, known as the Truong Son Road by the North Vietnamese, cuts through Laos. This would develop into a complex logistical system which would allow the North Vietnamese to maintain the war effort despite the largest aerial bombardment campaign in history
The Ho Chi Minh trail required, on average, four months of rough-terrain travel for combatants from North Vietnam destined for the Southern battlefields.
President Kennedy's news conference of 23 March 1961
South Vietnam, Military Regions, 1967
Kennedy and McNamara
ARVN forces capture a Viet Cong
Ngô Đình Diệm after being shot and killed in a coup on 2 November 1963
Viet Cong fighters crossing a river
A U.S. B-66 Destroyer and four F-105 Thunderchiefs dropping bombs on North Vietnam during Operation Rolling Thunder
ARVN Forces and a US Advisor inspect a downed helicopter, Battle of Dong Xoai, June 1965
A Marine from 1st Battalion, 3rd Marines, moves a suspected Viet Cong during a search and clear operation held by the battalion 15 mi west of Da Nang Air Base, 1965.
Peasants suspected of being Viet Cong under detention of U.S. Army, 1966
Heavily bandaged woman burned by napalm, with a tag attached to her arm which reads "VNC Female" meaning Vietnamese civilian
A US "tunnel rat" soldier prepares to enter a Viet Cong tunnel.
Viet Cong soldier crouches in a bunker with an SKS rifle
ARVN forces assault a stronghold in the Mekong Delta.
Viet Cong before departing to participate in the Tet Offensive around Saigon-Gia Dinh
North Vietnamese regular army forces
The ruins of a section of Saigon, in the Cholon neighborhood, following fierce fighting between ARVN forces and Viet Cong Main Force battalions
Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin with U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson at the Glassboro Summit Conference where the two representatives discussed the possibilities of a peace settlement
Propaganda leaflet urging the defection of Viet Cong and North Vietnamese to the side of the Republic of Vietnam
ARVN and US Special Forces, September 1968
An alleged Viet Cong captured during an attack on an American outpost near the Cambodian border is interrogated.
Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, 1972
Soviet advisers inspecting the debris of a B-52 downed in the vicinity of Hanoi
American POWs recently released from North Vietnamese prison camps, 1973
Civilians in a NVA/Viet Cong controlled zone. Civilians were required to show appropriate flags, during the War of the flags
Memorial commemorating the 1974 Buon Me Thuot campaign, depicting a Montagnard of the Central Highlands, a NVA soldier and a T-54 tank
The capture of Hue, March 1975
Victorious PAVN troops at the Presidential Palace, Saigon
Anti-war demonstration in the US, 1967
Ho Chi Minh from the Việt Minh independence movement and Việt Cộng with East German sailors in Stralsund harbour, 1957
Leonid Brezhnev (left) was the Soviet Union's leader during the Vietnam War.
Soviet anti-air instructors and North Vietnamese crewmen in the spring of 1965 at an anti-aircraft training center in Vietnam
Vietnam People's Air Force pilots walk by their aircraft, the MiG-17. The development of the North Vietnamese Vietnam People's Air Force (VPAF) during the war was assisted by Warsaw Pact nations throughout the war. Between 1966 and 1972 a total of 17 flying aces was credited by the VPAF against US fighters.
Fidel Castro meeting with Võ Nguyên Giáp at the Vietnam Military History Museum
East German solidarity stamp depicting a Vietnamese mother and child with the text "Unconquerable Vietnam"
The Thai Queen's Cobra battalion in Phuoc Tho
An Australian soldier in Vietnam
Victims of the My Lai massacre
Napalm burn victims during the war being treated at the 67th Combat Support Hospital
Interment of victims of the Huế Massacre
Da Nang, South Vietnam, 1968
A nurse treats a Vietnamese child, 1967
Female Viet Cong guerrilla in combat
Master-Sergeant and pharmacist Do Thi Trinh, part of the WAFC, supplying medication to ARVN dependents
Memorial temple to Nguyễn Thị Định and the female volunteers of the Viet Cong whom she commanded. They came to call themselves the "Long-Haired Army".
A wounded African-American soldier being carried away, 1968
Guerrillas assemble shells and rockets delivered along the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
UH-1D helicopters airlift members of a U.S. infantry regiment, 1966
North Vietnamese SAM crew in front of SA-2 launcher. The Soviet Union provided North Vietnam with considerable anti-air defence around installations.
Bombs being dropped by the B-52 Stratofortress long-range strategic bomber.
B-52 wreckage in Huu Tiep Lake, Hanoi. Downed during Operation Linebacker II, its remains have turned into a war monument.
Vietnamese refugees fleeing Vietnam, 1984
A bombed Buddha statue in Laos. U.S. bombing campaigns made Vietnam the single most bombed country in history.
Captured U.S.-supplied armored vehicles and artillery pieces
A young Marine private waits on the beach during the Marine landing, Da Nang, 3 August 1965
A marine gets his wounds treated during operations in Huế City, in 1968
Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara and General Westmoreland talk with General Tee on conditions of the war in Vietnam.
U.S. helicopter spraying chemical defoliants in the Mekong Delta, South Vietnam, 1969
Handicapped children in Vietnam, most of them victims of Agent Orange, 2004
Cemetery for ten unmarried girls who volunteered for logistical activities, who died in a B-52 raid at Đồng Lộc Junction, a strategic junction along the Ho Chi Minh trail
Stone plaque with photo of the "Thương tiếc" (Mourning Soldier) statue, originally, installed at the Republic of Vietnam National Military Cemetery. The original statue was demolished in April 1975.
The Ho Chi Minh trail required, on average, four months of rough-terrain travel for combatants from North Vietnam destined for the Southern battlefields.

The Vietnam War (also known by other names) was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

Paramilitary officers from the CIA's Special Activities Division trained and led Hmong tribesmen in Laos and into Vietnam.

Vietnam

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Country in Southeast Asia, at the eastern edge of mainland Southeast Asia, with an area of 311699 km2 and population of 96 million, making it the world's fifteenth-most populous country.

Country in Southeast Asia, at the eastern edge of mainland Southeast Asia, with an area of 311699 km2 and population of 96 million, making it the world's fifteenth-most populous country.

A Đông Sơn bronze drum, c. 800 BC
Vietnam's territories around 1838
The Grand Palais built for the 1902–1903 world's fair, when Hanoi was French Indochina's capital
Partition of French Indochina after the 1954 Geneva Conference
Three US Fairchild UC-123B aircraft spraying Agent Orange during the Operation Ranch Hand as part of a herbicidal warfare operation depriving the food and vegetation cover of the Việt Cộng, c. 1962–1971
Nature attractions in Vietnam, clockwise from top: Hạ Long Bay, Yến River and Bản-Giốc Waterfalls
Hoàng Liên Sơn mountain range, the range that includes Fansipan which is the highest summit on the Indochinese Peninsula.
Köppen climate classification map of Vietnam.
Nha Trang, a popular beach destination has a tropical savanna climate.
Native species in Vietnam, clockwise from top-right: crested argus, a peafowl, red-shanked douc, Indochinese leopard, saola.
Sa Pa mountain hills with agricultural activities
The National Assembly of Vietnam building in Hanoi
Examples of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces weaponry assets. Clockwise from top right: T-54B tank, Sukhoi Su-27UBK fighter aircraft, Vietnam Coast Guard Hamilton-class cutter, and Vietnam People's Army chemical corps with Type 56.
A Communist Party propaganda poster in Hanoi
Historical GDP per capita development of Vietnam
Tree map showing Vietnam's exports
Vietnam's tallest skyscraper, the Landmark 81 located in Bình Thạnh, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon).
Terraced rice fields in Sa Pa
A Vietnamese-made TOPIO 3.0 humanoid ping-pong-playing robot displayed during the 2009 International Robot Exhibition (IREX) in Tokyo.
Vietnamese science students working on an experiment in their university lab.
Hội An, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is a major tourist destination.
HCMC–LT–DG section of the North–South Expressway.
Tan Son Nhat International Airport is the busiest airport in the country.
The port of Hai Phong is one of the largest and busiest container ports in Vietnam.
Sơn La Dam in northern Vietnam, the largest hydroelectric dam in Southeast Asia.
In rural areas of Vietnam, piped water systems are operated by a wide variety of institutions including a national organisation, people committees (local government), community groups, co-operatives and private companies.
Development of life expectancy in Vietnam since 1950
Vietnam population pyramid in 2019
District 1, Ho Chi Minh City.
Urbanisation in west Hanoi
Vietnamese calligraphy in Latin alphabet.
Vietnamese traditional white school uniform for girls in the country, the áo dài with the addition of nón lá, a conical hat.
Vietnamese dragon on Emperor Khải Định's c. 1917 scroll in British Library collection.
Ca trù trio performance in northern Vietnam
Some of the notable Vietnamese cuisine, clockwise from top-right: phở noodle, chè thái fruit dessert, chả giò spring roll and bánh mì sandwich.
Vietnam Television (VTV), the main state television station
Special Tết decoration in the country seen during the holiday
Mỹ Đình National Stadium in Hanoi.

Vietnam borders China to the north, Laos and Cambodia to the west, and shares maritime borders with Thailand through the Gulf of Thailand, and the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia through the South China Sea.

Despite this, Vietnam is also home to various ethnic groups, of which 54 are officially recognised, including the Hmong, Dao, Tày, Thái and Nùng.

Flag of the Pathet Lao

Pathet Lao

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Flag of the Pathet Lao
Pathet Lao at Xam Neua in 1953
Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, Laos, 1973

The Pathet Lao (ປະເທດລາວ ), officially the Lao People's Liberation Army, was a communist political movement and organization in Laos, formed in the mid-20th century.

The PAVN/Pathet Lao battled the RLA, US irregular forces (including Air America and other contract employees and Hmong commandos) and Thai volunteer forces in Laos winning effective control in the north and east.

Wat Tham Krabok

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Buddhist temple (wat) in the Phra Phutthabat District of Saraburi Province, Thailand.

Buddhist temple (wat) in the Phra Phutthabat District of Saraburi Province, Thailand.

Following the end of the Vietnam War, in the late 1970s, Wat Tham Krabok hosted Hmong refugees in a camp on its grounds as result of their losing the Secret War.

Most had fled Laos alleging that they were persecuted by the communist government that ruled Laos since 1975.

The Center for Public Policy Analysis

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Established in Washington, D.C. in 1988 and describes itself as a non-profit, non-partisan, think tank and research organization.

Established in Washington, D.C. in 1988 and describes itself as a non-profit, non-partisan, think tank and research organization.

The organization is described as an "outspoken supporter" and human rights proponent for ethnic, minority Laotian and Hmong people in Laos and Vietnam.

Hmong language

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Hmong / Mong (RPA: Hmoob, ; Nyiakeng Puachue: ; Pahawh:, ) is a dialect continuum of the West Hmongic branch of the Hmongic languages spoken by the Hmong people of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Hainan, northern Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos.

Southeast Asia

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Geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of Mainland China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and north of Australia.

Geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of Mainland China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and north of Australia.

States and regions of Southeast Asia
A political map of Southeast Asia
Megalithic statue found in Tegurwangi, Sumatra, Indonesia 1500 CE
The Austroasiatic and Austronesian expansions into Maritime Southeast Asia.
Bronze drum from Sông Đà, northern Vietnam. Mid-1st millennium BC
Spread of Hinduism from South Asia to Southeast Asia
Borobudur temple in Central Java, Indonesia
Angkor Wat in Siem Reap, Cambodia
Wapauwe Old Mosque is the oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia, and the second oldest in Southeast Asia, built in 1414
Strait of Malacca
Colonial boundaries in Southeast Asia
Fort Cornwallis in George Town marks the spot where the British East India Company first landed in Penang in 1786, thus heralding the British colonisation of Malaya
Duit, a coin minted by the VOC, 1646–1667. 2 kas, 2 duit
Relief map of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia map of Köppen climate classification
Komodo dragon in Komodo National Park, Indonesia
The Philippine eagle
Wallace's hypothetical line divides Indonesian Archipelago into 2 types of fauna, Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna. The deepwater of the Lombok Strait between the islands of Bali and Lombok formed a water barrier even when lower sea levels linked the now-separated islands and landmasses on either side
The Port of Singapore is the busiest transshipment and container port in the world, and is an important transportation and shipping hub in Southeast Asia
Along with its temples Cambodia has been promoting its coastal resorts. Island off Otres Beach Sihanoukville, Cambodia
Population distribution of the countries of Southeast Asia (with Indonesia split into its major islands).
Ati woman in Aklan – the Negritos were the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia.
Spirit houses are common in areas of Southeast Asia where Animism is a held belief.
The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali's most significant Balinese Hindu temples.
Thai Theravada Buddhists in Chiang Mai, Thailand.
The prayer hall of the Goddess of Mercy Temple, the oldest Taoist temple in Penang, Malaysia.
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque in Brunei, an Islamic country with Sharia rule.
Roman Catholic Cathedral-Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, the metropolitan see of the Archbishop of Manila, Philippines.
A Protestant church in Indonesia. Indonesia has the largest Protestant population in Southeast Asia.
Jewish Surabaya Synagogue in Indonesia, demolished in 2013.
Burmese puppet performance
Paddy field in Vietnam
The Royal Ballet of Cambodia (Paris, France 2010)
Angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
Thai manuscript from before the 19th-century writing system
Sign in Balinese and Latin script at a Hindu temple in Bali
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Bangkok, Thailand
Singapore
Manila, Philippines
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Jakarta, Indonesia
The UN Statistics Division for Asia are based on convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories: 
Central Asia
Eastern Asia
Northern Asia
South-eastern Asia
Southern Asia
Western Asia
Map showing the divergent plate boundaries (oceanic spreading ridges) and recent sub-aerial volcanoes (mostly at convergent boundaries), with a high density of volcanoes situated in Indonesia and the Philippines.
The Mayon Volcano, Phillipines
Bái Đính Temple in Ninh Bình Province – the largest complex of Buddhist temples in Vietnam

Vietnam and Laos are some of the only countries in the world left that continue to follow the socialist or communist model.

While the Khmers are the majority in Cambodia and form a significant minority in Southern Vietnam and Thailand, the Hmong people are the minority in Vietnam, China, and Laos.

Vang Pobzeb

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Vang Pobzeb (July 12, 1957 – August 23, 2005) was a Hmong American dedicated to Lao and Hmong human rights.

Vang was born in Laos on July 12, 1957.