The vocal folds (or vocal cords) in the larynx vibrate to produce sound. When this process is disturbed hoarseness may ensue.
Sagittal illustration of the anterior portion of the human head and neck. In LPR, the pharynx (1), oropharynx (2) and larynx (3) are exposed to gastric contents that flow upward through the esophagus (4).
Anatomy of the larynx, anterolateral view
The vocal folds (or vocal cords) in the larynx vibrate to produce sound. When this process is disturbed hoarseness may ensue.
Illustration of the superior view of the larynx. Tissues lining laryngeal structures, including the vocal folds, may be damaged in LPR.
Sagittal section of the larynx and upper part of the trachea.
The basic parts of the human larynx.
Vocal cords abducted and adducted
Extrinsic laryngeal muscles
Image of endoscopy
Endoscopic image of an inflamed human larynx
Larynx. Deep dissection. Anterior view.
Larynx. Deep dissection. Posterior view.

Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is the retrograde flow of gastric contents into the larynx, oropharynx and/or the nasopharynx.

- Laryngopharyngeal reflux

LPR causes respiratory symptoms such as cough and wheezing and is often associated with head and neck complaints such as dysphonia, globus pharyngis, and dysphagia.

- Laryngopharyngeal reflux

The assessment and diagnosis of dysphonia is done by a multidisciplinary team, and involves the use of a variety of subjective and objective measures, which look at both the quality of the voice as well as the physical state of the larynx.

- Hoarse voice

Injury to one of the recurrent laryngeal nerves produces hoarseness, if both are damaged the voice may or may not be preserved, but breathing becomes difficult.

- Larynx

Laryngopharyngeal reflux is a condition in which acid from the stomach irritates and burns the larynx. Similar damage can occur with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

- Larynx

The most common laryngeal diagnoses among the elderly are polyps, laryngopharyngeal reflux, muscle tension dysphonia, vocal fold paresis or paralysis, vocal fold mass, glottic insufficiency, malignant lesions, and neurologic conditions affecting the larynx.

- Hoarse voice
The vocal folds (or vocal cords) in the larynx vibrate to produce sound. When this process is disturbed hoarseness may ensue.

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