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April Fools' Day

April Fool's DayApril FoolsApril Fool
It is distinguishable from errors in observation or judgment, rumors, urban legends, pseudosciences, and April Fools' Day events that are passed along in good faith by believers or as jokes.
April Fools' Day or April Fool's Day (sometimes called All Fools' Day) is an annual celebration on April 1, commemorated by practical jokes and hoaxes.

Practical joke

prankprankspractical jokes
Although practical jokes have likely existed for thousands of years, one of the earliest recorded hoaxes in Western history was the drummer of Tedworth in 1661.
Practical jokes differ from confidence tricks or hoaxes in that the victim finds out, or is let in on the joke, rather than being talked into handing over money or other valuables.

Fake news website

fake newsfake news websitesfake news site
During the 20th century, the hoax found a mass market in the form of supermarket tabloids, and by the 21st century there were fake news websites which spread hoaxes via social networking websites (in addition to the use of email for a modern type of chain letter).
Fake news websites (also referred to as hoax news websites) are Internet websites that deliberately publish fake news—hoaxes, propaganda, and disinformation purporting to be real news—often using social media to drive web traffic and amplify their effect.

Great Stock Exchange Fraud of 1814

Great Stock Exchange FraudColonel du Bourgstock fraud
According to Professor Lynda Walsh of the University of Nevada, Reno, some hoaxes—such as the Great Stock Exchange Fraud of 1814, labeled as a hoax by contemporary commentators—are financial in nature, and successful hoaxers—such as P. T. Barnum, whose Fiji mermaid contributed to his wealth—often acquire monetary gain or fame through their fabrications, so the distinction between hoax and fraud is not necessarily clear.
The Great Stock Exchange Fraud of 1814 was a hoax or fraud centered on false information about the Napoleonic Wars, affecting the London Stock Exchange in 1814.

Fraud

defraudfraudsterfraudulent
According to Professor Lynda Walsh of the University of Nevada, Reno, some hoaxes—such as the Great Stock Exchange Fraud of 1814, labeled as a hoax by contemporary commentators—are financial in nature, and successful hoaxers—such as P. T. Barnum, whose Fiji mermaid contributed to his wealth—often acquire monetary gain or fame through their fabrications, so the distinction between hoax and fraud is not necessarily clear.
A hoax is a distinct concept that involves deliberate deception without the intention of gain or of materially damaging or depriving a victim.

Urban legend

urban mythurban legendsurban myths
It is distinguishable from errors in observation or judgment, rumors, urban legends, pseudosciences, and April Fools' Day events that are passed along in good faith by believers or as jokes.
The United States Department of Energy had a now-discontinued service called Hoaxbusters, that dealt with computer-distributed hoaxes and legends.

Flemish Secession hoax

spoof news broadcasta spoof reportBye Bye Belgium
Tout ça (ne nous rendra pas la Belgique) or Bye Bye Belgium, also called "The Flemish Secession Hoax," was a hoax perpetrated by the French-language Belgian public TV station RTBF on Wednesday, December 13, 2006.

Wearside Jack

John HumbleJohn Humble (hoaxer)Yorkshire Ripper tape hoax
Wearside Jack is the nickname given to John Samuel Humble (8 January 1956 – 30 July 2019), an Englishman who pretended to be the Yorkshire Ripper in a hoax audio recording and several letters in the period 1978–1979.

Humbug

Bah! Humbug!Bah humbugbah, humbug
A humbug is a person or object that behaves in a deceptive or dishonest way, often as a hoax or in jest.

Chain letter

chain emailchain letterschain e-mail
During the 20th century, the hoax found a mass market in the form of supermarket tabloids, and by the 21st century there were fake news websites which spread hoaxes via social networking websites (in addition to the use of email for a modern type of chain letter). However, hoaxes could also be spread via chain letters, which became easier as the cost of mailing a letter dropped.
Chain letters are often coupled with intimidating hoaxes or the promise of providing the sender with "secret" information once they have forwarded the message.

Rumor

rumourrumorsrumours
It is distinguishable from errors in observation or judgment, rumors, urban legends, pseudosciences, and April Fools' Day events that are passed along in good faith by believers or as jokes.

Tabloid journalism

tabloidtabloid presstabloids
During the 20th century, the hoax found a mass market in the form of supermarket tabloids, and by the 21st century there were fake news websites which spread hoaxes via social networking websites (in addition to the use of email for a modern type of chain letter).
Tabloid newspapers in the United Kingdom, collectively called "the tabloid press", tend to be simply and sensationally written and to give more prominence than broadsheets to celebrities, sports, crime stories, and even hoaxes.

List of hoaxes

hoax of exposureproven hoax of exposure
The following are lists of hoaxes:

Museum of Hoaxes

The Museum of Hoaxes
Alex Boese, the creator of the Museum of Hoaxes, states that the only distinction between them is the reaction of the public, because a fraud can be classified as a hoax when its method of acquiring financial gain creates a broad public impact or captures the imagination of the masses.
The Museum of Hoaxes is a website created by Alex Boese in 1997 in San Diego, California as a resource for reporting and discussing hoaxes and urban legends, both past and present.

Thomas Ady

Robert Nares defined the word hoax as meaning "to cheat," dating from Thomas Ady's 1656 book A candle in the dark, or a treatise on the nature of witches and witchcraft.
His book also is one of the earliest references to the origin of the word hocus pocus as a Latin-like phrase used by a conjurer to distract his audience from his sleight of hand, which also relates to where the word hoax comes from.

Disumbrationism

Disumbrationism was a hoax masquerading as an art movement that was launched in 1924 by Paul Jordan-Smith, a novelist, Latin scholar, and authority on Robert Burton from Los Angeles, California.

Pierre Brassau

Peter, aka Pierre Brassau
Pierre Brassau was a chimpanzee and the subject of a 1964 hoax perpetrated by Åke "Dacke" Axelsson, a journalist at the Swedish tabloid Göteborgs-Tidningen.

Literary forgery

literary hoaxforgeryliterary forger
Literary forgery (also known as literary mystification, literary fraud or literary hoax) is writing, such as a manuscript or a literary work, which is either deliberately misattributed to a historical or invented author, or is a purported memoir or other presumably nonfictional writing deceptively presented as true when, in fact, it presents untrue or imaginary information.

Forgery

forgedforgerforgeries
Where the prime concern of a forgery is less focused on the object itself – what it is worth or what it "proves" – than on a tacit statement of criticism that is revealed by the reactions the object provokes in others, then the larger process is a hoax.

Website spoofing

impersonatelook-alikespoof website
Website spoofing is the act of creating a website, as a hoax, with the intention of misleading readers that the website has been created by a different person or organization.

Tom Mitford

Thomas MitfordTomMajor Thomas David Mitford
In July 1929, Mitford took part in the "Bruno Hat" art hoax.

List of UFO-related hoaxes

Franck FontaineUFO hoaxes
It was revealed to be a hoax.

False document

document forgeryfalse documentsfound manuscript

Conspiracy theory

conspiracy theoriesconspiracy theoristconspiracy
For example, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, an infamous hoax document purporting to be a Jewish plan for world domination, is commonly read and promoted in the Muslim world.