Hokkaido

HokkaidōHokkaido PrefectureHokkaidō PrefectureHokkaido, JapanHokkaido IslandHokkaido regionHokkaidō, JapanEzoEzochiHokkaidō Island
Hokkaido is the second largest main island of Japan, and the largest and northernmost prefecture.wikipedia
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Sakhalin

Sakhalin IslandIsland of SakhalinKarafuto
About 43 kilometres (26 mi) north of Hokkaido lies Sakhalin Island and to the east and northeast are the Kuril Islands, which are administered by Russia, although the four most southerly are claimed by Japan—see Kuril Islands dispute.
Sakhalin, which is about one third the size of Honshu, is just off the Russian Pacific coast (Khabarovsk Krai), and just north of the Japanese island of Hokkaido.

Kuril Islands

KurilesKurilsChishima Islands
About 43 kilometres (26 mi) north of Hokkaido lies Sakhalin Island and to the east and northeast are the Kuril Islands, which are administered by Russia, although the four most southerly are claimed by Japan—see Kuril Islands dispute.
The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands ( or ; Japanese: "Kuril Islands" or "Chishima Islands" is a volcanic archipelago in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast that stretches approximately 1300 km northeast from Hokkaido, Japan to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the north Pacific Ocean.

Japan

JPNJapaneseJP
About 43 kilometres (26 mi) north of Hokkaido lies Sakhalin Island and to the east and northeast are the Kuril Islands, which are administered by Russia, although the four most southerly are claimed by Japan—see Kuril Islands dispute. Hokkaido is the second largest main island of Japan, and the largest and northernmost prefecture.
The stratovolcanic archipelago has five main islands: Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, Shikoku and Okinawa which make up about 97% percent of Japan's land area.

Kuril Islands dispute

Northern TerritoriesdisputedKuril Islands
About 43 kilometres (26 mi) north of Hokkaido lies Sakhalin Island and to the east and northeast are the Kuril Islands, which are administered by Russia, although the four most southerly are claimed by Japan—see Kuril Islands dispute.
The Kuril Islands is a chain of islands that stretch between the Japanese island of Hokkaido at the southern end and the Russian Kamchatka Peninsula at the northern end.

Ainu people

AinuAinu cultureAinus
However, many theories exist concerning the details of this event, including the location of Watarishima and the common belief that the Emishi in Watarishima were the ancestors of the present-day Ainu people.
The Ainu or the Aynu (Ainu: アィヌ, Аину, Aynu; Japanese: アイヌ, Áìnù; Russian: Áйны, Áĭny) or the Ezo in the historical Japanese texts, are an indigenous people of Japan (Hokkaidō and formerly North-Eastern Honshū) and Russia (Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, Khabarovsk Krai and the Kamchatka Peninsula).

Honshu

HonshūHonshu IslandHonshu, Japan
The Tsugaru Strait separates Hokkaido from Honshu.
It is located south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Straits.

Ezo

YezoAinu peopleEzo chi
From the Middle Ages, the people in Hokkaido began to be called Ezo.
It included the northern Japanese island of Hokkaidō, which changed its name from Ezo to Hokkaidō in 1869, and sometimes included Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands.

Oshima Peninsula

Matsumae PeninsulaKameda PeninsulaOshima area
During the Muromachi period (1336–1573), the Japanese created a settlement at the south of the Oshima Peninsula.
The Oshima Peninsula (渡島 半島 Oshima-hantō) is the southernmost part of Hokkaidō, the northernmost of the Japanese islands.

Republic of Ezo

EzoEzo RepublicPresident of the Republic of Ezo
Shortly after the Boshin War in 1868, a group of Tokugawa loyalists led by Enomoto Takeaki temporarily occupied the island (the polity is commonly but mistakenly known as the Republic of Ezo), but the rebellion was crushed in May 1869.
The Republic of Ezo was a short-lived state established in 1869 by a part of the former Tokugawa military on the island of Ezo, the large but sparsely populated northernmost island in modern Japan, now known as Hokkaido.

Boshin War

Boshin Civil WarJapanese Revolution1868 rebellion against the shogunate
Shortly after the Boshin War in 1868, a group of Tokugawa loyalists led by Enomoto Takeaki temporarily occupied the island (the polity is commonly but mistakenly known as the Republic of Ezo), but the rebellion was crushed in May 1869.
Those loyal to the Tokugawa retreated to northern Honshū and later to Hokkaidō, where they founded the Ezo republic.

Emishi

Emishi peopleEbisuThirty-Eight Year War
According to the text, Abe no Hirafu led a large navy and army to northern areas from 658 to 660 and came into contact with the Mishihase and Emishi.
They either submitted themselves to imperial authority as fushu and ifu or migrated further north, some to Hokkaidō.

History of Japan

feudal JapanJapanese historyJapan
From the Middle Ages, the people in Hokkaido began to be called Ezo.
The climate of the Japanese archipelago varies from humid continental in the north (Hokkaido) to humid subtropical and tropical rainforest in the south (Okinawa Prefecture).

Shiribeshi Province

ShiribeshiShiribeshi no kuni
After 1869, the northern Japanese island was known as Hokkaido; and regional subdivisions were established, including the provinces of Oshima, Shiribeshi, Iburi, Ishikari, Teshio, Kitami, Hidaka, Tokachi, Kushiro, Nemuro and Chishima.
Shiribeshi Province was a short-lived province in Hokkaidō.

Iburi Province

IburiIburi no kuni
After 1869, the northern Japanese island was known as Hokkaido; and regional subdivisions were established, including the provinces of Oshima, Shiribeshi, Iburi, Ishikari, Teshio, Kitami, Hidaka, Tokachi, Kushiro, Nemuro and Chishima.
Iburi Province, also called Ifuri, was a short-lived province located in Hokkaidō.

Ishikari Province

IshikariIshikari no kuni
After 1869, the northern Japanese island was known as Hokkaido; and regional subdivisions were established, including the provinces of Oshima, Shiribeshi, Iburi, Ishikari, Teshio, Kitami, Hidaka, Tokachi, Kushiro, Nemuro and Chishima.
Ishikari Province was a short-lived province located in Hokkaidō.

Shakushain's revolt

ShakushainAinu rebellionled a revolt
The last large-scale resistance was Shakushain's Revolt in 1669–1672.
Shakushain's revolt was an Ainu rebellion against Japanese authority on Hokkaidō between 1669 and 1672.

Oshima Province

OshimaOshima no kuni
After 1869, the northern Japanese island was known as Hokkaido; and regional subdivisions were established, including the provinces of Oshima, Shiribeshi, Iburi, Ishikari, Teshio, Kitami, Hidaka, Tokachi, Kushiro, Nemuro and Chishima.
Oshima Province was a short-lived province located in Hokkaidō.

Kitami Province

KitamiKitami no kuni
After 1869, the northern Japanese island was known as Hokkaido; and regional subdivisions were established, including the provinces of Oshima, Shiribeshi, Iburi, Ishikari, Teshio, Kitami, Hidaka, Tokachi, Kushiro, Nemuro and Chishima.
Kitami Province was a short-lived province located in Hokkaidō.

Kushiro Province

KushiroKushiro no kuni
After 1869, the northern Japanese island was known as Hokkaido; and regional subdivisions were established, including the provinces of Oshima, Shiribeshi, Iburi, Ishikari, Teshio, Kitami, Hidaka, Tokachi, Kushiro, Nemuro and Chishima.
Kushiro Province was a short-lived province in Hokkaidō.

Teshio Province

TeshioTeshio no kuni
After 1869, the northern Japanese island was known as Hokkaido; and regional subdivisions were established, including the provinces of Oshima, Shiribeshi, Iburi, Ishikari, Teshio, Kitami, Hidaka, Tokachi, Kushiro, Nemuro and Chishima.
Teshio Province was a short-lived province located in Hokkaidō, corresponding to all of modern-day Rumoi Subprefecture and the northern half of Kamikawa Subprefecture.

Hidaka Province

HidakaHidaka no kuniprovince
After 1869, the northern Japanese island was known as Hokkaido; and regional subdivisions were established, including the provinces of Oshima, Shiribeshi, Iburi, Ishikari, Teshio, Kitami, Hidaka, Tokachi, Kushiro, Nemuro and Chishima.
Hidaka Province was a short-lived province located in Hokkaidō.

Jōmon period

JōmonJomonJōmon culture
Jomon culture and the associated hunter-gatherer lifestyle flourished in Hokkaido, beginning over 15,000 years ago.
In southwestern Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu, broadleaf evergreen trees dominated the forests, whereas broadleaf deciduous trees and conifers were common in northeastern Honshu and southern Hokkaido.

Horace Capron

Capron, Horace
His first step was to journey to the United States and recruit Horace Capron, President Grant's Commissioner of Agriculture.
Horace Capron (August 31, 1804 – February 22, 1885) was an American businessman and agriculturalist, a founder of Laurel, Maryland, a Union officer in the American Civil War, the United States Commissioner of Agriculture under U.S. Presidents Andrew Johnson and Ulysses S. Grant, and an advisor to Japan's Hokkaidō Development Commission.

Russia

Russian FederationRUSRussian
About 43 kilometres (26 mi) north of Hokkaido lies Sakhalin Island and to the east and northeast are the Kuril Islands, which are administered by Russia, although the four most southerly are claimed by Japan—see Kuril Islands dispute.
The Diomede Islands (one controlled by Russia, the other by the United States) are just 3 km apart, and Kunashir Island is about 20 km from Hokkaido, Japan.

Tokachi Province

TokachiTokachi no kuni
After 1869, the northern Japanese island was known as Hokkaido; and regional subdivisions were established, including the provinces of Oshima, Shiribeshi, Iburi, Ishikari, Teshio, Kitami, Hidaka, Tokachi, Kushiro, Nemuro and Chishima.
Tokachi Province was a short-lived province in Hokkaidō.