Hokkien

Hokkien ChineseHokkien languageHokkien dialectFujianeseChineseHokkien-TaiwaneseHokkieneseHokloHoklo languageQuanzhang
Hokkien (from ; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hok-kiàn-ōe, ) or Minnan language or Quanzhang in linguistics, is a Southern Min language originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China, and spoken widely there.wikipedia
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Penang Hokkien

HokkienPenangMalaysia
Hokkien historically served as the lingua franca amongst overseas Chinese communities of all dialects and subgroups in Southeast Asia, and remains today as the most spoken variety of Chinese in the region, including in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and some parts of Indochina (particularly Thailand, Laos and Cambodia).
Penang Hokkien (Tâi-lô: Pin-siânn Hok-kiàn-uā;, ) is a local variant of Hokkien spoken in Penang, Malaysia.

Medan Hokkien

Indonesia
Hokkien historically served as the lingua franca amongst overseas Chinese communities of all dialects and subgroups in Southeast Asia, and remains today as the most spoken variety of Chinese in the region, including in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and some parts of Indochina (particularly Thailand, Laos and Cambodia).
Medan Hokkien is a local variant of Hokkien spoken among the Chinese in Medan, Indonesia.

Fujian

Fujian ProvinceFukienHokkien
Hokkien (from ; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hok-kiàn-ōe, ) or Minnan language or Quanzhang in linguistics, is a Southern Min language originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China, and spoken widely there.
Historically the dialects of the language group Min Chinese were most commonly spoken within the province, including the Hokkien dialects of southeastern Fujian.

Singaporean Hokkien

HokkienSingaporefrom the Hokkien dialect
Hokkien historically served as the lingua franca amongst overseas Chinese communities of all dialects and subgroups in Southeast Asia, and remains today as the most spoken variety of Chinese in the region, including in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and some parts of Indochina (particularly Thailand, Laos and Cambodia).
Singaporean Hokkien (Tâi-lô: Sin-ka-pho Hok-kiàn-uē) is a local variant of the Hokkien language spoken in Singapore.

Fuzhou dialect

FuzhouneseFuzhouFoochow
In Southeast Asia and the English press, Hokkien is used in common parlance to refer to the Southern Min dialects of southern Fujian, and does not include reference to dialects of other Sinitic branches also present in Fujian such as the Fuzhou dialect (Eastern Min), Putian dialect, Northern Min, Gan Chinese or Hakka.
While the Eastern Min branch that it belongs to is relatively closer to Southern Min or Hokkien than to other Sinitic branches such as Mandarin, Wu Chinese or Hakka, they are still not mutually intelligible.

Quanzhou dialect

Quanzhoudialectlocal
The Taiwanese dialect mostly has origins with the Quanzhou and Zhangzhou variants, but since then, the Amoy dialect, also known as the Xiamen dialect, is becoming the modern prestige standard for the language in Mainland China.
The Quanzhou dialect, also known as the Chin-chew dialect, is a dialect of Hokkien that is spoken in southern Fujian (in southeast China), in the area centered on the city of Quanzhou.

Zhangzhou dialect

ZhangzhoulocalZhangzhou Hokkien
The Taiwanese dialect mostly has origins with the Quanzhou and Zhangzhou variants, but since then, the Amoy dialect, also known as the Xiamen dialect, is becoming the modern prestige standard for the language in Mainland China.
The Zhangzhou dialect, also known as Changchew dialect or Changchow dialect, is a dialect of Hokkien spoken in southern Fujian province (in southeast China), centered on the city of Zhangzhou.

Xiamen

AmoyXiamen, ChinaXiamen, Fujian
Both Amoy and Xiamen come from the Chinese name of the city ; the former is from Zhangzhou Hokkien, whereas the later comes from Mandarin.
Xiamen, alternately known as Amoy (, from Hokkien pronunciation ), is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, People's Republic of China, beside the Taiwan Strait.

Taiwanese Hokkien

TaiwaneseHokkienTaiwanese Minnan
The Taiwanese dialect mostly has origins with the Quanzhou and Zhangzhou variants, but since then, the Amoy dialect, also known as the Xiamen dialect, is becoming the modern prestige standard for the language in Mainland China.
Taiwanese Hokkien is a branched-off variety of Hokkien, a group of Southern Min dialects.

Southern Min

Min NanHokkienMinnan
Hokkien (from ; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hok-kiàn-ōe, ) or Minnan language or Quanzhang in linguistics, is a Southern Min language originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China, and spoken widely there. In Chinese linguistics, these dialects are known by their classification under the Quanzhang division of Min Nan, which comes from the first characters of the two main Hokkien urban centers of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou.
In common parlance and in the narrower sense, Southern Min refers to the Quanzhang or Hokkien-Taiwanese variety of Southern Min originating from Southern Fujian in Mainland China.

Amoy dialect

AmoyXiamenXiamen dialect
The Taiwanese dialect mostly has origins with the Quanzhou and Zhangzhou variants, but since then, the Amoy dialect, also known as the Xiamen dialect, is becoming the modern prestige standard for the language in Mainland China.
The Amoy dialect or Xiamen dialect, also known as Amoynese, Amoy Hokkien, Xiamenese or Xiamen Hokkien, is a dialect of Hokkien spoken in the city of Xiamen (historically known as "Amoy") and its surrounding metropolitan area, in the southern part of Fujian province.

Riau

Riau ProvinceEmblem of RiauRiau Indonesian
The Singaporeans, Southern Malaysians and people in Indonesia's Riau and surrounding islands variant is from the Quanzhou area.
Riau (Jawi:, Chinese: 廖內; pinyin: liào nèi; Hokkien POJ: liāu-nāi, Dutch: Riouw), is a province of Indonesia.

Hokkien in the Philippines

Lan-nangPhilippine HokkienHokkien
Hokkien historically served as the lingua franca amongst overseas Chinese communities of all dialects and subgroups in Southeast Asia, and remains today as the most spoken variety of Chinese in the region, including in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and some parts of Indochina (particularly Thailand, Laos and Cambodia). Hokkien is reportedly the native language of up to 80% of the Chinese people in the Philippines, among which is known locally as Lan-nang or Lán-lâng-oē ("Our people’s language").
Hokkien is a Southern Min language spoken by part of the ethnic Chinese population of the Philippines.

Quanzhou

ZaitunQuanzhou, ChinaZaiton
In Chinese linguistics, these dialects are known by their classification under the Quanzhang division of Min Nan, which comes from the first characters of the two main Hokkien urban centers of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou.
The romanizations Chuan-chiu, Choan-Chiu, and Shanju reflect the local Hokkien pronunciation.

Betawi language

BetawiBetawi MalayBetawi dialect
The Betawi Malay language, spoken by some five million people in and around the Indonesian capital Jakarta, includes numerous Hokkien loanwords due to the significant influence of the Chinese Indonesian diaspora, most of whom are of Hokkien ancestry and origin.
The Betawi language has large amounts of Hokkien Chinese, Arabic, Portuguese, and Dutch loanwords.

Jakarta

Jakarta, IndonesiaBataviaDKI Jakarta
The Betawi Malay language, spoken by some five million people in and around the Indonesian capital Jakarta, includes numerous Hokkien loanwords due to the significant influence of the Chinese Indonesian diaspora, most of whom are of Hokkien ancestry and origin.
It is mostly based on the East Malay dialect and enriched by loan words from Dutch, Portuguese, Sundanese, Javanese, Minangkabau, Chinese, and Arabic.

Zhangzhou

Zhangzhou CityChang-chowZhang Zhou
In Chinese linguistics, these dialects are known by their classification under the Quanzhang division of Min Nan, which comes from the first characters of the two main Hokkien urban centers of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou.
It also appears as Chang-chu, Chiang-chiu, Chiang-chew, or Chiang Chew from the city's local Hokkien name Chiang-chiu.

Minnan region

Southern FujianMin-nanMinnan
Hokkien (from ; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hok-kiàn-ōe, ) or Minnan language or Quanzhang in linguistics, is a Southern Min language originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China, and spoken widely there.
It is the native homeland of the Hokkien people who speak the Hokkien language or Minnan language, a variety of Southern Min.

Walter Henry Medhurst

Walter Medhurst
The word Hokkien first originated from Walter Henry Medhurst when he published the Dictionary of the Hok-këèn Dialect of the Chinese Language, According to the Reading and Colloquial Idioms in 1832.
Having arrived in Malacca, Medhurst learned Malay, and studied Chinese, Chinese characters, and the Hokkien group of Min Nan Chinese varieties, which is widely spoken in Southeast Asia.

Chinese Filipino

ChineseChinese-FilipinoFilipino-Chinese
Hokkien is reportedly the native language of up to 80% of the Chinese people in the Philippines, among which is known locally as Lan-nang or Lán-lâng-oē ("Our people’s language").
Many of them are also Hokkien speakers, with a sizeable number of Cantonese and Teochew speakers.

Han Chinese subgroups

subgroupHan Chinese groupsethnic subgroup
Hokkien historically served as the lingua franca amongst overseas Chinese communities of all dialects and subgroups in Southeast Asia, and remains today as the most spoken variety of Chinese in the region, including in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and some parts of Indochina (particularly Thailand, Laos and Cambodia).
The Hokkien dialects of Min Nan spoken in Southern Fujian and Taiwan is the largest Min division and spoken by larger Hoklo population compared to other Min dialects.

Cantonese

Cantonese languageCantonese ChineseStandard Cantonese
Hokkien has one of the most diverse phoneme inventories among Chinese varieties, with more consonants than Standard Mandarin, Cantonese and Shanghainese.
Cantonese has historically served as a lingua franca among overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia, who speak a variety of other forms of Chinese including Hokkien, Teochew, and Hakka.

Penang

Pulau PinangPenang, MalaysiaState of Penang
Among ethnic Chinese inhabitants of Penang, and other states in Northern Malaysia and Medan, with other areas in North Sumatra, Indonesia, a distinct form of Zhangzhou Hokkien has developed.
Major languages spoken in Penang are Malay, English, Hokkien, Teochew, Cantonese, Hakka, Mandarin, and Tamil.

Southeast Asia

South East AsiaSouth-East AsiaSoutheast Asian
It is also spoken widely in Taiwan and by the Chinese diaspora in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese all over the world.

Chinese Indonesians

Chinese IndonesianChineseChinese-Indonesian
The Betawi Malay language, spoken by some five million people in and around the Indonesian capital Jakarta, includes numerous Hokkien loanwords due to the significant influence of the Chinese Indonesian diaspora, most of whom are of Hokkien ancestry and origin.
Four major Chinese-speech groups are represented in Indonesia: Hokkien (Southern Min; Min Nan), Mandarin, Hakka and Cantonese.