Holocene

PresentRecentHolocene epochpostglacialEarly HoloceneLate Quaternarypost-glacialpost-glacial periodHolocene periodMiddle Holocene
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.wikipedia
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Holocene glacial retreat

glacial retreatbegin to disappearEarly Holocene
It began approximately 11,650 cal years before present, after the last glacial period, which concluded with the Holocene glacial retreat.
The Holocene glacial retreat is a geographical phenomenon that involved the global deglaciation of glaciers that previously had advanced during the Last Glacial Maximum.

Epoch (geology)

epochepochsgeological epoch
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
The current epoch is the Holocene Epoch of the Quaternary Period.

Last Glacial Period

last ice ageDevensianIce Age
It began approximately 11,650 cal years before present, after the last glacial period, which concluded with the Holocene glacial retreat. Ice core records show that before the Holocene there was global warming after the end of the last ice age and cooling periods, but climate changes became more regional at the start of the Younger Dryas.
The end of the Younger Dryas about 11,700 years ago marked the beginning of the Holocene geological epoch, which includes the Holocene glacial retreat.

Interglacial

interglacial periodwarm periodinterglacial periods
It is considered by some to be an interglacial period within the Pleistocene Epoch.
The current Holocene interglacial began at the end of the Pleistocene, about 11,700 years ago.

Geologic time scale

geologic timescalegeologic timeperiod
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.

Pleistocene

Pleistocene epochLate PleistocenePleistocene era
The Holocene and the preceding Pleistocene together form the Quaternary period.
He constructed the name "Pleistocene" ("Most New" or "Newest") from the Greek πλεῖστος (pleīstos, "most") and καινός (kainós (latinized as cænus), "new"); this contrasts with the immediately preceding Pliocene ("newer", from πλείων (pleíōn, "more") and kainós) and the immediately subsequent Holocene ("wholly new" or "entirely new", from ὅλος (hólos, "whole") and kainós) epoch, which extends to the present time.

Quaternary

Quaternary PeriodQuaternary agelast 2.5 million years
The Holocene and the preceding Pleistocene together form the Quaternary period.
The Quaternary Period is divided into two epochs: the Pleistocene (2.588 million years ago to 11.7 thousand years ago) and the Holocene (11.7 thousand years ago to today).

Human

humanshuman beinghuman beings
The Holocene corresponds with rapid proliferation, growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all of its written history, technological revolutions, development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition towards urban living in the present.
Until about 12,000 years ago (the beginning of the Holocene), all humans lived as hunter-gatherers, generally in small nomadic groups known as band societies, often in caves.

Meghalayan

Meghalayan AgeMeghalayan Stage
In July 2018, the International Union of Geological Sciences split the Holocene epoch into three distinct subsections, Greenlandian (11,700 years ago to 8,326 years ago), Northgrippian (8,326 years ago to 4,200 years ago) and Meghalayan (4,200 years ago to the present), as proposed by International Commission on Stratigraphy. The boundary stratotype of Meghalayan is a speleothem in Mawmluh cave in India, and the global auxiliary stratotype is an ice core from Mount Logan in Canada.
It is also the upper, or latest, of three subdivisions of the Holocene epoch or series.

Northgrippian

In July 2018, the International Union of Geological Sciences split the Holocene epoch into three distinct subsections, Greenlandian (11,700 years ago to 8,326 years ago), Northgrippian (8,326 years ago to 4,200 years ago) and Meghalayan (4,200 years ago to the present), as proposed by International Commission on Stratigraphy.
In the geologic time scale, the Northgrippian is the middle of the three ages of the Holocene epoch which lies in the Quaternary period.

Greenlandian

Early Holocene
In July 2018, the International Union of Geological Sciences split the Holocene epoch into three distinct subsections, Greenlandian (11,700 years ago to 8,326 years ago), Northgrippian (8,326 years ago to 4,200 years ago) and Meghalayan (4,200 years ago to the present), as proposed by International Commission on Stratigraphy.
In the geologic time scale, the Greenlandian is the earliest age or lowest stage of the Holocene epoch or series, part of the Quaternary.

Paleontology

paleontologistpalaeontologistpalaeontology
Paleontologists have not defined any faunal stages for the Holocene.
Paleontology, sometimes spelled palaeontology, is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).

Wisconsin glaciation

Wisconsin GlacierWisconsinan glaciationice age
Local names for the last glacial period include the Wisconsinan in North America, the Weichselian in Europe, the Devensian in Britain, the Llanquihue in Chile and the Otiran in New Zealand.
The Wisconsin glaciation extended from approximately 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, between the Sangamonian Stage (known globally as the Eemian stage) and the current interglacial, the Holocene.

Cenozoic

Cenozoic EraCainozoicAge of Mammals
The suffix '-cene' is used for all the seven epochs of the Cenozoic Era.
The Cenozoic is divided into three periods: the Paleogene, Neogene, and Quaternary; and seven epochs: the Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene.

Weichselian glaciation

Weichselianlast ice ageice age
Local names for the last glacial period include the Wisconsinan in North America, the Weichselian in Europe, the Devensian in Britain, the Llanquihue in Chile and the Otiran in New Zealand.
Its end corresponds with the end of the Pleistocene epoch and the start of the Holocene.

Boreal (age)

BorealPre-BorealBoreal period
In paleoclimatology of the Holocene, the Boreal was the first of the Blytt-Sernander sequence of north European climatic phases that were originally based on the study of Danish peat bogs, named for Axel Blytt and Rutger Sernander, who first established the sequence.

Atlantic (period)

Atlantic periodAtlanticAtlantic warm period
The Atlantic in palaeoclimatology was the warmest and moistest Blytt-Sernander period, pollen zone and chronozone of Holocene northern Europe.

Subatlantic

Sub Atlantic
The Subatlantic is the current climatic age of the Holocene epoch.

Subboreal

The Subboreal is a climatic period, immediately before the present one, of the Holocene.

Marine isotope stage

MISoxygen isotope stagemarine isotopic stage
The Holocene has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1.

Mesolithic

Mesolithic periodMesolithic EuropeMesolithic Age
If subdivision is necessary, periods of human technological development, such as the Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Bronze Age, are usually used.
In other parts of Europe, the Mesolithic begins by 11,500 years ago (the beginning Holocene), and it ends with the introduction of farming, depending on the region between c. 8,500 and 5,500 years ago.

Anthropocene

anthropogenicThe AnthropoceneAnthropocene Extinction
According to some scholars, a third division, the Anthropocene, has now begun.
Those arguing for earlier dates posit that the proposed Anthropocene may have begun as early as 14,000–15,000 years before present, based on geologic evidence; this has led other scientists to suggest that "the onset of the Anthropocene should be extended back many thousand years"; this would be essentially synonymous with the current term, Holocene.

Ice core

ice coresice coringice-core
The boundary stratotype of Meghalayan is a speleothem in Mawmluh cave in India, and the global auxiliary stratotype is an ice core from Mount Logan in Canada. Ice core records show that before the Holocene there was global warming after the end of the last ice age and cooling periods, but climate changes became more regional at the start of the Younger Dryas.
The boundary between the Pleistocene and the Holocene, about 11,700 years ago, is now formally defined with reference to data on Greenland ice cores.

Younger Dryas

Late Glacial Maximumlast ice ageLoch Lomond Readvance
Ice core records show that before the Holocene there was global warming after the end of the last ice age and cooling periods, but climate changes became more regional at the start of the Younger Dryas.
This temperature change occurred at the end of what the earth sciences refer to as the Pleistocene epoch and immediately before the current, warmer Holocene epoch.

Neopluvial

This period of warmth ended about 5,500 years ago with the descent into the Neoglacial and concomitant Neopluvial.
Neopluvial is a term referring to a phase of wetter and colder climate in the western United States in the late Holocene, causing the levels of lakes in the Great Basin to increase and previously dry lakes and springs to refill.