Holy Roman Emperor

EmperorHoly Roman EmperorsImperialEmperor of the Romansemperorscomplete listGerman emperorRoman Emperorimperial crownHoly Roman Empress
The Holy Roman Emperor, officially the Emperor of the Romans (Imperator Romanorum), and also the German-Roman Emperor (Römisch-deutscher Kaiser), was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (considered by itself and by the Roman Catholic Church to be the successor of the Roman Empire) during the Middle Ages and the early modern period.wikipedia
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Holy Roman Empire

ImperialHoly Roman EmperorGermany
The Holy Roman Emperor, officially the Emperor of the Romans (Imperator Romanorum), and also the German-Roman Emperor (Römisch-deutscher Kaiser), was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (considered by itself and by the Roman Catholic Church to be the successor of the Roman Empire) during the Middle Ages and the early modern period.
The office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although frequently controlled by dynasties.

Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor

Francis IIFrancis IFrancis I of Austria
The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by Francis II, after a devastating defeat to Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz.
Francis II (Franz II.; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire after the decisive defeat at the hands of the First French Empire led by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz.

Elective monarchy

electiveelectedelected king
From an autocracy in Carolingian times (AD 800–924) the title by the 13th century evolved into an elective monarchy, with the emperor chosen by the prince-electors.
However, from 1440 to 1740, a Habsburg was always elected emperor, the throne becoming unofficially hereditary.

Salian dynasty

SalianSaliansSalian Emperors
Various royal houses of Europe, at different times, became de facto hereditary holders of the title, notably the Ottonians (962–1024) and the Salians (1027–1125).
The dynasty provided four German Kings (1024–1125), all of whom went on to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor (1027–1125); as such, the term Salic dynasty is also used to refer to the Holy Roman Empire of the time as a separate term.

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor

Maximilian IEmperor Maximilian IEmperor Maximilian
Until Maximilian I in 1508, the emperor-elect (imperator electus) was required to be crowned by the pope before assuming the imperial title.
Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death.

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles VEmperor Charles VCharles I of Spain
Charles V was the last to be crowned by the pope in 1530. Charles V was the last emperor to be crowned by the pope, and his successor, Ferdinand I, merely adopted the title of "Emperor elect" in 1558.
Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria from 1519, King of Spain (Castile and Aragon, as Charles I) from 1516, and Lord of the Netherlands as titular Duke of Burgundy from 1506.

Reformation

Protestant Reformationthe ReformationProtestant
Even after the Reformation, the elected emperor always was a Roman Catholic.
Due to the reform efforts of Hus and others in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Utraquist Hussitism was officially acknowledged by both the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, although other movements were still subject to persecution, including the Lollards in England and the Waldensians in France and Italian regions.

Protestantism

ProtestantProtestantsProtestant church
There were short periods in history when the electoral college was dominated by Protestants, and the electors usually voted in their own political interest.
The edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier.

Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor

Henry IVEmperor Henry IVHenry IV of Germany
The best-known and most bitter conflict was that known as the investiture controversy, fought during the 11th century between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII.
Henry IV (Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1084 to 1105, king of Germany from 1054 to 1105, king of Italy and Burgundy from 1056 to 1105, and duke of Bavaria from 1052 to 1054.

List of Byzantine emperors

Byzantine EmperorEmperorByzantine emperors
The ecumenical councils of the 5th to 8th centuries were convoked by the Eastern Roman Emperors. In Western Europe, the title of Emperor became defunct after the death of Julius Nepos in 480, although the rulers of the barbarian kingdoms continued to recognize the authority of the Eastern Emperor at least nominally well into the 6th century.
The use of the title "Roman Emperor" by those ruling from Constantinople was not contested until after the Papal coronation of the Frankish Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor (25 December 800 AD), done partly in response to the Byzantine coronation of Empress Irene, whose claim, as a woman, was not recognized by Pope Leo III.

Berengar I of Italy

Berengar IBerengar of FriuliBerengar
After the coronation of Charlemagne, his successors maintained the title until the death of Berengar I of Italy in 924.
He was Holy Roman Emperor between 915 and his death in 924.

Western Roman Empire

Western EmpireWesternWest
In Western Europe, the title of Emperor became defunct after the death of Julius Nepos in 480, although the rulers of the barbarian kingdoms continued to recognize the authority of the Eastern Emperor at least nominally well into the 6th century.
The papal coronation of the Frankish King Charlemagne as Roman Emperor in 800 marked a new imperial line that would evolve into the Holy Roman Empire, which presented a revival of the Imperial title in Western Europe but was in no meaningful sense an extension of Roman traditions or institutions.

Pope

PapacypapalBishop of Rome
The emperor was widely perceived to rule by divine right, though he often contradicted or rivaled the pope, most notably during the Investiture controversy.
When Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne (800) as Roman Emperor, he established the precedent that, in Western Europe, no man would be emperor without being crowned by a Pope.

Ottonian dynasty

OttonianOttoniansLiudolfing
Various royal houses of Europe, at different times, became de facto hereditary holders of the title, notably the Ottonians (962–1024) and the Salians (1027–1125).
The Ottonian dynasty (Ottonen) was a Saxon dynasty of German monarchs (919–1024), named after three of its kings and Holy Roman Emperors named Otto, especially its first Emperor Otto I.

Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor

Ferdinand IFerdinandEmperor Ferdinand I
Charles V was the last emperor to be crowned by the pope, and his successor, Ferdinand I, merely adopted the title of "Emperor elect" in 1558.
Ferdinand I (Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1556, king of Bohemia and Royal Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death in 1564.

Princes of the Holy Roman Empire

Prince of the Holy Roman EmpireImperial Princeprinces
Since 911, the various German princes had elected the King of the Germans from among their peers.
Fürst) was a title attributed to a hereditary ruler, nobleman or prelate recognised as such by the Holy Roman Emperor.

Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick BarbarossaFrederick I BarbarossaFrederick I
The term sacrum (i.e., "holy") in connection with the German Roman Empire was first used in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa.
Frederick Barbarossa (Friedrich I., Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick I, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death.

Early modern period

early moderncolonial eraearly modern era
The Holy Roman Emperor, officially the Emperor of the Romans (Imperator Romanorum), and also the German-Roman Emperor (Römisch-deutscher Kaiser), was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (considered by itself and by the Roman Catholic Church to be the successor of the Roman Empire) during the Middle Ages and the early modern period.
In the early modern period, the Holy Roman Empire was a union of territories in Central Europe under a Holy Roman Emperor the first of which was Otto I.

Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval Europe
The Holy Roman Emperor, officially the Emperor of the Romans (Imperator Romanorum), and also the German-Roman Emperor (Römisch-deutscher Kaiser), was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (considered by itself and by the Roman Catholic Church to be the successor of the Roman Empire) during the Middle Ages and the early modern period.
936–973) as Holy Roman Emperor.

Pope Leo III

Leo IIIIIILeo III, Pope of Rome
For this reason, Charlemagne, the King of the Franks and King of Italy, was crowned Emperor of the Romans (Imperator Romanorum) by Pope Leo III, as the successor of Constantine VI as Roman Emperor under the concept of translatio imperii.
Protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome, he subsequently strengthened Charlemagne's position by crowning him Holy Roman Emperor and "Augustus of the Romans".

German Emperor

EmperorKaiserGerman Emperors
In German-language historiography, the term Römisch-deutscher Kaiser ("Roman-German emperor") is used to distinguish the title from that of Roman Emperor on one hand, and that of German Emperor (Deutscher Kaiser) on the other.
The Holy Roman Emperor is sometimes also called "German Emperor" when the historical context is clear, as derived from the Holy Roman Empire's official name of "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" from 1512.

State church of the Roman Empire

state religion of the Roman Empirestate religionChristianity
306–337), the Roman emperors had, with very few exceptions, taken on a role as promoters and defenders of Christianity.
With the crowning of Charlemagne by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800 as Imperator Romanorum, the political split between east and west became irrevocable.

Investiture Controversy

lay investitureInvestiture ConflictInvestiture Crisis
The best-known and most bitter conflict was that known as the investiture controversy, fought during the 11th century between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII. The emperor was widely perceived to rule by divine right, though he often contradicted or rivaled the pope, most notably during the Investiture controversy.
The crisis began when supporters of the Gregorian Reform decided to rebel against simony by forcefully taking the power of investiture from the ruling secular power, the Holy Roman Emperor, and placing that power wholly within control of the church.

Prince-elector

ElectorElectorsprince elector
From an autocracy in Carolingian times (AD 800–924) the title by the 13th century evolved into an elective monarchy, with the emperor chosen by the prince-electors.
The Prince-electors (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten,, Princeps Elector) of the Holy Roman Empire, or Electors for short, were the members of the electoral college that elected the Holy Roman Emperor.

Electoral capitulation

WahlkapitulationcapitulationElectoral Capitulations
The process of an election meant that the prime candidate had to make concessions, by which the voters were kept on the side, which was known as Wahlkapitulationen (electoral capitulation).
The most famous electoral capitulation was that of the Holy Roman Emperors, known in Latin as the capitulatio caesarea and in German as the Wahlkapitulation.