Holy Roman Emperor

First to reign
Charlemagne
25 December AD 800 – 28 January AD 814
Coats of arms of prince electors surround the imperial coat of arms; from a 1545 armorial. Electors voted in an Imperial Diet for a new Holy Roman Emperor.
Depiction of Charlemagne in a 12th-century stained glass window, Strasbourg Cathedral, now at Musée de l'Œuvre Notre-Dame.
Illustration of the election of Henry VII (27 November 1308) showing (left to right) the Archbishop of Cologne, Archbishop of Mainz, Archbishop of Trier, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Saxony, Margrave of Brandenburg and King of Bohemia (Codex Balduini Trevirorum, c. 1340).

The ruler and head of state of the Holy Roman Empire.

- Holy Roman Emperor
First to reign
Charlemagne
25 December AD 800 – 28 January AD 814

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Salian dynasty

Dynasty in the High Middle Ages.

Dynasty in the High Middle Ages.

Family tree of the imperial dynasties of the Holy Roman Empire: Carolingians, Ottonians, Salians and Hohenstaufen.
Map of the Holy Roman Empire in the 10th and 11th centuries: Germany (blue), Italy (grey), Burgundy (orange to the West), Bohemia (orange to the East), Papal States (purple).
Pope Gregory V anoints Emperor Otto III (a miniature by an unidentified author, c. undefined 1450).
Speyer Cathedral, burial place of all Salian Emperors

The dynasty provided four kings of Germany (1024–1125), all of whom went on to be crowned Holy Roman emperors (1027–1125).

Portrait by Joseph Kreutzinger c. 1815

Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor

Portrait by Joseph Kreutzinger c. 1815
1770 painting by Anton Raphael Mengs depicting Archduke Francis at the age of 2.
Painting of Francis II at the age of 25, wearing the Order of the Golden Fleece, with the Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire and Hungary's Crown of Saint Stephen in the background (1792)
Francis I as Austrian Emperor wearing the Order of the Golden Fleece, undated
Medallion of Francis I, designed by Philipp Jakob Treu in Basel, Switzerland on 13 January 1814. This was the date in the War of the Sixth Coalition when the allied monarchs of Austria, Prussia, and Russia crossed the Rhine at Basel into France.
1 Thaler silver coin with portrait of Emperor Franz I, 1820
Sarcophagus of Francis I in the Imperial Crypt
Monument in the inner courtyard of the Hofburg in Vienna

Francis II (Franz II.; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor (from 1792 to 1806) and, as Francis I, the first Emperor of Austria, from 1804 to 1835.

A map showing Charlemagne's additions (in light green) to the Frankish Kingdom

Carolingian dynasty

Frankish noble family named after Charlemagne, grandson of mayor Charles Martel and descendant of the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.

Frankish noble family named after Charlemagne, grandson of mayor Charles Martel and descendant of the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.

A map showing Charlemagne's additions (in light green) to the Frankish Kingdom
Carolingian denier of Lothair I, struck in Dorestad (Middle Francia) after 850
Carolingian family tree, from the Chronicon Universale of Ekkehard of Aura, 12th century

The Carolingian dynasty reached its peak in 800 with the crowning of Charlemagne as the first Emperor of the Romans in the West in over three centuries.

Portrait by Titian, probably with Lambert Sustris, 1548

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Portrait by Titian, probably with Lambert Sustris, 1548
The entrance gate to the Prinsenhof (Dutch; literally "Princes' court") in Ghent, where Charles was born.
A painting by Bernhard Strigel representing the extended Habsburg family, with a young Charles in the middle.
A portrait by Bernard van Orley, 1519. The insignia of the Order of the Golden Fleece are prominently displayed.
A Portrait of Charles V with a Dog by Jakob Seisenegger, 1532
The Dominions of the Habsburgs at the time of the abdication of Charles V in 1556
The Palace of Coudenberg in Brussels from a 17th-century painting, before it burnt down in 1731. Brussels served as the main seat of the Imperial court of Charles V in the Low Countries.
The city of Toledo served as the main seat of the Imperial court of Charles V in Castile.
The exterior of the Palace of Charles V in Granada was built upon his wedding to Isabel of Portugal in 1526.
Pope Clement VII and Emperor Charles V on horseback under a canopy, by Jacopo Ligozzi, c. undefined 1580. It depicts the entry of the Pope and the Emperor into Bologna in 1530, when Charles was crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by Clement VII.
A panorama of Augsburg, the main German seat of the Imperial court and the location of many of the Imperial Diets presided over by Charles V. A hand-coloured woodcut from the Nuremberg Chronicle.
Francis I and Charles V made peace at the Truce of Nice in 1538. Francis actually refused to meet Charles in person, and the treaty was signed in separate rooms.
Charles V in the 1550s, after Titian
Summons for Martin Luther to appear at the Diet of Worms, signed by Charles V. The text on the left was on the reverse side.
16th-century perception of German soldiers during Charles's reign (1525) portrayed in the manuscript "Théâtre de tous les peuples et nations de la terre avec leurs habits et ornemens divers, tant anciens que modernes, diligemment depeints au naturel". Painted by Lucas d'Heere in the second half of the 16th century. Preserved in the Ghent University Library.
Isabella of Portugal, Charles's wife. Portrait by Titian, 1548
Emperor Charles V and Empress Isabella. Peter Paul Rubens after Titian, 17th century
The bronze effigies of Charles and Isabella at the Basilica in El Escorial.
Titian's La Gloria, one of the several paintings commissioned by Charles V in memory of his wife Isabella
The children of Phillip and Joanna
In Allegory on the abdication of Emperor Charles V in Brussels, Frans Francken the Younger depicts Charles V in the allegorical act of dividing the entire world between Philip II of Spain and Emperor Ferdinand I.
Habsburg dominions in the centuries following their partition by Charles V.
Deathbed of the emperor at the Monastery of Yuste, Cáceres
A miniature representing Charles V enthroned over his enemies (from left): Suleiman, Pope Clement VII, Francis I, the Duke of Cleves, the Duke of Saxony and the Landgrave of Hesse. In reality, Charles was never able to completely defeat them.
Equestrian armour of Emperor Charles V. Piece drawn from the collection of the Royal Armoury of Madrid
Statue of Charles V in Granada, Spain
Escutcheon of Charles V, watercolour, John Singer Sargent, 1912. Metropolitan Museum of Art
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Coat of arms of King Charles I of Spain before becoming emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain, Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor.
Arms of Charles, Infante of Spain, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, KG at the time of his installation as a knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter.
Variant of the Royal Bend of Castile used by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.

Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria from 1519 to 1556, King of Spain (Castile and Aragon) from 1516 to 1556, and Lord of the Netherlands as titular Duke of Burgundy from 1506 to 1555.

Portrait by Bernhard Strigel, c. undefined 1500

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor

Portrait by Bernhard Strigel, c. undefined 1500
Frederick III and Eleanor of Portugal.
Eleanor and Maximilian, from Empress Eleanor's Book of Hours. The mother fed him knights' tales, encouraged him to fence, dance and hunt, while the father wanted Maximilian to be good at Latin.
Weisskunig, garden scene with Maximilian and Mary in Hortus conclusius. Maximilian wrote, "Had we but peace, we would sit here as in a rose garden."
Maximilian offers Mary of Burgundy an engagement ring. Miniature in a medieval manuscript copy of the Excellent Chronicle of Flanders by Anthonis de Roovere. Ca. 1485-1515. (Bruges Public Library Ms. 437)
The Cranenburg House in Bruges, a favorite residence of Mary and Maximilian, near which he usually organized jousting tournaments, and also the place in which he was imprisoned for four weeks in 1488. Ca. 1905.
The Judgment of Cambyses, Bruges's symbolic apology to Maximilian. In a twist, the corrupted judge had the likeness of Maximilian's hated official Peter Lanchals, who was executed by Bruges. Painted by Gerard David. Previously, when Maximilian was moved to Jean Gros's mansion, his second prison, Bruges hired David to paint the strong iron gratings, added to the windows to prevent escape, in order to amuse the prisoner, whom they tried to cheer up in various ways.
Philip I of Castile and Margaret of Austria, usually attributed to Pieter van Coninxloo (1460–1513), circa 1494
Succession wars in Hungary after the death of Matthias Corvinus (Vladislas marked dark red)
Siege of Kufstein, 1504
Maximilian I, after 1504, by unknown artist in Albrecht Dürer's circle. The painting bears similarity to Giovanni Ambrogio de Predis's style.
Sallet of Maximilian I, c. 1490–95, by Lorenz Helmschmid, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Joos van Cleve - Portrait of Emperor Maximilian I, from Statutes of the Order of the Golden Fleece, as Sovereign of the Order, after 1508
Innsbruck, imperial capital under Maximilian, seat of the Hofkammer (Court Treasury) and the Court Chancery, which functioned as "the most influential body in Maximilian's government". Painting of Albrecht Dürer (1496)
Maximilian talking to German knights (depiction from the contemporary Weisskunig)
Maximilian with a map of the ten Imperial Circles. Illustration from Johann Samuel's Tromsdorff: Accurate neue und alte Geographie von ganz Teutschland, 1711.
Execution of the garrison troops after the Siege of Kufstein (1504). The garrison and its commander Hans von Pienzenau had angered Maximilian during the siege by refusing his offer of surrender and using brooms to sweep up damage caused by his cannons. Eighteen including Pienzenau were beheaded before Erich von Braunschweig, a favoured commander, pleaded for the lives of the rest. (Engraving from 1703.)
Maximilian I paying attention to an execution instead of watching Philip the Handsome and Joanna of Castile's betrothal, much to his son's dismay. The top right corner shows Cain and Abel. Satire against Maximilian's legal reform. Created on behalf of the councilors of Augsburg. Plate 89 of Von der Arztney bayder Glück by the Petrarcameister.
Fresco at the Fuggerhäuser on the Maximilianstraße (named after the emperor since 1957, originally named after Maximilian I of Bavaria). Description: "The council of the free imperial city paying homage to Emperor Maximilian I". RP-F-F00997-CD.
19th century reproduction (by Julien Bernard Van der Plaetsen) of a 1507 fresco depicting Mary of Burgundy and Maximilian holding the coat of arms of Burgundy. The couple stood as a pair of equals, similar to other portrayals, despite Maximilian's status as Emperor. The original work was created to celebrate Charles's status as the new Duke of Burgundy.
Illustration from Die fürstliche Chronik, or Kaiser Maximilians Geburtsspiegel by Jakob Mennel (1518). Under the outspread wings of the triple-crowned peacock was the coats of arms of 14 European kingdoms connected to the Habsburg dynasty through marriages
Emperor Maximilian I and his family; with his son Philip the Fair, his wife Mary of Burgundy, his grandsons Ferdinand I and Charles V, and Louis II of Hungary (husband of his granddaughter Mary of Austria).
Maximilian's cenotaph, Hofkirche, Innsbruck
Maximilian's death mask
The Triumphal Chariot of Maximilian I, by Albrecht Dürer. The canopy is adorned with the solar symbol and the imperial coat-of-arms. The inscription states: "That which the sun is in the heavens, the Emperor is on earth."
Albrecht Altdorfer's Der große Venezianische Krieg, which depicts the Landsknechte in Maximilian's triumphal procession — c. 1512-1515
The arsenal in Lindau. The construction started in 1507 but only finished in 1526, after Maximilian's death.
Behamisch facht (Bohemian battle) from the Weißkunig, Woodcut 175, depicting the Battle of Wenzenbach, one of the last knights' battles (1504), which was won by Maximilian and his ally Albert the Wise. In this battle, Maximilian was dragged from his horse by halberds, but rescued from being butchered by Erich von Braunschweig.
HJRK B 21 - Mechanical breastpiece used for Bundrennen, a tournament type which was probably only organized in the Imperial Court, c. 1490. Only three mechanical breastplates remain (one in Paris, two in Vienna). The breastplate was designed to carry a shield that, when hit properly, will be ejected over the jouster's head and burst apart, releasing triangle tin segments.
Maximilian armour, Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and Military History, Belgium
Hunt of Maximilian, December, from the famous series of tapestries named Hunts of Maximilian completed in the 1530s. The boar sword (a specialized sword made for boar hunting) that Maximilian was holding was invented by him.
Maximilian's Fishing Code for Upper and Lower Austria, 1506. The species illustrated here (from left) are zingel, pike, carp, barbel, huchen, burbot, catfish and trout. Despite its disguise as a mandate (that has never been disseminated or put into practice; the content is also not consistent), this is apparently a work of art that is influenced by or tries to compete with Albrecht Dürer's naturalist drawings. The Chancellery notation suggests the emperor's personal involvement in developing the document.
Freydal, fol.164. A post-tournament festivity: Grotesque dancers performed a moresca while Freydal, in a mask and holding torches, observed them.
Page from Theuerdank, Second Edition. 1519: Coloured by Leonard Beck. Chapter 80: Maximilian's horse is hit by a cannonball and falls.
Ambraserheldenbuch. Fol. 149r. The large initial marks the start of the 10th "Aventiure" of Kudrun.
Hans Burgkmair, The Imperial Eagle, 1507, NGA 39804. The Imperial Eagle is sheltering Maximilian, presented here as a seated Apollo, the Muses and other figures. This is considered an allegory, suggested by Konrad Celtis (bottom figure), of the emperor, the University of Vienna and the Empire. Apollo was the god often associated with the emperor by many artists and humanists, who designed a mission for him not only as the promoter of arts and sciences but also in the realm of politics. Under the wings is the scientific model of the University of Vienna, designed by Celtis.
Hans Burgkmair, ‘’Weisskunig’’, The young White King learns black magic.
Black Hours of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, M 1856, now in the Austrian National Library in Vienna (Codex Vindobon. 1856). The book was made for Maximilian's future father-in-law Charles the Bold in 1466 by Bruges, then given to Galeazzo Maria Sforza likely in 1475–76 during his and Charles's brief alliance, became Bianca Maria Sforza's property, and was finally brought to Maximilian's library after Bianca's and Maximilian's marriage in 1494.
Margarita philosophica by Gregor Reisch (1504)
Universalis Cosmographia, Waldseemüller's 1507 world map which was the first to show the Americas separate from Asia
Ensisheim meteorite, National Museum of Natural History, France
Paul Hofhaimer playing the Apfelregal, detail from Emperor Maximilian hearing Mass, by Hans Weiditz, 1518.
De recta Paschae celebratione by Paul of Middelburg, 1513.
Albrecht Dürer - Melencolia I, the "ripest and most mysterious fruit of the cosmological culture of the age of Maximilian I", according to Aby Warburg.
Part of the Tabula Peutingeriana, one of three Roman maps to have survived to this day, discovered (possibly stolen) by Conrad Celtis who bequeathed it to Konrad Peutinger, who then donated it to Maximilian.
Die Polygraphiae is the first printed work on the topic of cryptography, and also the first comprehensive work on the subject. Title page: Trithemius was presenting his work to Maximilian.
Illustration from Historia Friderici et Maximiliani, 1513–14. The 1462 siege of the Vienna citadel, in which the imperial family resided, by Albert VI, Frederick III's younger brother and Maximilian's uncle.
Assumption of the Virgin from the Berlin Book of hours of Mary of Burgundy and Maximilian, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett Handschrift 78 B 12 (Photo Credit: Bildarchive Preussischer Kulturbesitz/Art Resource, NY). "And a great sign appeared in heaven: A woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars."
The Triumphal Arch
Albrecht Dürer - Feast of the Rosary, 1506. Dürer started the work for the German-speaking community of Venice, who were united as a Fraternity of the Rosary. The figure of the Virgin alludes to Mary of Burgundy while the infant Jesus is associated with Philip the Fair. Here the Wise King, or White King, claimed his legitimacy directly from the omnipotent Queen of Heaven, rather than through the mediation of the Church and the Pope.
League of Cambrai (1508) as depicted on a bas-relief in the cenotaph
Innsbruck's Golden Roof
Courtyard of Innsbruck Castle, Albrecht Dürer
Franz von Taxis received the Postmaster order from Frederick III, Maximilian's father
Commemoration print of Maximilian, a flyer created by Hans Weiditz and issued in 1519 after Maximilian's death.
Maximilian and Mary's meeting in Ghent, 1477, monumental painting by Anton Petter and the showpiece of the 2022 Uitbundig Verleden exhibition at the Hof van Busleyden, that attracted top diplomats from Belgium, the Netherlands and Austria. Austrian Ambassador Elisabeth Kornfeind comments that the wedding was the moment "the ties between our countries were formed."
Young Maximilian, portrait at the Ancestral Hall (Ahnensaal), Hofburg.
Maximilian idealized as Saint George, by Lucas Cranach the Elder (c. 1472 – 16 October 1553). Ca. 1515.
16th century stained glass window in St George's Church (Georgskapelle): Philip the Handsome, Maximilian I, Bianca Maria Sforza, Mary of Burgundy with Archduchess Margaret (left to right)
Maximilian in the last year of his life, holding his personal emblem, a pomegranate. Portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1519.
Habsburg realms (green) under Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
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Wartime Triumphs
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Cart with Horn Musicians
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Hungarian combatants, escort of Emperor Maximilian I
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Coat of arms of Maximilian I of Habsburg as Holy Roman Emperor
Coat of arms of Maximilian I of Habsburg as King of the Romans.

Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death.

Investiture Controversy

Conflict between the church and the state in medieval Europe over the ability to choose and install bishops (investiture) and abbots of monasteries and the pope himself.

Conflict between the church and the state in medieval Europe over the ability to choose and install bishops (investiture) and abbots of monasteries and the pope himself.

Henry IV begging forgiveness of Pope Gregory VII at Canossa, the castle of the Countess Matilda, 1077
Contemporary illustration of Henry IV (left) and Anti-pope Clement III (centre)
Henry IV requests mediation from Matilda of Tuscany and abbot Hugh of Cluny.
The Cathedral of Worms was 10 years old when the Concordat was issued there in 1122.
The Avignon Papacy occurring several centuries after the Concordat, and indicated that there was continued interference in the papacy by kings.

A series of popes in the 11th and 12th centuries undercut the power of the Holy Roman Emperor and other European monarchies, and the controversy led to nearly 50 years of civil war in Germany.

A denarius of Charlemagne dated 812–814 with the inscription  (Karolus Imperator Augustus)

Charlemagne

A denarius of Charlemagne dated 812–814 with the inscription  (Karolus Imperator Augustus)
The Bust of Charlemagne, an idealised portrayal and reliquary said to contain Charlemagne's skull cap, is located at Aachen Cathedral Treasury, and can be regarded as the most famous depiction of the ruler.
Roman road connecting Tongeren to the Herstal region. Jupille and Herstal, near Liege, are located in the lower right corner
Moorish Hispania in 732
Charlemagne (left) and Pepin the Hunchback (10th-century copy of 9th-century original)
Charlemagne instructing his son Louis the Pious
The Frankish king Charlemagne was a devout Catholic and maintained a close relationship with the papacy throughout his life. In 772, when Pope Adrian I was threatened by invaders, the king rushed to Rome to provide assistance. Shown here, the pope asks Charlemagne for help at a meeting near Rome.
Harun al-Rashid receiving a delegation of Charlemagne in Baghdad, by Julius Köckert (1864)
Charlemagne's additions to the Frankish Kingdom
Charlemagne receiving the submission of Widukind at Paderborn in 785, painted c. 1840 by Ary Scheffer
Equestrian statue of Charlemagne by Agostino Cornacchini (1725), St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City.
Imperial Coronation of Charlemagne, by Friedrich Kaulbach, 1861
Pope Leo III, crowning Charlemagne from Chroniques de France ou de Saint Denis, vol. 1; France, second quarter of 14th century.
The Throne of Charlemagne and the subsequent German Kings in Aachen Cathedral, Germany
Coronation of Charlemagne, drawing by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld
Coronation of an idealised king, depicted in the Sacramentary of Charles the Bald (about 870)
The Coronation of Charlemagne, by assistants of Raphael, c. 1516–1517
Europe at the death of the Charlemagne 814.
Proserpina sarcophagus of Charlemagne in the Aachen Cathedral Treasury
A portion of the 814 death shroud of Charlemagne. It represents a quadriga and was manufactured in Constantinople. Musée de Cluny, Paris.
Frederick II's gold and silver casket for Charlemagne, the Karlsschrein
Monogram of Charlemagne, including signum manus, from the subscription of a royal diploma: Signum (monogr.: KAROLVS) Karoli gloriosissimi regis
Denier from the era of Charlemagne, Tours, 793–812
Charlemagne in a contemporary sketch
The privileges of Charlemagne at the Modena Cathedral (containing the monogram of Charlemagne), dated 782
Charlemagne's chapel at Aachen Cathedral
Page from the Lorsch Gospels of Charlemagne's reign
13th-century stained glass depiction of Charlemagne, Strasbourg Cathedral
The Carolingian-era equestrian statuette thought to represent Charlemagne (from Metz Cathedral, now in the Louvre)
Later depiction of Charlemagne in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France
One of a chain of Middle Welsh legends about Charlemagne: Ystorya de Carolo Magno from the Red Book of Hergest (Jesus College, Oxford, MS 111), 14th century
Emperor Charlemagne, by Albrecht Dürer, 1511–1513, Germanisches Nationalmuseum

Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Carolus Magnus; Karl der Große; 2 April 747 – 28 January 814), a member of the Carolingian dynasty, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and the first Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

Henry in full regalia (depicted in the 11th-century Evangelion of Saint Emmeram's Abbey)

Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor

Henry in full regalia (depicted in the 11th-century Evangelion of Saint Emmeram's Abbey)
Throne of Charlemagne in the Palatine Chapel in Aachen
Henry jumps from Archbishop Anno II of Cologne's ship into the Rhine at Kaiserswerth in 1062 (engraving by Bernhard Rode, 1781).
Map of the Holy Roman Empire in the 10th and 11th centuries: Germany (blue), Italy (grey), Burgundy (orange to the West), Bohemia (orange to the East), Papal States (purple). Sardinia's presentation as part of the Holy Roman Empire is debated.
Henry's brother-in-law, King Solomon of Hungary, appeals to Henry for help (miniature in the 14th-century Vienna Illuminated Chronicle).
Ruins of Homburg Castle. Henry's army inflicted a decisive defeat on the Saxons near the castle in 1074.
Henry begging Matilda of Tuscany and Hugh of Cluny in Canossa Castle (miniature in an illuminated manuscript kept in the Vatican Library, 1115)
Rudolf of Rheinfelden dying after losing his right hand in the Battle on the Elster in 1080 (engraving by Bernhard Rode, 1781)
Henry IV (left) and Antipope Clement III (middle-right) during Henry's imperial coronation (from Otto of Freising's Chronicle or History of the Two Cities, 1157)
Welf, Duke of Bavaria—a wealthy German aristocrat with flexible loyalties during Henry's conflicts with the Papacy (a late-15th-century painting)
Henry and his two sons, Henry and Conrad (upper line) (from the 11th-century Evangelion of Saint Emmeram's Abbey)
Mikveh (Jewish ritual bath) in Speyer. Henry summarised the local Jews' liberties in a diploma in 1090.
Henry IV abdicates in favour of Henry V (from the early-12th-century Chronicle of Ekkehard of Aura).
Henry IV and his first wife, Bertha of Savoy (11th-century painting)

Henry IV (Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1084 to 1105, King of Germany from 1054 to 1105, King of Italy and Burgundy from 1056 to 1105, and Duke of Bavaria from 1052 to 1054.

Depiction of Otto I on his seal in 968

Otto the Great

Depiction of Otto I on his seal in 968
12th-century stained glass depiction of Otto I, Strasbourg Cathedral
Side view of the Throne of Charlemagne at Aachen Cathedral, where Otto was crowned King of Germany in 936
Central Europe, 919–1125. The Kingdom of Germany included the duchies of Saxony (yellow), Franconia (blue), Bavaria (green), Swabia (orange) and Lorraine (pink left). Various dukes rebelled against Otto's rule in 937 and again in 939.
Statues of Otto I, right, and Adelaide in Meissen Cathedral. Otto and Adelaide were married after his annexation of Italy.
The Iron Crown of the Lombards was passed to Otto in 951 during his first Italian campaign.
Manuscript depiction (c. 1200) of Otto accepting the surrender of Berengar II of Italy. The headline reads Otto I Theutonicorum rex ("Otto the First, King of the Germans").
A medieval king investing a bishop with the symbols of office. Otto centralized his control over Germany through the investiture of bishops and abbots.
Europe shortly after Otto's reign. The Hungarians (orange), located to the east of Otto's realm (blue), invaded Germany in 954 and 955.
A 1457 illustration of the Battle of Lechfeld in Sigmund Meisterlin's codex about the history of Nuremberg
The Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire. Otto was crowned as Emperor on February 2, 962 by Pope John XII.
Replica of the Magdeburger Reiter, an equestrian monument traditionally regarded as a portrait of Otto I (Magdeburg, original c. 1240)
Contemporary image of Otto I, lower left, in one of the Magdeburg Ivories. Otto presents Magdeburg Cathedral to Christ and Saints, and is depicted smaller than them as a sign of humility.
Italy around 1000, shortly after Otto's reign. Otto's expansion campaigns brought northern and central Italy into the Holy Roman Empire.
Tomb of Otto I in Magdeburg Cathedral
Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire commemorative coin

Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (Otto der Große, Ottone il Grande), was East Frankish king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973.

Last to reign Constantine XI 6 January 1449 – 29 May 1453

List of Byzantine emperors

List of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Eastern Roman Empire, to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD. Only the emperors who were recognized as legitimate rulers and exercised sovereign authority are included, to the exclusion of junior co-emperors who never attained the status of sole or senior ruler, as well as of the various usurpers or rebels who claimed the imperial title.

List of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Eastern Roman Empire, to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD. Only the emperors who were recognized as legitimate rulers and exercised sovereign authority are included, to the exclusion of junior co-emperors who never attained the status of sole or senior ruler, as well as of the various usurpers or rebels who claimed the imperial title.

Last to reign Constantine XI 6 January 1449 – 29 May 1453

The use of the title "Roman Emperor" by those ruling from Constantinople was not contested until after the Papal coronation of the Frankish Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor (25 December 800), done partly in response to the Byzantine coronation of Empress Irene, whose claim, as a woman, was not recognized by Pope Leo III.