Holy Roman Emperor

First to reign
Charlemagne
25 December AD 800 – 28 January AD 814
Coats of arms of prince electors surround the imperial coat of arms; from a 1545 armorial. Electors voted in an Imperial Diet for a new Holy Roman Emperor.
Depiction of Charlemagne in a 12th-century stained glass window, Strasbourg Cathedral, now at Musée de l'Œuvre Notre-Dame.
Illustration of the election of Henry VII (27 November 1308) showing (left to right) the Archbishop of Cologne, Archbishop of Mainz, Archbishop of Trier, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Saxony, Margrave of Brandenburg and King of Bohemia (Codex Balduini Trevirorum, c. 1340).

The ruler and head of state of the Holy Roman Empire.

- Holy Roman Emperor
First to reign
Charlemagne
25 December AD 800 – 28 January AD 814

55 related topics

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Coat of arms of the Margraviate of Brandenburg.

List of rulers of Brandenburg

Constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire.

Constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire.

Coat of arms of the Margraviate of Brandenburg.

In 1356, by the terms of the Golden Bull of Charles IV, the Margrave of Brandenburg was given the permanent right to participate in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor with the title of Elector (Kurfürst).

Map of the world by Paolo Patrini during the turn of the 18th century

Early modern period

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

Map of the world by Paolo Patrini during the turn of the 18th century
A Japanese depiction of a Portuguese trading carrack. Advances in shipbuilding technology during the Late Middle Ages would pave the way for the global European presence characteristic of the early modern period.
Cishou Temple Pagoda, built in 1576: the Chinese believed that building pagodas on certain sites according to geomantic principles brought about auspicious events; merchant-funding for such projects was needed by the late Ming period.
A painting depecting the Qing Chinese celebrating a victory over the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan. This work was a collaboration between Chinese and European painters.
The Great Wave off Kanagawa, c. 1830 by Hokusai, an example of art flourishing in the Edo Period
Map of the Gunpowder Empires, the Mughal Empire being the orange one.
The Mughal ambassador Khan'Alam in 1618 negotiating with Shah Abbas the Great of Iran.
Robert Clive and Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, 1757 by Francis Hayman
Ottoman Empire 1481–1683
Ferdinand Pauwels – Martin Luther hammers his 95 theses to the door
Gutenberg reviewing a press proof (a colored engraving created probably in the 19th century)
15th century Hanging Houses in Cuenca, Spain from the Early Renaissance, and the Early modern period.
Battle of Vienna, 12 September 1683
Bourgeoisie takes more and more importance throughout the modern era.
Cossacks became the backbone of the early Russian Army.
The Cantino planisphere (1502), the oldest surviving Portuguese nautical chart showing the results of the explorations of Vasco da Gama to India, Columbus to Central America, Gaspar Corte-Real to Newfoundland and Pedro Álvares Cabral to Brazil. The meridian of Tordesillas, separating the Portuguese and Spanish halves of the world is also depicted
Axum and Adal circa 1500.
John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence, showing the Committee of Five in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia
World Colonization of 1492 (Early Modern World), 1550, 1660, 1754 (Age of Enlightenment), 1822 (Industrial revolution), 1885 (European Hegemony), 1914 (World War I era), 1938 (World War II era), 1959 (Cold War era) and 1974, 2008 (Recent history).
Waldseemüller map with joint sheets, 1507
Model for the Three Superior Planets and Venus from Georg von Peuerbach, Theoricae novae planetarum.
"If there is something you know, communicate it. If there is something you don't know, search for it." An engraving from the 1772 edition of the Encyclopédie; Truth (center) is surrounded by light and unveiled by the figures to the right, Philosophy and Reason
Engraved world map (including magnetic declination lines) by Leonhard Euler from his school atlas "Geographischer Atlas bestehend in 44 Land-Charten" first published 1753 in Berlin
Eugène Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People (1830). The French Revolution inspired a wave of revolutions across Europe. Liberalism and Nationalism were popular ideas that challenged Absolute Monarchies in the 19th century.
Gold fueled European exploration of the Americas. Explorers reported Native Americans in Central America, Peru, Ecuador and Colombia were to have had large amounts.
Silver, valued as a precious metal, has been used to make expensive ornaments, fine jewelry, high-value tableware and utensils (silverware), and currency coins.
Spices were among the most luxurious products, the most common being black pepper, cinnamon (and the cheaper alternative cassia), cumin, nutmeg, ginger and cloves.

In the early modern period, the Holy Roman Empire was a union of territories in Central Europe under a Holy Roman Emperor the first of which was Otto I.

Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor

Arms of the House of Luxembourg.
Arms of Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor.
The seven prince-electors voting for Henry, Balduineum picture chronicle, 1341
The Coronation of Henry VII by three cardinals.
The Empire under Henry VII,
Tomb of Henry VII, Codex Balduini Trevirensis (ca 1340).
Tomb of Henry VII, August 2012.
Tomb of Henry, Duomo, Pisa

Henry VII (German: Heinrich; c. 1273 –24 August 1313), also known as Henry of Luxembourg, was Count of Luxembourg, King of Germany (or Rex Romanorum) from 1308 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1312.

Last to reign Constantine XI 6 January 1449 – 29 May 1453

List of Byzantine emperors

List of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Eastern Roman Empire, to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD. Only the emperors who were recognized as legitimate rulers and exercised sovereign authority are included, to the exclusion of junior co-emperors who never attained the status of sole or senior ruler, as well as of the various usurpers or rebels who claimed the imperial title.

List of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Eastern Roman Empire, to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD. Only the emperors who were recognized as legitimate rulers and exercised sovereign authority are included, to the exclusion of junior co-emperors who never attained the status of sole or senior ruler, as well as of the various usurpers or rebels who claimed the imperial title.

Last to reign Constantine XI 6 January 1449 – 29 May 1453

The use of the title "Roman Emperor" by those ruling from Constantinople was not contested until after the Papal coronation of the Frankish Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor (25 December 800), done partly in response to the Byzantine coronation of Empress Irene, whose claim, as a woman, was not recognized by Pope Leo III.

Henry VIII declared himself Supreme Head of the Church of England.

Divine right of kings

Political and religious doctrine of political legitimacy of a monarchy.

Political and religious doctrine of political legitimacy of a monarchy.

Henry VIII declared himself Supreme Head of the Church of England.
Ahura Mazda gives divine kingship to Ardashir.
Louis XIV of France depicted as the Sun King.
Antichristus, a woodcut by Lucas Cranach the Elder, of the pope using the temporal power to grant authority to a ruler contributing generously to the Catholic Church
Charles I of England, with a divine hand moving his crown

This in turn inspired the Carolingian dynasty and the Holy Roman Emperors, whose lasting impact on Western and Central Europe further inspired all subsequent Western ideas of kingship.

Henry's seal from a document of 30 March 925. He is portrayed as a warrior, with a spear and shield. The words are HEINRICUS REX (King Henry).

Henry the Fowler

Henry the Fowler (Heinrich der Vogler or Heinrich der Finkler; Henricus Auceps) (c.

Henry the Fowler (Heinrich der Vogler or Heinrich der Finkler; Henricus Auceps) (c.

Henry's seal from a document of 30 March 925. He is portrayed as a warrior, with a spear and shield. The words are HEINRICUS REX (King Henry).
Legend of the German crown offered to Henry while fixing his birding nets, by Hermann Vogel (1854–1921)
Finkenherd (finch trap) at Quedlinburg, built around 1530 at the legendary place of the king's bird trapping
Map of Lotharingia in the 10th century.
Himmler at Henry's grave, 1938

As the first non-Frankish king of East Francia, he established the Ottonian dynasty of kings and emperors, and he is generally considered to be the founder of the medieval German state, known until then as East Francia.

Portrait by Martin van Meytens, 1759

Maria Theresa

Ruler of the Habsburg dominions from 1740 until her death in 1780, and the only woman to hold the position in her own right.

Ruler of the Habsburg dominions from 1740 until her death in 1780, and the only woman to hold the position in her own right.

Portrait by Martin van Meytens, 1759
Painting of three-year-old Maria Theresa in the gardens of Hofburg Palace
Archduchess Maria Theresa, by Andreas Möller
Maria Theresa and Francis Stephen at their wedding breakfast, by Martin van Meytens. Charles VI (in the red-plumed hat) is seated at the center of the table.
Maria Theresa's procession through the Graben, 22 November 1740. The pregnant queen is on way to hear High Mass at St. Stephen's Cathedral before receiving homage.
Maria Theresa being crowned Queen of Hungary, St. Martin's Cathedral, Pressburg
Maria Theresa as the Queen of Hungary
Engraved by Gustav Adolph Müller after Martin van Mytens, the Younger, Maria Theresa of Austria, 1742, engraving
The Battle of Kolín, 1757
Maria Theresa with her family, 1754, by Martin van Meytens
Mural by Franz Anton Maulbertsch in the Hofburg, Innsbruck, commissioned by Maria Theresa in remembrance of her daughters who died in childhood: Maria Johanna (1750–1762), Maria Elisabeth (1737–1740), Maria Carolina (1740–1741) and Maria Carolina (1748–1748)
The dowager empress with family, 1776, by Heinrich Füger
Maria Theresa and her family celebrating Saint Nicholas, by Archduchess Maria Christina, in 1762
Joseph, Maria Theresa's eldest son and co-ruler, in 1775, by Anton von Maron
Confirmation of Serbian Privileges, issued by Maria Theresa in 1743
Maria Theresa in 1762, by Jean-Étienne Liotard
Maria Theresa depicted on her Thaler
Maria Theresa as a widow in 1773, by Anton von Maron. Peace holds the olive crown above her head, reaffirming Maria Theresa's monarchical status. This was the last commissioned state portrait of Maria Theresa.
Maria Theresa and her husband are interred in the double tomb which she had inscribed as a widow.
Oath of allegiance ceremony of cabinet II of Austrian chancellor Sebastian Kurz in the Maria Theresa Room of the Hofburg palace (2020)
Hungarian President László Sólyom with U.S. President George W. Bush in the Maria Theresa Room of Sándor Palace (2006)

She dismissed the possibility that other countries might try to seize her territories and immediately started ensuring the imperial dignity for herself; since a woman could not be elected Holy Roman Empress, Maria Theresa wanted to secure the imperial office for her husband, but Francis Stephen did not possess enough land or rank within the Holy Roman Empire.

Portrait by Georg Desmarées c. 1745

Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor

Portrait by Georg Desmarées c. 1745
The young Charles Albert, 1717–1719, Joseph Vivien, Royal Castle in Warsaw
Allegorical depiction of Charles's coronation as Holy Roman Emperor (1742)
Coat of arms of Charles VII
Thaler coin of Charles VII, dated 1743
Emperor Charles's residence Palais Barckhaus in Zeil, Frankfurt, which he used in exile
The Ancestral Gallery (Ahnengallerie, 1726–1731), Munich Residenz

Charles VII (6 August 1697 – 20 January 1745) was the prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from 24 January 1742 to his death.

Small throne seal of Adolf of Nassau (1298)

Adolf, King of the Romans

Adolf (c.

Adolf (c.

Small throne seal of Adolf of Nassau (1298)
Portrait by Arnold Montanus, 1662
Part of the image of King Adolf in the Frankfurt Hall of Kings
Deposition of Adolf and Election of Albert, illustration from the Chronicles of the Bishops of Würzburg
Depiction of Adolf’s death at the Battle of Göllheim, by Master Simon, Koblenz, 1829
19th-century monument to Adolf from the vestibule of Speyer Cathedral

He was never crowned by the pope, which would have secured him the imperial title.

Translatio imperii

Historiographical concept that originated from the Middle Ages, in which history is viewed as a linear succession of transfers of an imperium that invests supreme power in a singular ruler, an "emperor" (or sometimes even several emperors, e.g., the Eastern Roman Empire and the Western Holy Roman Empire).

Historiographical concept that originated from the Middle Ages, in which history is viewed as a linear succession of transfers of an imperium that invests supreme power in a singular ruler, an "emperor" (or sometimes even several emperors, e.g., the Eastern Roman Empire and the Western Holy Roman Empire).

Some Western authorities considered the Byzantine throne, now occupied by a woman, to be vacant and instead recognized that Charlemagne, who controlled Italy and much part of the former Western Roman Empire, had a valid claim to the imperial title. Pope Leo III, crowned Charlemagne as Roman Emperor in 800, an act not recognized by the Byzantine Empire.