Holy See

VaticanRomethe VaticanSee of RomePapal SeeThe Holy SeeRoman SeeseeChurch of RomeApostolic See
The Holy See (, ; Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome, refers to the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope, which includes the apostolic episcopal see of the Diocese of Rome with universal ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the worldwide Catholic Church, as well as a sovereign entity of international law.wikipedia
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Apostolic see

ApostolicApostolic ChurchApostolic Churches
The Holy See (, ; Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome, refers to the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope, which includes the apostolic episcopal see of the Diocese of Rome with universal ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the worldwide Catholic Church, as well as a sovereign entity of international law. The apostolic see of Diocese of Rome was established in the 1st century by Saint Peter and Saint Paul, then the capital of the Roman Empire, according to Catholic tradition.
In Catholicism the phrase, with "the" and usually capitalized, refers to the See of Rome.

Vatican City

VaticanVatican City Statethe Vatican
As a sovereign entity, the Holy See is headquartered in, operates from, and exercises "exclusive dominion" over the independent Vatican City State enclave in Rome, of which the pope is sovereign.
Established with the Lateran Treaty (1929), it is distinct from, yet under "full ownership, exclusive dominion, and sovereign authority and jurisdiction" of the Holy See (Sancta Sedes).

Eastern Catholic Churches

Eastern CatholicUniateEastern Catholic Church
It is organized into polities of the Latin Church and the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches, and their dioceses and religious institutes.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian autonomous (in Latin, sui iuris) particular churches in full communion with the pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.

Latin Church

Latin CatholicWestern ChurchLatin Rite
It is organized into polities of the Latin Church and the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches, and their dioceses and religious institutes.
The Latin Church traces its history to the earliest days of Christianity through its direct leadership under the Holy See, founded by Peter and Paul, according to Catholic tradition.

Roman Curia

papal curiaVaticanCuria
The Holy See is administered by the Roman Curia (Latin for Roman Court), which is the central government of the Catholic Church.
The Roman Curia comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See and the central body through which the affairs of the Catholic Church are conducted.

Cardinal Secretary of State

Secretary of StateVatican Secretary of StatePapal Secretary of State
The Roman Curia includes various dicasteries, comparable to ministries and executive departments, with the Cardinal Secretary of State as its chief administrator.
The Secretary of State of His Holiness The Pope, commonly known as the Cardinal Secretary of State, presides over the Holy See Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia.

Lateran Treaty

Lateran TreatiesLateran PactsConcordat
Although the Holy See is sometimes metonymically referred to as the "Vatican", the Vatican City State was distinctively established with the Lateran Treaty of 1929, between the Holy See and Italy, to ensure the temporal, diplomatic, and spiritual independence of the papacy.
The Lateran Treaty (Patti Lateranensi; Pacta Lateranensia) was one component agreement that made up the Lateran Pacts of 1929, the agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See settling the "Roman Question".

Concordat

agreementconcordatsagreement with the civil authorities
The Holy See maintains bilateral diplomatic relations with 172 sovereign states, signs concordats and treaties, and performs multilateral diplomacy with multiple intergovernmental organizations, including the United Nations and its agencies, the Council of Europe, the European Communities, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, and the Organization of American States.
A concordat is a convention between the Holy See and a sovereign state that defines the relationship between the Catholic Church and the state in matters that concern both, i.e. the recognition and privileges of the Catholic Church in a particular country and with secular matters that impact on church interests.

Dicastery

dicasteriesdepartmentdepartments
The Roman Curia includes various dicasteries, comparable to ministries and executive departments, with the Cardinal Secretary of State as its chief administrator.
A dicastery (from Greek δικαστήριον, law-court, from δικαστής, judge/juror) is a department of the Roman Curia, the administration of the Holy See through which the pope directs the Roman Catholic Church.

Nuncio

Apostolic Nunciopapal nuncioApostolic Delegate
As such, papal nuncios, who are papal diplomats to states and international organizations, are recognized as representing the Holy See not the Vatican City State, as prescribed in the Canon law of the Catholic Church; and therefore the integrity of the Catholic Church along with its 1.3 billion members.
An apostolic nuncio (also known as a papal nuncio or simply as a nuncio) is an ecclesiastical diplomat, serving as an envoy or a permanent diplomatic representative of the Holy See to a state or to an international organization.

Diocese

bishopricarchdiocesediocesan
It is organized into polities of the Latin Church and the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches, and their dioceses and religious institutes.
A few are suffragans of a metropolitan see or are directly subject to the Holy See.

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

OSCEOrganization for Security and Cooperation in EuropeOrganization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)
The Holy See maintains bilateral diplomatic relations with 172 sovereign states, signs concordats and treaties, and performs multilateral diplomacy with multiple intergovernmental organizations, including the United Nations and its agencies, the Council of Europe, the European Communities, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, and the Organization of American States.
It was opened by Holy See’s diplomat Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, who was chairman of the conference.

Christianity in the 1st century

Apostolic AgeApostolic Era1st century
The apostolic see of Diocese of Rome was established in the 1st century by Saint Peter and Saint Paul, then the capital of the Roman Empire, according to Catholic tradition.
Peter was later martyred in the see of Rome, the capital of the Roman Empire.

Full communion

communionintercommunionfull
Founded in the first century by Saints Peter and Paul, by virtue of Petrine and papal primacy according to Catholic tradition, it is the focal point of full communion for Catholic Christians around the world.

Episcopal see

seeseessee city
The Holy See (, ; Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome, refers to the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope, which includes the apostolic episcopal see of the Diocese of Rome with universal ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the worldwide Catholic Church, as well as a sovereign entity of international law.
The episcopal see of the Pope, the Bishop of Rome, is known as "the Holy See" or "the Apostolic See", claiming Papal supremacy.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Mainz

MainzBishop of MainzDiocese of Mainz
In the West, the adjective is not commonly added, but it does form part of an official title of two sees: besides the Holy See, the Bishopric of Mainz (the former Archbishopric of Mainz, which was also of electoral and primatial rank) bears the title of "the Holy See of Mainz" (Latin: Sancta Sedes Moguntina).
It is the only Roman Catholic diocese in the world – other than Rome – which bears the title of a Holy See.

St. Peter's Basilica

Saint Peter's BasilicaSt Peter's BasilicaSt. Peter
While Saint Peter's Basilica in Vatican City is perhaps the church most associated with the papacy, the actual cathedral of the Holy See is the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran in the city of Rome.
(Lateran Treaty of 1929, Article 15 ( Ibidem)) However, the Holy See fully owns these three basilicas, and Italy is legally obligated to recognize its full ownership thereof (Lateran Treaty of 1929, Article 13 ( Ibidem)) and to concede to all of them "the immunity granted by International Law to the headquarters of the diplomatic agents of foreign States" (Lateran Treaty of 1929, Article 15 ( Ibidem)).

Primate (bishop)

PrimatePrimate of Swedenprimates
In the West, the adjective is not commonly added, but it does form part of an official title of two sees: besides the Holy See, the Bishopric of Mainz (the former Archbishopric of Mainz, which was also of electoral and primatial rank) bears the title of "the Holy See of Mainz" (Latin: Sancta Sedes Moguntina).
Other former functions of primates, such as hearing appeals from metropolitan tribunals, were reserved to the Holy See by the early 20th century.

Charlemagne

Charles the GreatEmperor CharlemagneCharles
Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as Roman Emperor by translatio imperii in 800.
These and other disputes led to the eventual split of Rome and Constantinople in the Great Schism of 1054.

Temporal power of the Holy See

temporal powerTemporal power (papal)temporal
Although the Holy See is sometimes metonymically referred to as the "Vatican", the Vatican City State was distinctively established with the Lateran Treaty of 1929, between the Holy See and Italy, to ensure the temporal, diplomatic, and spiritual independence of the papacy.
The temporal power or jurisdiction of the Holy See designates the political and secular influence of the Holy See, that is jurisdiction of the pope of the Catholic Church, as distinguished from spiritual and pastoral activity.

Patrimony of Saint Peter

Patrimonium Sancti PetriPatrimony of St. Peterpapal patrimony
Yet, relations with the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy Roman Empire were at times strained, reaching from the Diploma Ottonianum and Libellus de imperatoria potestate in urbe Roma regarding the "Patrimony of Saint Peter" in the 10th century, to the Investiture Controversy in 1076–1122, and settled again by the Concordat of Worms in 1122.
The Patrimony of Saint Peter (Patrimonium Sancti Petri) originally designated the landed possessions and revenues of various kinds that belonged to the apostolic Holy See (the Pope) i.e. the "Church of Saint Peter" in Rome, by virtue of the apostolic see status as founded by Saint Peter, according to Catholic tradition.

Papal States

Papal StatePapalPapal Army
The Papal States thus held extensive territory and armed forces in 756–1870.
This recognized the sovereignty of the Holy See over a newly created international territorial entity, the Vatican City State, limited to a token territory.

Papal primacy

papal authorityPrimacy of the Bishop of Romeprimacy
Founded in the first century by Saints Peter and Paul, by virtue of Petrine and papal primacy according to Catholic tradition, it is the focal point of full communion for Catholic Christians around the world.
It is important to note, however, that the three main apostolic sees of the early Church (i.e. the See of Antioch, the See of Alexandria, and the See of Rome) were directly related to Peter.

Vatican during the Savoyard era (1870–1929)

Savoyard Era
Despite the Capture of Rome in 1870 by the Kingdom of Italy and the Roman Question during the Savoyard era (which made the pope a "prisoner in the Vatican" from 1870 to 1929), its international legal subject was "constituted by the ongoing reciprocity of diplomatic relationships" that not only were maintained but multiplied.
Vatican during the Savoyard Era 1870-1929 describes the relation of the Vatican to Italy, after 1870, which marked the end of the Papal State and 1929, when the papacy regained autonomy in the Lateran Treaty, a period dominated by the Roman Question.

Pope Innocent X

Innocent XGiovanni Battista PamphiliGiovanni Battista Pamphilj
Pope Innocent X was critical of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 as it weakened the authority of the Holy See throughout much of Europe.
Innocent X was one of the most politically shrewd pontiffs of the era, greatly increasing the temporal power of the Holy See.