The traditional counties of Northern Ireland
Ulster Volunteers in Belfast, 1914
Edward Carson signing the Ulster Covenant, 1912.
Political map of Ireland
The Union Flag, Ulster Banner and Orange Order flags are often flown by loyalists in Northern Ireland
Seán Hogan's flying column of the IRA's 3rd Tipperary Brigade during the war
Cannon on the Derry city walls
Ulster Volunteers in Belfast, 1914
Unionist march in Belfast, 9 April 1912
Result in Ireland of the December 1910 United Kingdom general election showing a large majority for the Irish Parliamentary Party.
Ulster Volunteers in Belfast c.1914
Result of the 1918 UK general election in Ireland
Scrabo Tower, County Down
Ulster Volunteer Force in 1914
Ulster (coloured), showing Northern Ireland in pink and the Republic of Ireland part in green
Ulster Volunteers marching in Belfast, 1914
Loyalist graffiti and banner on a building in a side street off the Shankill Road, Belfast (1970)
RIC and British Army personnel near Limerick, c.1920
Signing of the Ulster Covenant in 1912 in opposition to Home Rule
A mural in Belfast showing four recipients of the Victoria Cross from the 36th (Ulster) Division, with the UVF logo in the middle
A bronze statue commemorating The Flight of the Earls at Rathmullan in north County Donegal.
Result of the 1918 general election in Ireland showing the dramatic swing in support for Sinn Féin
A UDA/UFF mural in Belfast
West Connemara IRA flying column
Result of the 1918 general election in Ireland
A modern Protestant mural in Belfast celebrating Oliver Cromwell and his activities.
Catholic-owned businesses destroyed by loyalists in Lisburn, August 1920
A UVF mural in Belfast
Police wanted poster for Dan Breen, one of those involved in the Soloheadbeg Ambush in 1919.
Crowds in Belfast for the state opening of the Northern Ireland Parliament on 22 June 1921
Royal Avenue, Belfast. Photochrom print circa 1890–1900.
Crowds in Belfast for the state opening of the Northern Ireland Parliament on 22 June 1921
A loyalist marching band on The Twelfth, 2011
Wall plaque in Great Denmark Street, Dublin where the Dublin IRA Active Service Unit was founded.
The Coat of arms of Northern Ireland used between 1924 and 1973
The results of the 1918 Irish general election, in which Sinn Féin and the Irish Parliamentary Party won the majority of votes on the island of Ireland, shown in the color green and light green respectively, with the exception being primarily in the East of the province of Ulster.
Members of the Irish negotiation committee returning to Ireland in December 1921
A group of RIC officers in 1917
James Craig (centre) with members of the first government of Northern Ireland
At White Park Bay
North East Boundary Bureau recommendations May 1923
Michael Collins
Opening of the Northern Ireland parliament buildings (Stormont) in 1932
Countryside west of Ballynahinch
James Craig (centre) with members of the first government of Northern Ireland
A group of "Black and Tans" and Auxiliaries in Dublin, April 1921
Responsibility for Troubles-related deaths between 1969 and 2001
Mourne country cottage
The Boundary Commission's proposed changes to the border
British soldiers and relatives of the victims outside Jervis Street Hospital during the military enquiry into the Bloody Sunday shootings at Croke Park
First Minister Ian Paisley (DUP) centre, and deputy First Minister Martin McGuinness (Sinn Féin) left, and Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond right in 2008
The track of the County Donegal Railways Joint Committee (CDRJC) restored next to Lough Finn, near Fintown station.
A republican anti-partition march in London, 1980s
Aftermath of the burning of Cork by British forces
A flowchart illustrating all the political parties that have existed throughout the history of Northern Ireland and leading up to its formation (covering 1889 to 2020).
The approach of autumn, Tardree forest
A crowd gathers at the Mansion House in Dublin in the days before the truce
Parliament Buildings at Stormont, Belfast, seat of the assembly
Members of the Irish negotiation committee returning to Ireland in December 1921
Unionist mural in Belfast
The funeral of Michael Collins
St. Mary's Pro-Cathedral, Dublin, August 1922
ESA Sentinel-2 image of Northern Ireland
Catholic-owned businesses destroyed by loyalists in Lisburn, August 1920.
Köppen climate types of Northern Ireland
Unionist leader James Craig.
Lough Neagh
The Lord Lieutenant inspecting troops outside Belfast City Hall on the day Northern Ireland's parliament first met.
Hare's Gap, Mourne Mountains
A mural in Belfast depicting revenge killings by police in Belfast.
The Giant's Causeway, County Antrim
Irish republican internees at Ballykinlar Internment Camp 1920
Marble Arch Caves
The symbol of the Republic:
The Irish tricolour which dated back to the Young Ireland rebellion of 1848.
Goliath crane of Harland & Wolff in Belfast
A symbol of British rule:
The standard of the Lord Lieutenant, using the union flag created under the Act of Union 1800.
An NIR C3K railcar
Monument to IRA fighters in Phibsborough, Dublin
2011 census: differences in proportions of those who are, or were brought up, either Catholic or Protestant/Other Christians
Soldiers of a British cavalry regiment leaving Dublin in 1922
Map of predominant national identity in the 2011 census
Constance Markievicz was a member of the Irish Citizen Army and fought in the Easter Rising. In 1919 she was appointed Minister for Labour in the Government of the Irish Republic
Map of most commonly held passport
Conflict deaths in Belfast 1920–1922.
50–100 deaths per km2
100–150 deaths per km2
over 150 deaths per km2
Approximate boundaries of the current and historical English/Scots dialects in Ulster. South to north, the colour bands represent Hiberno-English, South-Ulster English, Mid-Ulster English and the three traditional Ulster Scots areas. The Irish-speaking Gaeltacht is not shown.
Percentage of people aged 3+ claiming to have some ability in Irish in the 2011 census
Percentage of people aged 3+ claiming to have some ability in Ulster Scots in the 2011 census
An Orange march
The logo for the Northern Ireland assembly is based on the flower of the flax plant.
People carrying the Irish flag, overlooking those with the unionist Ulster Banner
George Best, Northern Irish international footballer and 1968 Ballon d'Or
Peter Canavan, Tyrone captain 2003
Prominent Northern Irish golfer Rory McIlroy
Queen's University Belfast
Broadcasting House, Belfast, home of BBC Northern Ireland

The Ulster Volunteers was a unionist, loyalist militia founded in 1912 to block domestic self-government ("Home Rule") for Ireland, which was then part of the United Kingdom.

- Ulster Volunteers

The partition of Ireland (críochdheighilt na hÉireann) was the process by which the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland divided Ireland into two self-governing polities: Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland.

- Partition of Ireland

Ulster loyalism is a strand of Ulster unionism associated with working class Ulster Protestants in Northern Ireland.

- Ulster loyalism

The Ulster Volunteers were based in the northern province of Ulster.

- Ulster Volunteers

Unionists in Ulster, determined to prevent any measure of home rule for Ireland, formed a paramilitary force, the Ulster Volunteers, which threatened to resist by force of arms the implementation of the Act and the authority of any Dublin Parliament.

- Home Rule Crisis

It is made up of nine counties: six of these constitute Northern Ireland (a part of the United Kingdom); the remaining three are in the Republic of Ireland.

- Ulster

HM Government's ability to face down unionist defiance was thrown into question by the "Curragh incident", when dozens of British Army officers tendered their resignations rather than secure arms against Ulster loyalist seizure, forcing a climb-down by the government.

- Home Rule Crisis

Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, creating a devolved government for the six northeastern counties.

- Northern Ireland

The Home Rule Crisis was interrupted by the First World War.

- Ulster Volunteers

The territory that became Northern Ireland, within the Irish province of Ulster, had a Protestant and Unionist majority who wanted to maintain ties to Britain.

- Partition of Ireland

After the war, the British Government decided to partition Ireland into two self-governing regions: Northern Ireland (which overall had a Protestant/unionist majority) and Southern Ireland.

- Ulster Volunteers

Although Ireland had a Catholic majority who wanted self-government, the province of Ulster had a Protestant and unionist majority, largely due to the Plantation of Ulster.

- Ulster loyalism

Today, the former generally see themselves as British and the latter generally see themselves as Irish, while a Northern Irish or Ulster identity is claimed by a large minority from all backgrounds.

- Northern Ireland

However, by 1920 the Irish War of Independence was raging and the Irish Republican Army (IRA) was launching attacks on British forces in Ireland.

- Ulster Volunteers

The creation of Northern Ireland was accompanied by violence both in defence of and against partition.

- Northern Ireland

During the Home Rule Crisis (1912–14), loyalists founded the paramilitary Ulster Volunteers to prevent Ulster becoming part of a self-governing Ireland.

- Ulster loyalism

This led to the Home Rule Crisis (1912–14), when Ulster unionists/loyalists founded a paramilitary movement, the Ulster Volunteers, to prevent Ulster being ruled by an Irish government.

- Partition of Ireland

This was followed by the Irish War of Independence (1919–21) and partition of Ireland: most of Ireland became an independent state, while most of Ulster remained within the United Kingdom as the self-governing territory of Northern Ireland.

- Ulster loyalism

In the late 1960s, a campaign to end discrimination against Catholics and nationalists was opposed by loyalists, who saw it as a republican front.

- Northern Ireland

This led to the Irish War of Independence (1919–21), a guerrilla conflict between the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and British forces.

- Partition of Ireland

In the early 20th century, moves towards Irish self-rule were opposed by many Ulster Protestants, sparking the Home Rule Crisis.

- Ulster

The conflict in north-east Ulster had a sectarian aspect (see Belfast Pogrom of 1920 and Bloody Sunday (1921)).

- Irish War of Independence

This, and the subsequent Irish War of Independence, led to the partition of Ireland.

- Ulster

While the Catholic minority there mostly backed Irish independence, the Protestant majority were mostly unionist/loyalist.

- Irish War of Independence

In May 1921, Ireland was partitioned under British law by the Government of Ireland Act, which created Northern Ireland.

- Irish War of Independence

The demand for Home Rule was eventually granted by the British Government in 1912, immediately prompting a prolonged crisis within the United Kingdom as Ulster unionists formed an armed organisation – the Ulster Volunteers (UVF) – to resist this measure of devolution, at least in territory they could control.

- Irish War of Independence

Unionists continued to demand that Ulster be excluded, the solution of partition appealing to Craig; Carson, however, as a Dublin man, did not want partition, which would leave 250,000 Southern Unionists at the mercy of a huge nationalist majority.

- Home Rule Crisis

This sparked the Home Rule Crisis.

- Northern Ireland

In 1914, unionists smuggled thousands of rifles and rounds of ammunition from Imperial Germany for use by the Ulster Volunteers (UVF), a paramilitary organisation formed to oppose Home Rule.

- Northern Ireland

The Government of Ireland Act 1920 partitioned Ireland, setting up separate Home Rule Parliaments in Dublin and in Northern Ireland.

- Home Rule Crisis

The Anglo-Irish Treaty, which ended the Irish War of Independence, led to the creation of the self-governing Irish Free State in 1922.

- Home Rule Crisis

The war provided Protestant loyalists with the iconic victories of the Siege of Derry, the Battle of the Boyne (1 July 1690) and the Battle of Aughrim (12 July 1691), all of which the Orange Order commemorate each year.

- Ulster

This movement also set up the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF).

- Ulster
The traditional counties of Northern Ireland

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