Homo erectus

H. erectusDmanisi ManPithecanthropus erectus'' (later redesignated ''Homo erectus'')DmanisiH. e. georgicusH. georgicusPithecantropus ErectusApemanerectusHomo erectus georgicus
Homo erectus (meaning 'upright man') is a species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.wikipedia
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Homo sapiens

anatomically modern humanshumananatomically modern human
erectus may not be literally extinct (in the sense of having no surviving descendants) as it has been hypothesized that on several levels it may be a direct ancestor of later hominins including Homo heidelbergensis, Homo antecessor, Homo neanderthalensis, Homo denisova, and Homo sapiens''.
Extinct species of the genus Homo include Homo erectus, extant from roughly 1.9 to 0.4 million years ago, and a number of other species (by some authors considered subspecies of either ''H.

China

People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
Early fossil evidence for homo erectus was discovered with specimens dating from roughly 1.8 million years ago (discovered 1991 in Dmanisi, Georgia), in Hubei, China (min 2.15 Ma), Yuanmou, China in 2008 (dated to 1.7 Ma), in Gongwangling, China dated to 1.63 Ma (2015), along with stone tools from 2.1 million years ago (discovered 2018 in the Loess Plateau, China) created by an as yet unconfirmed hominin species. erectus next took place at the Zhoukoudian Project, now known as the Peking Man'' site, in Zhoukoudian, China.
The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; they have been dated to between 680,000 and 780,000 years ago.

Georgia (country)

GeorgiaGeorgianRepublic of Georgia
Early fossil evidence for homo erectus was discovered with specimens dating from roughly 1.8 million years ago (discovered 1991 in Dmanisi, Georgia), in Hubei, China (min 2.15 Ma), Yuanmou, China in 2008 (dated to 1.7 Ma), in Gongwangling, China dated to 1.63 Ma (2015), along with stone tools from 2.1 million years ago (discovered 2018 in the Loess Plateau, China) created by an as yet unconfirmed hominin species.
The territory of modern-day Georgia was inhabited by Homo erectus since the Paleolithic Era.

Homo antecessor

H. antecessorEarly humans
erectus may not be literally extinct (in the sense of having no surviving descendants) as it has been hypothesized that on several levels it may be a direct ancestor of later hominins including Homo heidelbergensis, Homo antecessor, Homo neanderthalensis, Homo denisova, and Homo sapiens''.
antecessor as a separate species consider the fossils in question an early form of H. heidelbergensis or as a European variety of H. erectus''.

Archaic humans

archaic humanarchaic ''Homo sapiensarchaic
Homo erectus (meaning 'upright man') is a species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
There is no universal consensus on this terminology, and varieties of "archaic humans" are included under the binomial name of either Homo sapiens or Homo erectus by some authors.

Africa

African continentAfricanAfrican politics
Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as later ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human), found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.

Eugène Dubois

Eugene DuboisDuboisDubois, Marie Eugene Francoisthomas
The Dutch anatomist Eugène Dubois, inspired by Darwin's theory of evolution as it applied to humanity, set out in 1886 for Asia (despite Darwin's theory of African origin) to find a human ancestor.
He earned worldwide fame for his discovery of Pithecanthropus erectus (later redesignated Homo erectus), or "Java Man".

Zhoukoudian

Dragon Bone HillChoukoutienPeking Man Site
erectus next took place at the Zhoukoudian Project, now known as the Peking Man'' site, in Zhoukoudian, China.
It has yielded many archaeological discoveries, including one of the first specimens of Homo erectus (Homo erectus pekinensis), dubbed Peking Man, and a fine assemblage of bones of the gigantic hyena Pachycrocuta brevirostris.

Indonesia

Republic of IndonesiaIndonesianIndonesian Republic
In 1891–92, his team discovered first a tooth, then a skullcap, and finally a femur of a human fossil on the island of Java, Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia).
Fossilised remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man", suggest the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited two million to 500,000 years ago.

Homo

early humansearly humanhumans
The derivation of the genus Homo from Australopithecina took place in East Africa after 3 million years ago.
Homo is the genus which emerged in the otherwise extinct genus Australopithecus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on the species), most notably Homo erectus and ''Homo neanderthalensis.

Beijing

Beijing, ChinaPekingPeking, China
Nearly all of the original specimens were lost during World War II during an attempt to smuggle them out of China for safekeeping; however, authentic casts were made by Weidenreich, which exist at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City and at the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology in Beijing, and are considered to be reliable evidence.
Homo erectus fossils from the caves date to 230,000 to 250,000 years ago.

Human evolution

evolutionearly manevolution of humans
erectus'' in human evolution.
Other significant morphological changes included the evolution of a power and precision grip, a change first occurring in H. erectus.

List of human evolution fossils

List of hominina (hominid) fossilsList of human fossilsList of hominina fossils
Dubois' 1891 find was the first fossil of a Homo-species (or any hominin species) found as result of a directed expedition and search (the first recognized human fossil had been the circumstantial discovery of Homo neanderthalensis in 1856; see List of human evolution fossils).

Lower Paleolithic

Lower PalaeolithicEarly Stone AgeLower
early (Lower Paleolithic) forms of Homo sufficiently derived from H. habilis and
Homo erectus appeared by about 1.8 million years ago, via the transitional variety Homo ergaster.

Homo rudolfensis

H. rudolfensisKNM-ER 1470Skull 1470
erectus, and it has been suggested that even H. rudolfensis and H. habilis (alternatively suggested as late forms of Australopithecus rather than early Homo'')
It remains an open question whether the fossil evidence is sufficient for postulating a separate species, and if so whether this species should be classified within the genus Homo or genus Australopithecus, and if as Homo, whether it should be subsumed under Homo habilis, or even a morphologically divergent subspecies of early Homo erectus.

South Africa

South AfricanRepublic of South AfricaRSA
In the 1950s, archaeologists John T. Robinson and Robert Broom named Telanthropus capensis; Robinson had discovered a jaw fragment in 1949 in Swartkrans, South Africa.
There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans (Homo sapiens).

Australopithecus

australopithecineaustralopithecinesgracile australopithecine
erectus, and it has been suggested that even H. rudolfensis and H. habilis (alternatively suggested as late forms of Australopithecus rather than early Homo'')
A. africanus was once considered to be ancestral to the genus Homo (in particular Homo erectus).

East Africa

Eastern AfricaEastEastern
The derivation of the genus Homo from Australopithecina took place in East Africa after 3 million years ago.
The major competing hypothesis is the multiregional origin of modern humans, which envisions a wave of Homo sapiens migrating earlier from Africa and interbreeding with local Homo erectus populations in multiple regions of the globe.

Dmanisi skull 5

D4500DmanisiD4500 or Dmanisi Skull 5
The discovery of the morphologically divergent Dmanisi skull 5 in 2013 has reinforced the trend of subsuming fossils formerly given separate species names under ''H.
The Dmanisi skull, also known as Skull 5 or D4500, is one of five skulls discovered in Dmanisi, Georgia and classified as early Homo erectus.

Dmanisi

Dmanisi archaeological siteTomanin Castle
Early fossil evidence for homo erectus was discovered with specimens dating from roughly 1.8 million years ago (discovered 1991 in Dmanisi, Georgia), in Hubei, China (min 2.15 Ma), Yuanmou, China in 2008 (dated to 1.7 Ma), in Gongwangling, China dated to 1.63 Ma (2015), along with stone tools from 2.1 million years ago (discovered 2018 in the Loess Plateau, China) created by an as yet unconfirmed hominin species.
At 1.8 million years old, they are now believed to be a subspecies of Homo erectus and not a separate species of Homo.

Swartkrans

In the 1950s, archaeologists John T. Robinson and Robert Broom named Telanthropus capensis; Robinson had discovered a jaw fragment in 1949 in Swartkrans, South Africa.
Fossils discovered in the limestone of Swartkrans include Homo ergaster (a variety of Homo erectus), Paranthropus and Homo habilis.

Yunnan

Yunnan ProvinceYunnan, ChinaYunnanese
e. yuanmouensis''), discovered in Yuanmou County in Yunnan, China, in 1965, is likely of similar age as Peking Man (but with dates proposed as early as 1.7 Mya).
The Yuanmou Man, a Homo erectus fossil unearthed by railway engineers in the 1960s, has been determined to be the oldest-known hominid fossil in China.

Homo habilis

H. habilis(H. Habilis)early human ancestors
early (Lower Paleolithic) forms of Homo sufficiently derived from H. habilis and erectus, and it has been suggested that even H. rudolfensis and H. habilis (alternatively suggested as late forms of Australopithecus rather than early Homo'')
habilis is intermediate between Australopithecus and the somewhat younger Homo erectus''.

Ernst Haeckel

HaeckelErnst Heinrich HaeckelHaeckel, Ernst
Excavated from the bank of the Solo River at Trinil, in East Java, he first (1893) allocated the material to a genus of fossil chimpanzees as Anthropopithecus erectus, then the following year assigned his species to a new genus as Pithecanthropus erectus (the genus name had been coined by Ernst Haeckel in 1868 for the hypothetical link between humans and fossil Apes)—from the Greek πίθηκος (píthēkos, "ape") and ἄνθρωπος (ánthrōpos, "human")—based on the proposal that the femur suggested that the creature had been bipedal, like Homo sapiens.
Dubois classified Java Man with Haeckel's Pithecanthropus label, though they were later reclassified as Homo erectus.

Mauer 1

first discoveryHeidelberg ManHomo heidelbergensis
H. heidelbergensis fossils are recorded from 600 ka (Mauer 1 mandible), the oldest complete skulls are
Some European researchers have classified the find as Homo erectus heidelbergensis, regarding it as a subspecies of Homo erectus.