Homosexuality

Zephyrus and Hyacinthus
Attic red-figure cup from Tarquinia, 480 BC (Boston Museum of Fine Arts)
Burning of two homosexuals (the knight Richard von Hohenburg and his squire Anton Mätzler) at the stake outside Zürich, 1482 (from the Spiezer Schilling chronicle)
Dance to the Berdache
Sac and Fox Nation ceremonial dance to celebrate the two-spirit person. George Catlin (1796–1872); Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
A woman spying on a pair of male lovers. China, Qing Dynasty.
Female youths are depicted surrounding Sappho in this painting of Lafond "Sappho sings for Homer", 1824.
Sappho reading to her companions on an Attic vase of c. 435 BC
Photograph of the Finnish artist Touko Laaksonen (1920–1991) alias Tom of Finland, well known for his stylized highly masculinized homoerotic art, playing the piano in late 1950s. In the background, his partner Veli Mäkinen (left) and his sister Kaija (right).
An illustration from the 19th-century book Sawaqub al-Manaquib depicting homosexual anal sex with a wine boy
Shah Abbas I of Persia with a boy. By Muhammad Qasim (1627).
U.S. President Barack Obama signs into law the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010
LGBT activists at Cologne Pride in 2015 carrying a banner with the flags of 70 countries where homosexuality is illegal
Protests in New York City against Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill.
Roy and Silo, two New York Central Park Zoo male chinstrap penguins similar to those pictured, became internationally known when they coupled and later were given an egg that needed hatching and care, which they successfully provided.

Romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.

- Homosexuality
Zephyrus and Hyacinthus
Attic red-figure cup from Tarquinia, 480 BC (Boston Museum of Fine Arts)

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Location of the United Kingdom

LGBT rights in the United Kingdom

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland are among the most advanced in Europe.

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland are among the most advanced in Europe.

Location of the United Kingdom
A same-sex marriage in the United Kingdom
Members of Her Majesty's Armed Forces marching at the 2016 Pride in London parade
Bisexual people in the parade at Pride in London 2016
Pride in London 2018
Stonewall at the 2013 Pride in London parade
Participants at the 2018 Norwich Pride parade

The British Army, Royal Air Force and Royal Navy now require all recruits to undergo Equality and Diversity training as part of their Military Annual Training Tests and stress tolerance, specifically citing homosexual examples in training videos, in line with Army, Navy and RAF Core Values and Standards, including "Respect for Others" and "Appropriate Behaviour."

Bowers v. Hardwick

Landmark decision of the US Supreme Court that upheld, in a 5–4 ruling, the constitutionality of a Georgia sodomy law criminalizing oral and anal sex in private between consenting adults, in this case with respect to homosexual sodomy, though the law did not differentiate between homosexual sodomy and heterosexual sodomy.

Landmark decision of the US Supreme Court that upheld, in a 5–4 ruling, the constitutionality of a Georgia sodomy law criminalizing oral and anal sex in private between consenting adults, in this case with respect to homosexual sodomy, though the law did not differentiate between homosexual sodomy and heterosexual sodomy.

It has been claimed that Powell's decision to uphold the law was influenced by his belief that he had never known any homosexuals, even though one of his own law clerks was gay.

Karl Maria Kertbeny, ca. 1865

Karl Maria Kertbeny

Austrian-born Hungarian journalist, translator, memoirist, and human rights campaigner.

Austrian-born Hungarian journalist, translator, memoirist, and human rights campaigner.

Karl Maria Kertbeny, ca. 1865
First use of the words „Monosexual“, „Homosexual“, and „Heterosexual“ in a letter on May 6th, 1868

He is best known for coining the words heterosexual and homosexual (as the German nouns Homosexual and Heterosexual, which later became Homo/Heterosexuelle).

Ellis in 1913

Havelock Ellis

English physician, eugenicist, writer, progressive intellectual and social reformer who studied human sexuality.

English physician, eugenicist, writer, progressive intellectual and social reformer who studied human sexuality.

Ellis in 1913
Edith Lees and Havelock Ellis
Commemorative plaque dedicated to Ellis and his wife at Golders Green Crematorium
Inmate of Elmira Reformatory showing four views of head The Criminal (1890)

He co-wrote the first medical textbook in English on homosexuality in 1897, and also published works on a variety of sexual practices and inclinations, as well as on transgender psychology.

The first edition of Psychopathia Sexualis (1886)

Psychopathia Sexualis

1886 book by Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing and one of the first texts about sexual pathology.

1886 book by Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing and one of the first texts about sexual pathology.

The first edition of Psychopathia Sexualis (1886)

The book details a wide range of paraphilias and focuses on male homosexuality/bisexuality (the "antipathetic instinct" of the subtitle).

The human X chromosome with Xq28 (green) located at the tip of the long arm of the chromosome. Studies of the X chromosome as well as the entire human genome have linked Xq28 to the heredity of homosexuality in human males.

Xq28

Chromosome band and genetic marker situated at the tip of the X chromosome which has been studied since at least 1980.

Chromosome band and genetic marker situated at the tip of the X chromosome which has been studied since at least 1980.

The human X chromosome with Xq28 (green) located at the tip of the long arm of the chromosome. Studies of the X chromosome as well as the entire human genome have linked Xq28 to the heredity of homosexuality in human males.

The 1993 study by Hamer et al. examined 114 families of gay men in the United States and found increased rates of homosexuality among maternal uncles and cousins, but not among paternal relatives.

President Barack Obama greets Louvon Harris (left), Betty Byrd Boatner (right) both sisters of James Byrd Jr. and Judy Shepard at a reception commemorating the enactment of the legislation

Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act

American Act of Congress, passed on October 22, 2009, and signed into law by President Barack Obama on October 28, 2009, as a rider to the National Defense Authorization Act for 2010 .

American Act of Congress, passed on October 22, 2009, and signed into law by President Barack Obama on October 28, 2009, as a rider to the National Defense Authorization Act for 2010 .

President Barack Obama greets Louvon Harris (left), Betty Byrd Boatner (right) both sisters of James Byrd Jr. and Judy Shepard at a reception commemorating the enactment of the legislation

The attack was widely reported due to him being gay, and the trial employed a gay panic defense.

Ladyboys in Thailand

Environment and sexual orientation

Subject of research.

Subject of research.

Ladyboys in Thailand

There is no substantial evidence which suggests parenting or early childhood experiences influence sexual orientation, but research has linked childhood gender nonconformity and homosexuality.

A smiling same-sex male couple at Pride in London

Same-sex relationship

Romantic or sexual relationship between people of the same sex.

Romantic or sexual relationship between people of the same sex.

A smiling same-sex male couple at Pride in London
Young men sipping tea, reading poetry, and having sex
Individual panel from a hand scroll on same-sex themes, paint on silk; China, Qing dynasty (c. 18th–19th); Kinsey Institute, Bloomington, Indiana
Two men marrying in Amsterdam within the first month that marriage was opened to same-sex couples in the Netherlands (2001)
A female same-sex couple celebrating the US Supreme Court decision Obergefell v. Hodges, which recognized same-sex marriage nationwide
Lesbian couple with children
According to historian John Boswell, Saints Sergius and Bacchus may have been united in a pact called Adelphopoiesis, or "brother-making".

People in a same-sex relationship may identify as homosexual, bisexual, or even occasionally heterosexual.

Several articles written by British investigative journalist William Thomas Stead in the late 19th century on the issue of child prostitution in London led to public outrage and ultimately to the raising of the age of consent to 16.

Age of consent

Age at which a person is considered to be legally competent to consent to sexual acts.

Age at which a person is considered to be legally competent to consent to sexual acts.

Several articles written by British investigative journalist William Thomas Stead in the late 19th century on the issue of child prostitution in London led to public outrage and ultimately to the raising of the age of consent to 16.

Homosexual and heterosexual age discrepancies: Some jurisdictions, such as the Bahamas, UK overseas territory of the Cayman Islands, Chile, Paraguay and Suriname have a higher age of consent for same-sex sexual activity. However, such discrepancies are increasingly being challenged. Within Bermuda for example (since 1 November 2019 under section 177 of the Criminal Code Act 1907) the age of consent for vaginal and oral sex is 16, but for anal sex it is 18. In Canada, the United Kingdom and Western Australia, for example, the age of consent was formerly 21 for same-sex sexual activity between males (with no laws regarding lesbian sexual activities), while it was 16 for heterosexual sexual activity; this is no longer the case and the age of consent for all sexual activity is 16. In June 2019, the Canadian Government repealed the section of the Criminal Code that set a higher age of consent for anal intercourse.