Hookah

shishanarghilenargilanargileshisha pipehookahswater pipewaterpipehubble-bubbleHukka
A hookah (Hindustani: हुक़्क़ा (Devanagari), (Nastaleeq), IPA: ; also see other names), also known as the qalyân, is a single- or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored cannabis, tobacco (often Mu‘assel), or sometimes opium, whose vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin—often glass-based—before inhalation.wikipedia
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Mu‘assel

shishamu'asselMaasel
A hookah (Hindustani: हुक़्क़ा (Devanagari), (Nastaleeq), IPA: ; also see other names), also known as the qalyân, is a single- or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored cannabis, tobacco (often Mu‘assel), or sometimes opium, whose vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin—often glass-based—before inhalation.
Mu‘assel (معسل, meaning "honeyed"), or maassel, is a syrupy tobacco mix containing molasses and vegetable glycerol which is smoked in a hookah, a type of waterpipe.

Smoking

smokerssmokersmoke
A hookah (Hindustani: हुक़्क़ा (Devanagari), (Nastaleeq), IPA: ; also see other names), also known as the qalyân, is a single- or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored cannabis, tobacco (often Mu‘assel), or sometimes opium, whose vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin—often glass-based—before inhalation.
Other smoking implements include pipes, cigars, bidis, hookahs, and bongs.

Tobacco

tobacco leavessnufftobacco leaf
A hookah (Hindustani: हुक़्क़ा (Devanagari), (Nastaleeq), IPA: ; also see other names), also known as the qalyân, is a single- or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored cannabis, tobacco (often Mu‘assel), or sometimes opium, whose vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin—often glass-based—before inhalation.
Small quantities were smoked at a time, using a pipe like the midwakh or kiseru or smoking newly invented waterpipes such as the bong or the hookah (see thuốc lào for a modern continuance of this practice).

Cannabis (drug)

marijuanacannabispot
In the Philippines, hookah is called "Hitboo" and normally used in smoking flavored marijuana.

Coffeehouse

cafécafecoffee shop
Most cafés in the Middle East offer shishas.
Many coffeehouses in the Middle East and in West Asian immigrant districts in the Western world offer shisha (nargile in Greek and Turkish), flavored tobacco smoked through a hookah.

Smoking in Syria

Although perceived to be an important cultural feature of Syria (see Smoking in Syria), narghile had declined in popularity during most of the twentieth century and was used mostly by older men.
Smoking in Syria is steadily increasing in popularity amongst the Syrian population, mainly in the forms of cigarettes or narghiles.

James Achilles Kirkpatrick

James KirkpatrickCaptain James Achilles KirkpatrickColonel James Achilles Kirkpatrick
In the biography of Mountstuart Elphinstone, it is mentioned that James Achilles Kirkpatrick had a hookah-bardar (hookah servant/preparer) during his time in the Indian subcontinent.
Although a colonel in the British East India Company's army, Kirkpatrick wore Mughal-style costumes at home, smoked a hookah, chewed betelnut, enjoyed nautch parties, maintained a small harem in his zenanakhana.

Chibouk

čopoq
Although the Safavid Shah ʿAbbās I strongly condemned tobacco use, towards the end of his reign smoking ḡalyān and čopoq (q.v.) had become common on every level of the society, women included.
Their use in Turkey and the Middle East may have died out with the growing popularity of the hookah and cigarettes.

Bong

water pipeWater pipe percolatorbongs
In construction and function a bong is similar to a hookah, except smaller and especially more portable.

Nicotiana rustica

makhorkaThuoc laomapacho
The smoker is presented with either a bamboo pipe called a điếu cày (English: "farmer's pipe") or a ceramic hookah called a điếu bát.

Hindustani language

HindustaniHindi-UrduHindi
A hookah (Hindustani: हुक़्क़ा (Devanagari), (Nastaleeq), IPA: ; also see other names), also known as the qalyân, is a single- or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored cannabis, tobacco (often Mu‘assel), or sometimes opium, whose vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin—often glass-based—before inhalation. The word hookah is a derivative of "huqqa", a Hindustani word, of Arabic origin (derived from حُقَّة‎ ḥuqqa, "casket, bottle, water pipe").

Devanagari

DevanāgarīDevanagari scriptDevnagari
A hookah (Hindustani: हुक़्क़ा (Devanagari), (Nastaleeq), IPA: ; also see other names), also known as the qalyân, is a single- or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored cannabis, tobacco (often Mu‘assel), or sometimes opium, whose vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin—often glass-based—before inhalation.

Nastaʿlīq

NastaliqNastaʿlīq scriptNastaleeq
A hookah (Hindustani: हुक़्क़ा (Devanagari), (Nastaleeq), IPA: ; also see other names), also known as the qalyân, is a single- or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored cannabis, tobacco (often Mu‘assel), or sometimes opium, whose vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin—often glass-based—before inhalation.

Evaporation

evaporateevaporatedevaporates
A hookah (Hindustani: हुक़्क़ा (Devanagari), (Nastaleeq), IPA: ; also see other names), also known as the qalyân, is a single- or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored cannabis, tobacco (often Mu‘assel), or sometimes opium, whose vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin—often glass-based—before inhalation.

Cannabis

marijuanahemppot
A hookah (Hindustani: हुक़्क़ा (Devanagari), (Nastaleeq), IPA: ; also see other names), also known as the qalyân, is a single- or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored cannabis, tobacco (often Mu‘assel), or sometimes opium, whose vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin—often glass-based—before inhalation.

Opium

opium tradeopium addictionraw opium
A hookah (Hindustani: हुक़्क़ा (Devanagari), (Nastaleeq), IPA: ; also see other names), also known as the qalyân, is a single- or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored cannabis, tobacco (often Mu‘assel), or sometimes opium, whose vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin—often glass-based—before inhalation.

Medieval India

medievallate medievalMiddle Ages
The first is that following the introduction of tobacco to medieval India by the Jesuits, the waterpipe was invented by Abu’l-Fath Gilani, a Persian physician of Akbar, in the Indian city of Fatehpur Sikri during Mughal India; the hookah spread from the Indian subcontinent to Persia first, where the mechanism was modified to its current shape, and then to the Near East.

Fatehpur Sikri

FatehpurSikriFathpur Sikri
The first is that following the introduction of tobacco to medieval India by the Jesuits, the waterpipe was invented by Abu’l-Fath Gilani, a Persian physician of Akbar, in the Indian city of Fatehpur Sikri during Mughal India; the hookah spread from the Indian subcontinent to Persia first, where the mechanism was modified to its current shape, and then to the Near East.

Indian subcontinent

IndiasubcontinentIndian
In the biography of Mountstuart Elphinstone, it is mentioned that James Achilles Kirkpatrick had a hookah-bardar (hookah servant/preparer) during his time in the Indian subcontinent. The first is that following the introduction of tobacco to medieval India by the Jesuits, the waterpipe was invented by Abu’l-Fath Gilani, a Persian physician of Akbar, in the Indian city of Fatehpur Sikri during Mughal India; the hookah spread from the Indian subcontinent to Persia first, where the mechanism was modified to its current shape, and then to the Near East.

Arabic

Arabic languageArabic-languageArab
The word hookah is a derivative of "huqqa", a Hindustani word, of Arabic origin (derived from حُقَّة‎ ḥuqqa, "casket, bottle, water pipe").

Levant

the LevantLevantineNear East
Outside its native region, hookah smoking has gained popularity throughout the world, especially among younger people, largely due to immigrants from the Levant, where it is especially popular.

Languages of India

Indian languagesIndianregional languages of India
The widespread use of the Indian word "hookah" in the English language is a result of the colonization in British India (1858–1947), when large numbers of expatriate Britons first sampled the water pipe.

Presidencies and provinces of British India

British IndiaIndiaBritish
The widespread use of the Indian word "hookah" in the English language is a result of the colonization in British India (1858–1947), when large numbers of expatriate Britons first sampled the water pipe.

William Hickey (memoirist)

William Hickey
William Hickey, shortly after arriving in Calcutta, India, in 1775, wrote in his Memoirs: