Horace Bénédict de Saussure

de SaussureSaussureHorace-Bénédict de SaussureH.B. de SaussureHB de SaussureHorace Benedict de SaussureSaussure, Horace Benedict de
Horace Bénédict de Saussure (17 February 1740 – 22 January 1799) was a Swiss geologist, meteorologist, physicist, mountaineer and Alpine explorer, often called the founder of alpinism and modern meteorology, and considered to be the first person to build a successful solar oven.wikipedia
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Mountaineering

mountaineermountain climbingmountain climber
Horace Bénédict de Saussure (17 February 1740 – 22 January 1799) was a Swiss geologist, meteorologist, physicist, mountaineer and Alpine explorer, often called the founder of alpinism and modern meteorology, and considered to be the first person to build a successful solar oven.
In 1757 Swiss scientist Horace-Bénédict de Saussure made the first of several unsuccessful attempts on Mont Blanc in France, finally offering a reward, which was claimed in 1786 by Jacques Balmat and Michel-Gabriel Paccard.

Meteorology

meteorologistmeteorologicalmeteorologists
Horace Bénédict de Saussure (17 February 1740 – 22 January 1799) was a Swiss geologist, meteorologist, physicist, mountaineer and Alpine explorer, often called the founder of alpinism and modern meteorology, and considered to be the first person to build a successful solar oven.
In 1783, the first hair hygrometer was demonstrated by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure.

Mont Blanc

Mont Blanc MassifMont Blanc/Monte BiancoMonte Bianco
After attending the "Collège" of his hometown, he completed his studies at the Geneva Academy in 1759 with a dissertation on heat (Dissertatio physica de igne). In 1760, he made the first of numerous trips to Chamonix Valley, at the foot of Mont Blanc, to collect plant specimens for the noted Swiss anatomist, physiologist and botanist Albrecht von Haller.
This climb, initiated by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, who gave a reward for the successful ascent, traditionally marks the start of modern mountaineering.

Charles Bonnet

BonnetBonnet, Charles
Inspired by his uncle, the naturalist Charles Bonnet, the young Saussure also did research on the physiology of plants and published Observations sur l'écorce des feuilles et des pétales (1762).
They had no children, but Madame Bonnet's nephew, the celebrated Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, was brought up as their son.

Chamonix

CHAChamonix-Mont-BlancChamonix, France
His achievements did much to attract tourists to places such as Chamonix.
In 1742 came P. Martel and several other Genevese, in 1760 H.B. de Saussure, and rather later Marc Th. Bourrit.

Cyanometer

cyanometry
Obsessed by the measurement of meteorological phenomena, Saussure invented and improved many kinds of apparatus, including the magnetometer, the cyanometer for estimating the blueness of the sky, the diaphanometer for judging the clarity of the atmosphere, the anemometer and the mountain eudiometer.
It is attributed to Horace-Bénédict de Saussure and Alexander von Humboldt.

Alps

Alpinethe AlpsAlpine region
His early interest in botanical studies and glaciers soon led Saussure to undertake other journeys across the Alps.
Two men who first explored the regions of ice and snow were Horace-Bénédict de Saussure (1740–1799) in the Pennine Alps, and the Benedictine monk of Disentis Placidus a Spescha (1752–1833).

Monte Rosa

Monte Rosa (Dufourspitze)Monte Rosa MassifDufour
In 1789 Saussure climbed the Pizzo Bianco near Macugnaga, to observe the east wall of Monte Rosa, and crossed the Theodulpass (3,322 m) to Zermatt, which he was the first traveler to visit.
Monte Rosa was studied by pioneering geologists and explorers, including Leonardo da Vinci in the late fifteenth century and Horace-Bénédict de Saussure in the late eighteenth century.

Geneva

Geneva, SwitzerlandGenèveGinevra
Horace Bénédict de Saussure was born 17 February 1740, in Conches, near Geneva (today in Switzerland but then an independent republic), and died in Geneva 22 January 1799.
Horace Bénédict de Saussure (1740–1799) geologist, meteorologist, physicist, and Alpine explorer

Michel-Gabriel Paccard

Michel PaccardPaccardDr. Michel Paccard
Two Chamonix men, Michel Paccard and Jacques Balmat, attained the summit in 1786, by way of the Grands Mulets, and in 1787 Saussure himself made the third ascent of the mountain.
Due to his passion for botany and minerals, he met Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, who initiated the race to be the first to ascend Mont Blanc.

Jacques Balmat

Two Chamonix men, Michel Paccard and Jacques Balmat, attained the summit in 1786, by way of the Grands Mulets, and in 1787 Saussure himself made the third ascent of the mountain.
After the successful ascent, Balmat collected the reward offered 25 years before by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure to the first man who could climb Mont Blanc.

Alpine Botanical Garden Saussurea

Saussurea Alpine Botanical Garden
The Alpine Botanical Garden Saussurea, located at Pavillon du Mont Fréty, first station for the Skyway Monte Bianco cable car, in Courmayeur, Aosta Valley, is named after it.
The garden opened in 1987, and named after the flower Saussurea alpina which honours pioneering alpinist Horace-Bénédict de Saussure (1740-1799).

Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure

de Saussure
Saussure's son Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure was a noted specialist in plant chemistry and an early pioneer in photosynthesis research.
He was the second child of Horace-Bénédict de Saussure (1740–1799), who was an eminent geologist, meteorologist, physicist and Alpine explorer, and Albertine-Amélie Boissier (1745–1817).

Jean-André Deluc

This instrument sparked a bitter controversy with Jean-André Deluc, who invented a whalebone hygrometer.
He later devised a whalebone hygrometer which sparked a bitter controversy with Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, himself inventor of a hair hygrometer.

Saussurea

snow lotusSaussurea heteromallasaw-wort
The genus of plants Saussurea, some adapted to growing in extreme high-alpine climates, is named after him and his plant-physiologist son Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure.
De Candolle named the genus after Horace-Bénédict de Saussure (1740-1799) and Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure (1767–1845).

Albertine Necker de Saussure

Madame Necker de Saussure
His daughter Albertine Necker de Saussure was a pioneer in the education of women.
Albertine Necker de Saussure was the daughter of the Genevan scientist Horace-Bénédict de Saussure (1740-1799), a noted physicist, geologist, meteorologist, and Alpine explorer, and Albertine-Amélie Boissier (1745-1817).

Pizzo Bianco

In 1789 Saussure climbed the Pizzo Bianco near Macugnaga, to observe the east wall of Monte Rosa, and crossed the Theodulpass (3,322 m) to Zermatt, which he was the first traveler to visit.
In 1789 Horace-Bénédict de Saussure reached its summit in order to measure the height of Monte Rosa.

Barometer

barometricaneroid barometerbarometers
Saussure carried barometers and boiling-point thermometers to the summits of the highest mountains, and estimated the relative humidity of the atmosphere at different heights, its temperature, the strength of solar radiation, the composition of air and its transparency.
In 1787, during a scientific expedition on Mont Blanc, De Saussure undertook research and executed physical experiments on the boiling point of water at different heights.

Jean Senebier

J SenebierSenebierSénebier
* Lives by J Senebier (Geneva, 1801), by Cuvier in the Biographie universelle, and by A. P. de Candolle in Décade philosophique
Senebier was a close friend of noted Genevan geologist and meteorologist Horace-Bénédict de Saussure and was instrumental in the education of Horace-Bénédict's son Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure.

Saussurite

saussuritisation
Saussurite is named after him.
It was named after the Swiss explorer Horace Benedict de Saussure, who discovered it on the slopes of Mont Blanc.

Physicist

physicistsresearch physicistengineer and physicist
Horace Bénédict de Saussure (17 February 1740 – 22 January 1799) was a Swiss geologist, meteorologist, physicist, mountaineer and Alpine explorer, often called the founder of alpinism and modern meteorology, and considered to be the first person to build a successful solar oven.

Chêne-Bougeries

Conches
Horace Bénédict de Saussure was born 17 February 1740, in Conches, near Geneva (today in Switzerland but then an independent republic), and died in Geneva 22 January 1799.

Albrecht von Haller

HallerAlbert HallerHaller, Albert
After attending the "Collège" of his hometown, he completed his studies at the Geneva Academy in 1759 with a dissertation on heat (Dissertatio physica de igne). In 1760, he made the first of numerous trips to Chamonix Valley, at the foot of Mont Blanc, to collect plant specimens for the noted Swiss anatomist, physiologist and botanist Albrecht von Haller.

Topography

topographicaltopographictopographer
In 1767, he completed his first tour of Mont-Blanc, a trip that did much to reveal the topography of the snowy portions of the Alps of Savoy.

Courmayeur

Courmayeur, Italy
The Alpine Botanical Garden Saussurea, located at Pavillon du Mont Fréty, first station for the Skyway Monte Bianco cable car, in Courmayeur, Aosta Valley, is named after it. Beginning in 1774 Saussure sought to reach the summit of Mont-Blanc on the side of Val Veny (now Italy) accompanied by the Courmayeur alpine guide Jean-Laurent Jordaney on the Miage glacier and on Mont Crammont.