Hormone

hormoneshormonalprohormonesynthetic hormoneshormonallyreproductive hormoneHormonal abnormalitieshormonal agenthormonal medicationhormonal signals
A hormone (from the Greek participle ὁρμῶν, "setting in motion") is any member of a class of signaling molecules, produced by glands in multicellular organisms, that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behavior.wikipedia
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Gland

glandsglandularglandular tissue
A hormone (from the Greek participle ὁρμῶν, "setting in motion") is any member of a class of signaling molecules, produced by glands in multicellular organisms, that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behavior.
A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).

Endocrine system

endocrineendocrinologicalendocrine organ
The glands that secrete hormones comprise the endocrine signaling system. Hormone producing cells are typically of a specialized cell type, residing within a particular endocrine gland, such as the thyroid gland, ovaries, and testes.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system comprising feedback loops of hormones released by internal glands of an organism directly into the circulatory system, regulating distant target organs.

Intracrine

intracrine signalingintracrine signalling
The term "hormone" is sometimes extended to include chemicals produced by cells that affect the same cell (autocrine or intracrine signaling) or nearby cells (paracrine signalling).
Intracrine refers to a hormone that acts inside a cell, regulating intracellular events.

Steroid hormone

steroid hormonessteroidal hormonehormone
Amino acid–based hormones (amines and peptide or protein hormones) are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via second messengers; steroid hormones, being lipid-soluble, move through the plasma membranes of target cells (both cytoplasmic and nuclear) to act within their nuclei.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.

Parathyroid hormone

PTHParathormoneparathyroid hyperplasia
For instance, serum calcium concentration affects parathyroid hormone synthesis; blood sugar (serum glucose concentration) affects insulin synthesis; and because the outputs of the stomach and exocrine pancreas (the amounts of gastric juice and pancreatic juice) become the input of the small intestine, the small intestine secretes hormones to stimulate or inhibit the stomach and pancreas based on how busy it is.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH), also called parathormone or parathyrin, is a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that regulates the serum calcium through its effects on bone, kidney, and intestine.

Receptor (biochemistry)

receptorreceptorscellular receptors
Hormones affect distant cells by binding to specific receptor proteins in the target cell, resulting in a change in cell function.
A molecule that binds to a receptor is called a ligand, and can be a protein or peptide (short protein), or another small molecule such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, pharmaceutical drug, toxin, or parts of the outside of a virus or microbe.

Insulin

insulin geneINShuman insulin
For instance, serum calcium concentration affects parathyroid hormone synthesis; blood sugar (serum glucose concentration) affects insulin synthesis; and because the outputs of the stomach and exocrine pancreas (the amounts of gastric juice and pancreatic juice) become the input of the small intestine, the small intestine secretes hormones to stimulate or inhibit the stomach and pancreas based on how busy it is.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

Lactation

lactatinglactatenurse
Hormones serve to communicate between organs and tissues for physiological regulation and behavioral activities such as digestion, metabolism, respiration, tissue function, sensory perception, sleep, excretion, lactation, stress induction, growth and development, movement, reproduction, and mood manipulation.
From the eighteenth week of pregnancy (the second and third trimesters), a woman's body produces hormones that stimulate the growth of the milk duct system in the breasts:

Sleep

sleepingsleep architectureasleep
Hormones serve to communicate between organs and tissues for physiological regulation and behavioral activities such as digestion, metabolism, respiration, tissue function, sensory perception, sleep, excretion, lactation, stress induction, growth and development, movement, reproduction, and mood manipulation.
Sleep timing depends greatly on hormonal signals from the circadian clock, or Process C, a complex neurochemical system which uses signals from an organism's environment to recreate an internal day–night rhythm.

Pancreas

pancreaticexocrine pancreaspancreatic development
For instance, serum calcium concentration affects parathyroid hormone synthesis; blood sugar (serum glucose concentration) affects insulin synthesis; and because the outputs of the stomach and exocrine pancreas (the amounts of gastric juice and pancreatic juice) become the input of the small intestine, the small intestine secretes hormones to stimulate or inhibit the stomach and pancreas based on how busy it is.
As an endocrine gland, it functions mostly to regulate blood sugar levels, secreting the hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide.

Organ (anatomy)

organorgansviscera
Hormones serve to communicate between organs and tissues for physiological regulation and behavioral activities such as digestion, metabolism, respiration, tissue function, sensory perception, sleep, excretion, lactation, stress induction, growth and development, movement, reproduction, and mood manipulation.

Adrenocortical hormone

adrenocortical hormonesadrenaladrenal cortex hormone
Regulation of hormone synthesis of gonadal hormones, adrenocortical hormones, and thyroid hormones often depends on complex sets of direct-influence and feedback interactions involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), -gonadal (HPG), and -thyroid (HPT) axes.
In humans and other animals, the adrenocortical hormones are hormones produced by the adrenal cortex, the outer region of the adrenal gland.

Blood sugar level

blood sugarblood glucoseblood glucose level
For instance, serum calcium concentration affects parathyroid hormone synthesis; blood sugar (serum glucose concentration) affects insulin synthesis; and because the outputs of the stomach and exocrine pancreas (the amounts of gastric juice and pancreatic juice) become the input of the small intestine, the small intestine secretes hormones to stimulate or inhibit the stomach and pancreas based on how busy it is.
Cellular glucose uptake is primarily regulated by insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas.

Ovary

ovariesovarianOvarian tissue
Hormone producing cells are typically of a specialized cell type, residing within a particular endocrine gland, such as the thyroid gland, ovaries, and testes.
The ovaries also secrete hormones that play a role in the menstrual cycle and fertility.

Secretin

SCTChiRhoStimprosecretin
The discovery of hormones and endocrine signaling occurred during studies of how the digestive system regulates its activities, as explained at Secretin § Discovery.
Secretin is a hormone that regulates water homeostasis throughout the body and influences the environment of the duodenum by regulating secretions in the stomach, pancreas, and liver.

Rooster

cockcockerelcockerels
He noticed that in castrated roosters that they did not have the same sexual behaviors as roosters with their testes intact.
Removal of the bird's testes eliminates the male sex hormones, lessening the male sex instincts and changing their behaviour: the birds become more docile, less active, and tend not to fight.

Downregulation and upregulation

downregulationupregulationupregulated
An example of downregulation is the cellular decrease in the expression of a specific receptor in response to its increased activation by a molecule, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, which reduces the cell's sensitivity to the molecule.

Gene expression

expressionexpressedexpress
When a hormone binds to the receptor, it results in the activation of a signal transduction pathway that typically activates gene transcription, resulting in increased expression of target proteins; non-genomic effects are more rapid, and can be synergistic with genomic effects.
Not all proteins remain within the cell and many are exported, for example, digestive enzymes, hormones and extracellular matrix proteins.

Peptide

polypeptidepeptidespolypeptides
These function, typically in higher organisms, as hormones and signaling molecules.

Circulatory system

cardiovascularcirculationcardiovascular system
A hormone (from the Greek participle ὁρμῶν, "setting in motion") is any member of a class of signaling molecules, produced by glands in multicellular organisms, that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behavior.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

Hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis

thyroid homeostasisHPT axisHPT
Regulation of hormone synthesis of gonadal hormones, adrenocortical hormones, and thyroid hormones often depends on complex sets of direct-influence and feedback interactions involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), -gonadal (HPG), and -thyroid (HPT) axes.
Deiodination is controlled by numerous hormones and nerval signals including TSH, vasopressin and catecholamines.

Homeostasis

homeostaticequilibriumimmunomodulation
Hormone signals control the internal environment of the body through homeostasis.
For instance the signal (be it via neurons or hormones) from the sensor to the effector is, of necessity, highly variable in order to convey information about the direction and magnitude of the error detected by the sensor.

Melatonin

CircadinmelatonergicN-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine
Melatonin is a hormone that regulates the sleep–wake cycle.

Ernest Starling

Ernest Henry StarlingE H StarlingE.H. Starling
William Bayliss and Ernest Starling, a physiologist and biologist, respectively, wanted to see if the nervous system had an impact on the digestive system.
2. The discovery of the hormone secretin — with his brother-in-law William Bayliss — and the introduction of the word hormone.

Thyroid hormones

thyroid hormonethyroxineT4
Regulation of hormone synthesis of gonadal hormones, adrenocortical hormones, and thyroid hormones often depends on complex sets of direct-influence and feedback interactions involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), -gonadal (HPG), and -thyroid (HPT) axes.
Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ).