Horn of Africa

HornSomali peninsulanortheastern AfricaHornersNorth East AfricaHornerNortheast AfricaGreater Horn of Africathe Horn of AfricaHorn Africans
The Horn of Africa (Geeska Afrika, Gaaffaa Afriikaa, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, {{lang-ti|ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ}|q’ärnī afīrīqa}}, القرن الأفريقي) (shortened to HOA) is a peninsula in East Africa.wikipedia
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Djibouti

Republic of DjiboutiDjiboutianDjibuti
Referred to in ancient and medieval times as the land of the Barbara and Habesha, the Horn of Africa denotes the region containing the countries of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia. Together with northern Somalia, Djibouti, the Red Sea coast of Sudan and Eritrea is considered the most likely location of the land known to the ancient Egyptians as Punt (or "Ta Netjeru," meaning god's land), whose first mention dates to the 25th century BCE.
Djibouti (Yibuuti, جيبوتي ', Djibouti, Jabuuti, officially the Republic of Djibouti''') is a sovereign state located in the Horn of Africa.

Eritrea

State of EritreaEritreanERI
Referred to in ancient and medieval times as the land of the Barbara and Habesha, the Horn of Africa denotes the region containing the countries of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia. Together with northern Somalia, Djibouti, the Red Sea coast of Sudan and Eritrea is considered the most likely location of the land known to the ancient Egyptians as Punt (or "Ta Netjeru," meaning god's land), whose first mention dates to the 25th century BCE.
Eritrea, officially the State of Eritrea, is a sovereign state in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.

Somalia

SomaliFederal Republic of SomaliaSOM
Referred to in ancient and medieval times as the land of the Barbara and Habesha, the Horn of Africa denotes the region containing the countries of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia. Together with northern Somalia, Djibouti, the Red Sea coast of Sudan and Eritrea is considered the most likely location of the land known to the ancient Egyptians as Punt (or "Ta Netjeru," meaning god's land), whose first mention dates to the 25th century BCE.
Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال), officially the Federal Republic of Somalia (Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya; جمهورية الصومال الاتحادية), is a sovereign country located in the Horn of Africa.

Ethiopia

EthiopianAbyssiniaFederal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Referred to in ancient and medieval times as the land of the Barbara and Habesha, the Horn of Africa denotes the region containing the countries of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ, ʾĪtyōṗṗyā,, Tigrinya: ኢትዮጵያ, Oromo: Itiyoophiyaa, Somali: Itoobiya, Afar: Itiyoophiyaa), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk, ), is a country in the northeastern part of Africa, known as the Horn of Africa.

Habesha peoples

AbyssinianHabeshaAbyssinians
Referred to in ancient and medieval times as the land of the Barbara and Habesha, the Horn of Africa denotes the region containing the countries of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia.
Members' cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to the Kingdom of Dʿmt, the Kingdom of Aksum, among other kingdoms that either preceded or constituted the Ethiopian Empire in the Horn of Africa.

Recent African origin of modern humans

out of AfricaOut of Africa theoryrecent African origin
'' Because of their early dating and unique physical characteristics idaltu and kibish represent the immediate ancestors of anatomically modern humans as suggested by the Out-of-Africa theory.
H. sapiens most likely developed in the Horn of Africa between 300,000 and 200,000 years ago.

Somali studies

Somali
Regional studies on the Horn of Africa are carried out, among others, in the fields of Ethiopian Studies as well as Somali Studies.
The field draws from old Somali chronicles, records and oral literature, in addition to written accounts and traditions about Somalis from explorers and geographers in the Horn of Africa and the Middle East.

Teff

Eragrostis teftefE. tef
Ethiopian agriculture established the earliest known use of the seed grass teff (Poa abyssinica) between 4000–1000 BCE.
Eragrostis tef, also known as teff, Williams lovegrass or annual bunch grass, is an annual grass, a species of lovegrass native to the Horn of Africa, notably what is today modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea.

Ethiopian Studies

EthiopianistEthiopianEthiopic scholarship
Regional studies on the Horn of Africa are carried out, among others, in the fields of Ethiopian Studies as well as Somali Studies.
Ethiopian Studies or Eritrean Studies refers to a multi-disciplinary academic cluster dedicated to research on Ethiopia and Eritrea within the cultural and historical context of the Horn of Africa.

Afroasiatic Urheimat

urheimatoriginal homelandProto-Afro-Asiatic Urheimat
According to linguists, the Horn of Africa is the original homeland of the proto-Afroasiatic language as it is considered the region in which the Afroasiatic language family displays the greatest diversity, a sign often viewed to represent a geographic origin.
The contemporary Afroasiatic languages are spoken in the Near East, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and parts of the Sahara/Sahel.

Haplogroup E-M215 (Y-DNA)

E1b1bE-M35E1b1b1
The Horn of Africa is also the place where the haplogroup E1b1b originated.
The E-V68 and E-V257 subclades have been found at highest frequencies in North Africa and the Horn of Africa, and also at lower percentages in parts of the Middle East and Europe, and in isolated populations of Southern Africa.

Gulf of Aden

AdenGhoubet
It extends hundreds of kilometers into the Arabian Sea and lies along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden.
To the west, it narrows into the Gulf of Tadjoura, in the Horn of Africa.

Bab-el-Mandeb

Bab al-MandabBab el MandebBab el-Mandeb
The migration route of the Out of Africa probably occurred in East Africa however through Bab el Mandeb.
The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic: باب المندب, lit. "Gate of Tears") is a strait located between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, and Djibouti and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa.

Land of Punt

PuntKingdom of PuntPuntite
Together with northern Somalia, Djibouti, the Red Sea coast of Sudan and Eritrea is considered the most likely location of the land known to the ancient Egyptians as Punt (or "Ta Netjeru," meaning god's land), whose first mention dates to the 25th century BCE.
It is possible that it corresponds to Opone on the Horn of Africa, as later known by the ancient Greeks, while some biblical scholars have identified it with the biblical land of Put or Havilah.

Opone

Opone/Xāfūn
In the classical era, several flourishing Somali city-states such as Opone, Mosylon and Malao also competed with the Sabaeans, Parthians and Axumites for the rich Indo-Greco-Roman trade.
Opone was an ancient proto-Somali city situated in the Horn of Africa.

Arabs

ArabArab peopleArabian
The birth of Islam opposite the Horn's Red Sea coast meant that local merchants and sailors living on the Arabian Peninsula gradually came under the influence of the new religion through their converted Arab Muslim trading partners.
They primarily live in the Arab states in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa and western Indian Ocean islands, as well as Israel and Iran.

Aksumite currency

coinscoincurrency
A major player in the commerce between the Roman Empire and Ancient India, Aksum's rulers facilitated trade by minting their own currency.
During the succeeding medieval period, Mogadishu currency, minted by the Sultanate of Mogadishu, was the most widely circulated currency in the Horn of Africa.

Africa

African continentAfricanAfrican politics
The area is the easternmost projection of the African continent.
These included small family groups of hunter-gatherers such as the San people of southern Africa; larger, more structured groups such as the family clan groupings of the Bantu-speaking peoples of central, southern, and eastern Africa; heavily structured clan groups in the Horn of Africa; the large Sahelian kingdoms; and autonomous city-states and kingdoms such as those of the Akan; Edo, Yoruba, and Igbo people in West Africa; and the Swahili coastal trading towns of Southeast Africa.

Berbera

BarberaBarbaraBerbera dockside
With the migration of Muslim families from the Islamic world to the Horn in the early centuries of Islam, and the peaceful conversion of the local population by Muslim scholars in the following centuries, the ancient city-states eventually transformed into Islamic Mogadishu, Berbera, Zeila, Barawa and Merka, which were part of the Barbara civilization. Many of the historic cities in the region, such as Amud, Maduna, Abasa, Berbera, Zeila and Harar, flourished during the kingdom's golden age.
During the early modern period, Berbera was the most important place of trade in the entire Horn of Africa.

Adal Sultanate

AdalSultanate of AdalAdal Kingdom
During the Middle Ages, several powerful empires dominated the regional trade in the Horn, including the Adal Sultanate, the Ajuran Sultanate, the Warsangali Sultanate, the Zagwe dynasty, and the Sultanate of the Geledi.
spelling Adel Sultanate), was a Muslim Somali kingdom and sultanate located in the Horn of Africa.

Sultanate of the Geledi

Geledi SultanateGelediGobroon Dynasty
During the Middle Ages, several powerful empires dominated the regional trade in the Horn, including the Adal Sultanate, the Ajuran Sultanate, the Warsangali Sultanate, the Zagwe dynasty, and the Sultanate of the Geledi.
The Sultanate of the Geledi (Saldanadda Geledi, سلطنة غلدي) was a Somali kingdom that ruled parts of the Horn of Africa during the late-17th century and 19th century.

Mogadishu

Mogadishu, SomaliaMogadiscioMuqdisho
With the migration of Muslim families from the Islamic world to the Horn in the early centuries of Islam, and the peaceful conversion of the local population by Muslim scholars in the following centuries, the ancient city-states eventually transformed into Islamic Mogadishu, Berbera, Zeila, Barawa and Merka, which were part of the Barbara civilization.
The Mosque of Islamic Solidarity in Mogadishu is the largest masjid in the Horn region.

Harar

HarrarHarar JugolHarar Jugol, the Fortified Historic Town
Many of the historic cities in the region, such as Amud, Maduna, Abasa, Berbera, Zeila and Harar, flourished during the kingdom's golden age.
For centuries, Harar has been a major commercial center, linked by the trade routes with the rest of Ethiopia, the entire Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and, through its ports, the outside world.

Darod

HartiDaroodAbsame
The Sultanate was founded in the late 13th century in northern Somalia by a group of Somalis from the Warsangali branch of the Darod clan, and was ruled by the descendants of the Gerad Dhidhin.
The Darod clan is the largest Somali clan in the Horn of Africa, with a wide traditional territory.

Archaic humans

archaic humanarchaic ''Homo sapiensarchaic
According to both genetic and fossil evidence archaic humans evolved into anatomically modern humans in the Horn of Africa around 200,000 years ago and dispersed from the Horn of Africa.
Anatomically modern humans appear around 200,000 years ago in the Horn of Africa and after 70,000 years ago (see Toba catastrophe theory), gradually supplanting the "archaic" human varieties.