Horn of Africa

The Greater Horn of Africa consist of more than the typical four countries, including also Kenya, Uganda, Sudan and South Sudan.
King Ezana's Stela at Aksum, symbol of the Aksumite civilization.
Ancient trading centers in the Horn of Africa and the Arabian peninsula according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
The citadel in Gondershe, an important city in the medieval Ajuran Sultanate
The Lalibela churches carved by the Zagwe dynasty in the 12th century.
King Fasilides's Castle in Gondar
The Sultanate of Hobyo's cavalry and fort
Map of Africa in 1909. The Horn region is the easternmost projection of the African continent.
Haile Selassie's reign as emperor of Ethiopia is the best known and perhaps most influential in the nation's history.
Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia since 1886.
The Horn of Africa as seen from the NASA Space Shuttle in May 1993. The orange and tan colors in this image indicate a largely arid to semiarid climate.
The Horn of Africa. NASA image
Oryx beisa beisa is found throughout the Horn of Africa
Myrrh, a common resin in the Horn
A woman from Ethiopia carrying her earthenware water jugs
Coffee beans from Ethiopia

Large peninsula in East Africa.

- Horn of Africa
The Greater Horn of Africa consist of more than the typical four countries, including also Kenya, Uganda, Sudan and South Sudan.

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Image of the region between Lake Victoria (on the right) and Lakes Edward, Kivu and Tanganyika (from north to south) showing dense vegetation (bright green) and fires (red).

East Africa

Eastern subregion of the African continent.

Eastern subregion of the African continent.

Image of the region between Lake Victoria (on the right) and Lakes Edward, Kivu and Tanganyika (from north to south) showing dense vegetation (bright green) and fires (red).
The Bab-el-Mandeb crossing in the Red Sea: now some 12 miles (20 km) wide, narrower in prehistory.
Early Iron Age findings in East and Southern Africa
Map of British East Africa in 1911

Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia are collectively known as the Horn of Africa. The area is the easternmost projection of the African continent.

Varieties and dialects of Oromo

Oromo language

Afroasiatic language that belongs to the Cushitic branch.

Afroasiatic language that belongs to the Cushitic branch.

Varieties and dialects of Oromo

It is native to the Ethiopian state of Oromia and spoken predominantly by the Oromo people and neighbouring ethnic groups in the Horn of Africa.

Somaliland

Map of Somaliland in the 19th century
Wild animals depicted in the caves of Dhaymoole, many of which have gone extinct in the region
The tomb of Sheikh Isaaq, the founding father of the Isaaq clan, in Maydh, Sanaag
The Sultan of Adal (right) and his troops battling King Yagbea-Sion and his men. From Le livre des Merveilles, 15th century.
A banner used by the Adal Sultanate and later the Isaaq on key religious shrines
Captain Allan Gibb
Sheikh Bashir praying Sunnah prayer, 1920
The White and Blue Somali Flag at the Independence celebrations on 26 June 1960 when the prime minister of the State of Somaliland and the second president of Somaliland, Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal, salute the flag.
Up to 90% of Hargeisa (2nd largest city of the Somali Republic) was destroyed by Somali government.
MiG monument in Hargeisa commemorating Somaliland's breakaway from the rest of Somalia in 1991
House of Representatives (Lower House) of the Somaliland Parliament.
The Court House of the Supreme Court
Participating in a parade for Kulmiye Party prior to parliamentary elections in 2021
The President of Somaliland Muse Bihi Abdi during a visit to the Republic of Guinea. He received a high-ranking delegation headed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Guinea Mamadi Touré in 2019.
Somaliland Foreign Minister Hagi Mohamoud with Taiwan President Tsai Ing-wen
President Silanyo and Ali Khalif signing the Somaliland-Khatumo Agreement in Aynabo in October 2017
Map showing the eastern boundaries of Somaliland by the Somaliland Treaties. The Anglo-Italian Boundary.
Commemoration (on 2 February 2021) of the 27th anniversary of the establishment of the Somaliland National Army
Map of the Republic of Somaliland
Geographic map of Somaliland
Somaliland map of Köppen climate classification
GDP Somaliland 2012 to 2018
500 Somaliland Shillings, 1000 Somaliland Shillings, 5000 Somaliland Shillings
Livestock export in Berbera, Somaliland
Naasa Hablood, also known as Virgin's Breast Mountain
The Berbera Airport
DP World Berbera New Port
Map indicating clan territories and respective populations in the 1950s.
Issa man and woman in traditional attire (1844)
Traditional Somali Qur'anic tablet
Edna Adan Maternity Hospital in Hargeisa
People in Hargeisa
Somali lahoh (canjeero)
Hadrawi, a prominent Somali poet and songwriter
Henna powder is mixed with water and then applied on the hair.
upright|thumb|Lamadaya are waterfalls located in the Cal Madow mountain range.
upright|thumb|The Somaliland countryside
upright|thumb|View of the Cal Madow Mountains, home to numerous endemic species
thumb|Berbera beach
thumb|Sacadin, Zeila Archipelago
thumb|Mountains in Karin's outskirts

Somaliland (Soomaaliland; صوماليلاند ', أرض الصومال '), officially the Republic of Somaliland (Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, جمهورية صوماليلاند Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd), is a de facto state in the Horn of Africa, considered internationally to be part of Somalia.

Ethiopia

A Homo sapiens idaltu hominid skull
Kibish has the site of oldest fossil of human bones believed to be 195,000 years old along with Omo River. The skull remains are 40,000 older than in Herto, Ethiopia
The Obelisk of Axum dates from the 4th century
Aksumite currency of the Aksumite king called Endubis, 227–35, at the British Museum. The inscriptions in Ancient Greek read "ΑΧΩΜΙΤΩ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ" ("King of Axum") and "ΕΝΔΥΒΙΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ" ("King Endubis"), the Greek language was the lingua franca by that time so its use in coins simplified foreign trade.
The Kingdom of Aksum at its peak in the 6th century
Manuscript illustration by Rashi ad-Din's "World History", depicting the King of Axum rejecting Meccan delegation to yield Muslims in the kingdom
Church of Saint George is one of amongst 11 rock-hewn churches of Zagwe's King Lalibela achievement
Emperor Yekuno Amlak portrait allegedly from the 18th century
Emperor Dawit II (r. 1507–1540), a member of the Solomonic dynasty
The Sultan of Adal (right) and his troops battling Emperor Yagbea-Sion and his men.
Emperor Susenyos I was the first emperor converted to Roman Catholic in 1622, stressing the populace attitude of Orthodox Tewahedo Christianity
Emperor Tewodros II ((r. 1855 – 1868)) brought an end of Zemene Mesafint
The conquests of Emperor Yohannes IV, Negus Menelik and general Ras Alula in 1879–1889
Haile Selassie at his study in Jubilee Palace (1942)
Ethiopian cavalry during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War in 1936
Ras Seyoum Mengesha, Ras Getachew Abate and Ras Kebede Gubret with Benito Mussolini on 6 February 1937 in Rome, Italy, after the Italian occupation of Ethiopia
The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party (EPRP) clashed with the Derg during the Red Terror
Ethiopian leader Mengistu Haile Mariam (left) with fellow Derg members Tafari Benti (middle) and Atnafu Abate (right). Mengistu was sentenced to death in Ethiopia for crimes committed during his government, which killed up to 500,000 people; he lived in exile in Zimbabwe as of 2018.
Former Prime Minister Meles Zenawi at the 2012 World Economic Forum annual meeting
Former Prime Minister of Ethiopia Hailemariam Desalegn meeting with former US Deputy Secretary of Defense Ash Carter in Addis Ababa.
Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo in 2019
House of People's Representatives is the lower house of the Ethiopian Federal Parliamentary Assembly
Former Foreign Minister of Ethiopia Tedros Adhanom with former U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry
Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed with Israeli President Reuven Rivlin in May 2018
The Ethiopian National Defense Force soldiers during ceremony in Baidoa, Somalia to mark the inclusion of Ethiopia into the African Union peace keeping mission in the country on 22 January 2014
The Ethiopian Federal Police Marching Band performing on annual festival in Meskel Square, Addis Ababa on 16 September 2017
Karo people in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region
Map of regions and zones of Ethiopia
Wonchi Lake at the crossroads between Ambo and Waliso in Oromia Region
Köppen climate classification of Ethiopia
Mountain nyalas in Bale Mountains National Park, one of several wildlife reserves in Ethiopia
Development of GDP per capita
A proportional representation of Ethiopia exports, 2019
Layout of the Grand Renaissance Dam
Tef field near Mojo
Ethiopia Export Treemap from MIT–Harvard Economic Complexity Observatory
Ethiopian Blessed Coffee branded bags in the United States. Coffee is one of main exports of Ethiopia.
Light rail in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
A Boeing 787-8 of Ethiopian Airlines
The subterranean rock-hewn Church of Saint George in Lalibela is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Orthodox priests dancing during the celebration of Timkat
A mosque in Bahir Dar
Street in Addis Ababa
Gondar skyline
Rural area in the Simien Mountains National Park
Street scene in Adigrat
Declining child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa and Ethiopia since 1950
An Ethiopian girl about to receive her measles vaccine
Community health care workers
Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital
Entrance of Addis Ababa University
An Ethiopian woman roasting coffee bean in coffee house. Coffee serving ceremony is the most important course in Ethiopia.
Alwan Codex 27 – Ethiopian biblical manuscript
Illustration showing two Aksumite scribes
The Royal Enclosure at Fasil Ghebbi, Gondar
Giyorgis of Segla, prolific religious author in the Late Middle Ages
Tsegaye Gebre-Medhin in 1980s
Model commemorating the Obelisk of Aksum's return to Ethiopia from Italy, showing the date of its departure and return according to the Ethiopian calendar
Typical Ethiopian cuisine: injera (pancake-like bread) and several kinds of wat (stew)
Meskel commemorates the discovery of True Cross by Roman queen Helena in 326 AD
The Ethiopian Broadcasting Corporation headquarter in Addis Ababa
Aksumite composer Yared credited with forebear of traditional music for both Ethiopia and Eritrea
Mahmoud Ahmed performing in 2005
Hager Fikir Theatre in April 2006
Kenenisa Bekele in 2012. Track and field athletics often prosper Ethiopia to participate in Olympics
Emperor Yekuno Amlak portrait allegedly from the 18th century
Emperor Fasilides (r. 1632–1667) was a major figure of Gondarine period
Emperor Iyoas I (r. 1755–1769) prematurely murdered at his reign by Ras Mikael Sehul in 1769
Semien Mountains landscape, 2009
Genzebe Dibaba middle- and long-distance runner. A 1500 metres 2016 Rio Olympics silver medalist, she won a gold medal in this event and a bronze in the 5000 metres at the 2015 World Championships.

Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa.

Eritrea

Deka Rock Art in Deka Arbaa, Debub region of Eritrea dated to 100,000 years ago
Pre-Axumite monolithic columns in Qohaito
Bronze oil lamp excavated at Matara, dating from the Kingdom of Dʿmt (first century BC or earlier)
Bahta Hagos was an important leader of the Eritrean resistance to foreign domination, specifically against northern Ethiopian and Italian colonialism.
Postcard of the Carabinieri sent from Italian Eritrea in 1907
Piazza Roma in Italian Asmara
Eritrean War of Independence against Ethiopia 1961–1991
A view over Asmara
Map of Eritrea
The Dahlak Archipelago
Pelicans in a pond near Asmara
Eritrean landscape near road to Massawa
President Isaias Afewerki with U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, December 2002
The 23d ISCOE East Africa Conference in Asmara in 2019
Independence Day is one of the most important public holidays in Eritrea.
A map of Eritrea regions. 1.Northern Red Sea, 2.Anseba, 3.Gash-Barka, 4.Central (to right), 5.Southern, 6.Southern Red Sea
Eritrean mountain road
Steam train outside Asmara on the Eritrean Railway
Eritrea's main exports, 2013
A woman and a man in Barentu wearing traditional clothes
Population pyramid of Eritrea 2016
Building of regional administration in Asmara
Asmara, Eritrea in 2015
Traditional Eritrean agudo/tukul huts in a village near Barentu
The Eritrea Institute of Technology
Eritrean pupils in uniform
Eritrean injera with various stews
Eritrean artist Helen Meles
Tour of Eritrea cycling competition in Asmara, Eritrea.

Eritrea, officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa region of Eastern Africa, with its capital and largest city at Asmara.

The Guardafui Channel, between the Puntland region of Somalia and Socotra island.

Guardafui Channel

The Guardafui Channel, between the Puntland region of Somalia and Socotra island.

The Guardafui Channel (Marinka Gardafuul) is an oceanic strait off the tip of the Horn of Africa that lies between the Puntland region of Somalia and Socotra to the west of the Arabian Sea.

Bab-el-Mandeb area with description.

Bab-el-Mandeb

Bab-el-Mandeb area with description.
Bathymetric map of the Red Sea with the Bab-el-Mandeb at the bottom right
Flows of petroleum products and liquefied natural gas through the strait, 2014–2018

The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic: باب المندب,, ባብ ኣል ማንዳብ) is a strait between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, and Djibouti and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa.

This conical hill in Salar de Arizaro, Salta, Argentina called Cono de Arita constitutes a landform.

Peninsula

Landform that extends from a mainland and is surrounded by water on most, but not all of its borders.

Landform that extends from a mainland and is surrounded by water on most, but not all of its borders.

This conical hill in Salar de Arizaro, Salta, Argentina called Cono de Arita constitutes a landform.

Horn of Africa

Kenya

Country in Eastern Africa.

Country in Eastern Africa.

The Turkana boy, a 1.6-million-year-old hominid fossil belonging to Homo erectus.
A traditional Swahili carved wooden door in Lamu.
Portuguese presence in Kenya lasted from 1498 until 1730. Mombasa was under Portuguese rule from 1593 to 1698 and again from 1728 to 1729.
British East Africa in 1909
The Kenya–Uganda Railway near Mombasa, about 1899.
A statue of Dedan Kimathi, a Kenyan rebel leader with the Mau Mau who fought against the British colonial system in the 1950s.
The first president and founding father of Kenya, Jomo Kenyatta.
Daniel arap Moi, Kenya's second President, and George W. Bush, 2001
Uhuru Kenyatta in 2014.
A map of Kenya.
A Köppen climate classification map of Kenya.
Kenya's third president, Mwai Kibaki
The Supreme Court of Kenya building.
President Barack Obama in Nairobi, July 2015
Emblem of the Kenya Defence Forces
Kenya's 47 counties.
A proportional representation of Kenya exports, 2019
Kenya, Trends in the Human Development Index 1970–2010.
Amboseli National Park
Tsavo East National Park
Tea farm near Kericho, Kericho County.
Agricultural countryside in Kenya
The Kenya Commercial Bank office at KENCOM House (right) in Nairobi.
Workers at Olkaria Geothermal Power Plant
The official logo of Vision 2030.
Lake Turkana borders Turkana County
Lions Family Portrait Masai Mara
Maasai people. The Maasai live in both Kenya and Tanzania.
Child labour in Kenya
A Bantu Kikuyu woman in traditional attire
Holy Ghost Roman Catholic Cathedral in Mombasa.
Outpatient Department of AIC Kapsowar Hospital in Kapsowar.
Table showing different grades of clinical officers, medical officers, and medical practitioners in Kenya's public service
School children in a classroom.
An MSc student at Kenyatta University in Nairobi.
A Maasai girl at school.
Kenyan boys and girls performing a traditional dance
Nation Media House, which hosts the Nation Media Group
Kenyan author Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o.
Popular Kenyan musician Jua Cali.
Jepkosgei Kipyego and Jepkemoi Cheruiyot at the 2012 London Olympics
Kenyan Olympic and world record holder in the 800 meters, David Rudisha.
Ugali and sukuma wiki, staples of Kenyan cuisine

Kenya is a member of the East African Community trade bloc, though some international trade organisations categorise it as part of the Greater Horn of Africa.

Teff

Injera served in a typical Ethiopian dish
Teff (small grains) and sorghum (large grains), ingredients for tella
Fields of teff, Oromia, Ethiopia. Oct '19
Traditional teff harvesting in Ethiopia. Oct '07
Teff threshed by using animals walking on the harvest
Field of teff

Eragrostis tef, also known as teff, Williams lovegrass or annual bunch grass, is an annual grass, a species of lovegrass native to the Horn of Africa, notably to modern-day Ethiopia.